Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon was the king of the kingdom of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third son of King Amyntas III of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great and Philip III; the rise of Macedon, its conquest and political consolidation of most of Classical Greece during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield. After defeating the Greek city-states of Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of Greece for a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia. However, his assassination by a royal bodyguard, Pausanias of Orestis, led to the immediate succession of his son Alexander, who would go on to invade the Achaemenid Empire in his father's stead.
Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III and Eurydice I. In his youth, Philip was held as a hostage in Illyria under Bardylis and was held in Thebes, the leading city of Greece. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas, lived with Pammenes, an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedon; the deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, the son of Perdiccas III, Philip succeeded in taking the kingdom for himself that same year. Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success, he first had to remedy a predicament, worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of Macedonia, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argeus.
Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back the Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, crushed the 3,000 Athenian hoplites. Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army, his most important innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissa, an exceedingly long spear, at the time the most important army corps in Macedonia. Philip had married great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania, Bardyllis. However, this did not prevent him from marching against the Illyrians in 358 and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died. By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid and earned the favour of the Epirotes; the Athenians had been unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. So Philip reached an agreement with Athens to lease the city to them after its conquest, in exchange for Pydna.
However, after conquering Amphipolis, Philip kept both cities. As Athens had declared war against him, he allied Macedon with the Chalkidian League of Olynthus, he subsequently conquered Potidaea, this time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in 356. In 357 BC, Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, the daughter of the king of the Molossians. Alexander was born in 356, the same year as Philip's racehorse won at the Olympic Games. During 356 BC, Philip changed its name to Philippi, he established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which yielded much of the gold he used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenion defeated the Illyrians again. In 355–354 he besieged Methone, the last city on the Thermaic Gulf controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip was injured in his right eye, removed surgically. Despite the arrival of two Athenian fleets, the city fell in 354. Philip attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian coast. Philip was involved in the Third Sacred War which had begun in Greece in 356.
In summer 353 he invaded Thessaly. The latter however defeated Philip in the two succeeding battles. Philip returned to Thessaly the next summer, this time with an army of 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry including all Thessalian troops. In the Battle of Crocus Field 6,000 Phocians fell, while 3,000 were taken as prisoners and drowned; this battle earned Philip immense prestige, as well as the free acquisition of Pherae. Philip was tagus of Thessaly, he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae. Philip did not attempt to advance into Central Greece because the Athenians, unable to arrive in time to defend Pagasae, had occupied Thermopylae. There were no hostilities with Athens yet, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again travel south, he was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus.
To the chief of these coastal cities, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighbouring cities were in his hands. In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus, apart from its strategic position, housed his relatives Arrhidaeus and Menelaus, pretenders to the Macedonian throne. Olynthus had at first allied itself with Philip, but
Macedonia (ancient kingdom)
Macedonia called Macedon, was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties. Home to the ancient Macedonians, the earliest kingdom was centered on the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. Before the 4th century BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom outside of the area dominated by the great city-states of Athens and Thebes, subordinate to Achaemenid Persia. During the reign of the Argead king Philip II, Macedonia subdued mainland Greece and Thrace through conquest and diplomacy. With a reformed army containing phalanxes wielding the sarissa pike, Philip II defeated the old powers of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. Philip II's son Alexander the Great, leading a federation of Greek states, accomplished his father's objective of commanding the whole of Greece when he destroyed Thebes after the city revolted.
During Alexander's subsequent campaign of conquest, he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire and conquered territory that stretched as far as the Indus River. For a brief period, his empire was the most powerful in the world – the definitive Hellenistic state, inaugurating the transition to a new period of Ancient Greek civilization. Greek arts and literature flourished in the new conquered lands and advances in philosophy and science spread throughout much of the ancient world. Of particular importance were the contributions of Aristotle, tutor to Alexander, whose writings became a keystone of Western philosophy. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the ensuing wars of the Diadochi, the partitioning of Alexander's short-lived empire, Macedonia remained a Greek cultural and political center in the Mediterranean region along with Ptolemaic Egypt, the Seleucid Empire, the Kingdom of Pergamon. Important cities such as Pella and Amphipolis were involved in power struggles for control of the territory. New cities were founded, such as Thessalonica by the usurper Cassander.
Macedonia's decline began with the Macedonian Wars and the rise of Rome as the leading Mediterranean power. At the end of the Third Macedonian War in 168 BC, the Macedonian monarchy was abolished and replaced by Roman client states. A short-lived revival of the monarchy during the Fourth Macedonian War in 150–148 BC ended with the establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia; the Macedonian kings, who wielded absolute power and commanded state resources such as gold and silver, facilitated mining operations to mint currency, finance their armies and, by the reign of Philip II, a Macedonian navy. Unlike the other diadochi successor states, the imperial cult fostered by Alexander was never adopted in Macedonia, yet Macedonian rulers assumed roles as high priests of the kingdom and leading patrons of domestic and international cults of the Hellenistic religion; the authority of Macedonian kings was theoretically limited by the institution of the army, while a few municipalities within the Macedonian commonwealth enjoyed a high degree of autonomy and had democratic governments with popular assemblies.
The name Macedonia comes from the ethnonym Μακεδόνες, which itself is derived from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning "tall" descriptive of the people. It has the same root as the adjective μακρός, meaning "long" or "tall" in Ancient Greek; the name is believed to have meant either "highlanders", "the tall ones", or "high grown men". Linguist Robert S. P. Beekes claims that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology; the Classical Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides reported the legend that the Macedonian kings of the Argead dynasty were descendants of Temenus, king of Argos, could therefore claim the mythical Heracles as one of their ancestors as well as a direct lineage from Zeus, chief god of the Greek pantheon. Contradictory legends state that either Perdiccas I of Macedon or Caranus of Macedon were the founders of the Argead dynasty, with either five or eight kings before Amyntas I; the assertion that the Argeads descended from Temenus was accepted by the Hellanodikai authorities of the Ancient Olympic Games, permitting Alexander I of Macedon to enter the competitions owing to his perceived Greek heritage.
Little is known about the kingdom before the reign of Alexander I's father Amyntas I of Macedon during the Archaic period. The kingdom of Macedonia was situated along the Haliacmon and Axius rivers in Lower Macedonia, north of Mount Olympus. Historian Robert Malcolm Errington suggests that one of the earliest Argead kings established Aigai as their capital in the mid-7th century BC. Before the 4th century BC, the kingdom covered a region corresponding to the western and central parts of the region of Macedonia in modern Greece, it expanded into the region of Upper Macedonia, inhabited by the Greek Lyncestae and Elimiotae tribes, into regions of Emathia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia and Almopia, which were inhabited by various peoples such as Thracians and Phrygians. Macedonia's non-Greek neighbors included Thracians, inhabiting territories to the northeast, Illyrians to the northwest, Paeonians to the north, while the lands of Thessaly to the south and Epirus to the west were inhabited by Greeks with similar cultures to that of the Macedonians.
A year after Darius I of
The Haliacmon is the longest river in Greece, with a total length of 297 km. In Greece there are two rivers longer than Haliakmon and Vardar, but the length of each one of them in Greek territory is less than that of Haliakmon, which flows in Greece. Haliacmon is the traditional English name for the river, but many sources cite the official Katharevousa version of the name, Aliákmon. Today, the only official variant is the demotic Aliákmonas, it flows through the Greek regions of Central Macedonia. Τhe name Αλιάκμονας is composite and derives from άλας and άκμων. In Greek mythology Haliakmon was one of the Potamoi, who were sons of Oceanus and Tethys, according to the allegorical obsessive-anthropomorphic concept familiar to the Ancient Greeks, on geological upheaval after Deucalion's deluge. An ancient tradition says that sheep that drank water from Haliakmon would turn their colour to white; this tradition is confirmed by the following record of the Roman author Pliny the Elder: Similarly in Macedonia, those who want their sheep to be white go to Haliakmon, while those black to Axios.
Ottoman Turks called a name still used in Turkey. Before the construction of its diversion dam near the village of Aghia Varvara in the mid-1950s, Haliakmon had no permanent river bed in its lowland course, it flooded and formed extensive marshes. Its devastating fury in December 1935 remains fresh in memory of the elder inhabitants of the region; the Haliacmon rises near the border with Albania. In its upper course it flows towards the east, turns southeast near Kastoria, it describes a wide curve around the Vourinos mountains, turns northeast near the village Paliouria. It feeds the large artificial Lake Polyfytos, created after the construction of the namesake hydroelectric dam and consists its entire course through the Kozani prefecture. Over the bridge runs the Lake Polyfytos Bridge, part of the Athens-Kozani national road. Southeast of Veria, the Haliacmon enters the central Macedonian plains, an area of great importance to agriculture, it flows into the Thermaic Gulf west of the delta of the Axios, northeast of the coastal town Methoni.
Haliakmon's tributaries include Gramos, Pramoritsa, Grevenitikos and Tripotamos. The Haliacmon flows along the towns Nestorio, Argos Orestiko, Paliouria and Alexandreia. Haliakmon contains 33 kinds of fish; these include brown trout, gilt-head bream, carp, eel, european anchovy, bogue, red porgy, saddled seabream, bream, mediterranean sand smelt, sand steenbras, mullus barbatus, freshwater bass, salmon, Mediterranean moray, longfin gurnard, dusky grouper, school shark and turbot. About 30 of them are indigenous. Many of them are considered scarce and one, lives nowhere else in the world, i.e. it is endemic. Μost of these kinds of fish have no commercial value but only biological, since they support the food web. Fish found in Haliakmon, like rainbow trout, indicate that its water is still pure; some eels are found in its estuaries, hindered by the dams. For amateur fishermen the river has been enriched with introduced rainbow trout, not easy to reproduce, so there is no danger of disturbance of the river's ecosystem.
In the place where the river flows into the sea, there has been formed over the years an extended Delta of 4.000 hectares, because of the large dam, constructed and retains much of the brought matters. As a result, silting has benn reduced and during the summer, when there is no much water, the sea enters and overwhelms the river bed. Flathead mullets and European seabasses are found in Haliakmon's Delta. In the shallow marine areas formed there, the fry of many Aegean Sea's fish finds a place to reproduce, while about 90% of Greece's mussels are produced in the Haliakmon-Axios Delta. Aliki Kitrous is an area of 254 hectares. Many kinds of birds have been observed in Haliakmon's region, they use it for accommodation and overwintering, like the ducks, or to rest on their long migratory journey. There have been observed 215 kinds of about 1/3 of them nest in the region. Over 10% of the birds are endangered, they include Dalmatian pelican and curlew, that are considered to be among the rarest birds in the world.
27 kinds of rare and protected kinds of birds nest like purple heron. In antiquity, Claudius Ptolemy called the chain of mountains. According to Julius Caesar, the Haliacmon formed the line of demarcation between Macedon and Thessaly. In the upper part of its course it took a southeast direction through Elimiotis. In the time of Herodotus the Haliacmon was joined by the Loudias 7, 127, the discharge of the lake of Pella; the image below shows a wind gap between the Haliacmon and Loudias watersheds, the probable ancient course of the Haliacmon. It was the domain of the eponymous river god
Pella is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great. On the site of the ancient city is the Archaeological Museum of Pella. A common folk etymology is traditionally given for the name Pella, deriving it from the Ancient Greek word pélla, "stone", it appears in some toponyms in Greece like Pallini. With the prefix a - it forms the Doric apella, meaning in enclosure of stone; the word apella meant fold, fence for animals, assembly of people into the limits of the square. Τhe original meaning was "wooden bowl", it meant "stone". R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *πελσα In Antiquity, Pella was a strategic port connected to the Thermaic Gulf by a navigable inlet, but the harbour and gulf have since silted up, leaving the site landlocked. Pella is first mentioned by Herodotus of Halicarnassus in relation to Xerxes' campaign and by Thucydides in relation to Macedonian expansion and the war against Sitalces, the king of the Thracians.
It was built as the capital of the kingdom by Archelaus I, replacing the older palace-city of Aigai although there appears to be some possibility that it may have been created by Amyntas. Archelaus invited the greatest painter of the time, to decorate his palace, he later hosted the poet Timotheus of Miletus and the Athenian playwright Euripides who finished his days there writing and producing Archelaus. Euripides Bacchae was first staged here, about 408 BC. According to Xenophon, in the beginning of the 4th century BC Pella was the largest Macedonian city, it was the birthplace and seats of Philip II, in 382 BC and of Alexander the Great, his son, in 356 BC. It became the largest and richest city in Macedonia and flourished under Cassander's rule; the reign of Antigonus most represented the height of the city's prosperity, as this is the period which has left us most archaeological remains. The famous poet Aratus died in Pella c. 240 BC. Pella is further mentioned by Polybius and Livy as the capital of Philip V and of Perseus during the Macedonian Wars fought against the Roman Republic.
In 168 BC, it was sacked by the Romans, its treasury transported to Rome, Livy reported how the city looked in 167 BC to Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, the Roman who defeated Perseus at the battle of Pydna:... observed that it was not without good reason that it had been chosen as the royal residence. It is situated on the south-west slope of a hill and surrounded by a marsh too deep to be crossed on foot either in summer or winter; the citadel the "Phacus,", close to the city, stands in the marsh itself, projecting like an island, is built on a huge substructure, strong enough to carry a wall and prevent any damage from the infiltration from the water of the lagoon. At a distance it appears to be continuous with the city wall, but it is separated by a channel which flows between the two walls and is connected with the city by a bridge, thus it cuts off all means of access from an external foe, if the king shut anyone up there, there could be no possibility of escape except by the bridge, which could be easily guarded.
Pella was declared capital of the 3rd administrative division of the Roman province of Macedonia, was the seat of the Roman governor. Activity continued to be vigorous until the early 1st century BC and, crossed by the Via Egnatia, Pella remained a significant point on the route between Dyrrachium and Thessalonika. In about 90 BC the city was destroyed by an earthquake. Cicero stayed there in 58 BC, though by the provincial seat had transferred to Thessalonika. Pella was promoted to a Roman Colony sometime between 45 and 30 BC and its currency was marked Colonia Iulia Augusta Pella. Augustus settled peasants there. But, unlike other Macedonian colonies such as Philippi and Cassandreia, it never came under the jurisdiction of ius Italicum or Roman law. Four pairs of colonial magistrates are known for this period; the decline of the city was rapid, in spite of being a Colonia: Dio Chrysostom and Lucian both attest to the ruin of the ancient capital of Philip II and Alexander, though their accounts may be exaggerated.
In fact, the Roman city was somewhat to the west of and distinct from the original capital, which explains some contradictions between coinage and testimonial accounts. Despite its decline, archaeology has shown that the southern part of the city near the lagoon continued to be occupied until the 4th century.. In about 180 AD, Lucian of Samosata could describe it in passing as "now insignificant, with few inhabitants", it bore the name Diocletianopolis. In the Byzantine period, the Roman site was occupied by a fortified village. Excavations there by the Greek Archaeological Service begun in 1957 revealed large, well-built houses with colonnaded courts and rooms with mosaic floors portraying such scenes as a lion hunt and Dionysus riding a panther. In modern times it finds itself as the starting point of the Alexander The Great Marathon, in honour of the city's ancient heritage; the site was explored by 19th-century voyagers including Holand, Beaujour, Cousinéry, Hahn and Struck, based o
Crestonia was an ancient region north of Mygdonia. The Echeidorus river, which flowed through Mygdonia into the Thermaic Gulf, had its source in Crestonia, it was occupied by a remnant of the Pelasgi, who spoke a different language from their neighbors. The main towns of Crestonia were Gallicum; the region, along with Mygdonia, was held by Paeonians for a time by Thracians. At the time of the invasion of Xerxes I of Persia, Crestonia was ruled by an independent Thracian prince. By the time of the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, Crestonia had been annexed to the kingdom of Macedonia. Today, ancient Crestonia is comprehended within the regional units of Kilkis and Thessaloniki in Greece. William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
Chalkidiki spelt Chalkidike, Khalkidhiki or Halkidike, is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. The autonomous Mount Athos region constitutes the easternmost part of the peninsula, but not of the regional unit; the capital of Chalkidiki is the main town of Polygyros, located in the centre of the peninsula. Chalkidiki is a popular summer tourist destination; the Cholomontas mountains lie in the north-central part of Chalkidiki. Chalkidiki consists of a large peninsula in the northwestern Aegean Sea, resembling a hand with three "fingers" – Pallene and Agion Oros, which contains Mount Athos and its monasteries. Chalkidiki borders on the regional unit of Thessaloniki to the north, its largest towns are Nea Kallikrateia and the capital town of Polygyros. There are several summer resorts on the beaches of all three fingers where other minor towns and villages are located, such as at Yerakini, Neos Marmaras, Nikiti, Psakoudia and more. Chalcidice, Chalkidiki, or Chalkidike, is the name given to this peninsula by a group of people native to this region, the Chalcideans, since ancient times.
The area was a colony of the ancient Greek city-state of Chalkis. The first Greek settlers in this area came from Chalcis and Eretria, cities in Euboea, around the 8th century BC who founded cities such as Mende and Scione a second wave came from Andros in the 6th century BC who founded cities such as Akanthos; the ancient city of Stageira was the birthplace of the great philosopher Aristotle. Chalkidiki was an important theatre of war during the Peloponnesian War between Sparta; the Greek colonies of the peninsula were conquered by Philip II of Macedon and Chalkidiki became part of Macedonia. After the end of the wars between the Macedonians and the Romans, the region became part of the Roman Empire, along with the rest of Greece. At the end of the Roman Republic a Roman colony was settled in Cassandreia, resettled by Augustus. During the following centuries, Chalkidiki was part of the Byzantine Empire. On a chrysobull of Emperor Basil I, dated 885, the Holy Mountain was proclaimed a place of monks, no laymen or farmers or cattle-breeders were allowed to be settled there.
With the support of Nikephoros II Phokas, the Great Lavra monastery was founded soon afterwards. Today, over 2,000 monks from Greece and many other Eastern Orthodox countries, such as Romania, Georgia, Bulgaria and Russia, live an ascetic life in Athos, isolated from the rest of the world. Athos with its monasteries has been self-governing since. After a short period of domination by the Latin Kingdom of Thessalonica, the area became again Byzantine until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1430. During the Ottoman period, the peninsula was important for its gold mining. In 1821, the Greek War of Independence started and the Greeks of Chalkidiki revolted under the command of Emmanouel Pappas, a member of Filiki Eteria, other local fighters; the revolt was progressing and unsystematically. The insurrection was confined to the peninsulas of Mount Kassandra. One of the main goals was to restrain and detain the coming of the Ottoman army from Istanbul, until the revolution in the south became stable; the revolt resulted in a decisive Ottoman victory at Kassandra.
The survivors, among them Papas, were rescued by the Psarian fleet, which took them to Skiathos and Skyros. The Ottomans proceeded in retaliation and many villages were burnt; the peninsula was incorporated into the Greek Kingdom in 1912 after the Balkan Wars. In June 2003, at the holiday resort of Porto Carras located in Neos Marmaras, leaders of the European Union presented the first draft of the European Constitution. Acanthus Acrothoi Aege Alapta Aphytis Apollonia Charadrus Cleonae Galepsus Mekyberna Mende Neapolis, Chalcidice Olophyxus Olynthus Palaiochori "Neposi" castle Polichne Potidaea Scione Scolus Sermylia Stageira Spartolus Thyssus Torone Treasury of the Acanthians Xerxes Canal The peninsula is notable for its olive oil and olive production. Various types of wine are produced. Chalkidiki has been a popular summer tourist destination since the late 1950s when people from Thessaloniki started spending their summer holidays in the coastal villages. In the beginning tourists rented rooms in the houses of locals.
By the 1960s, tourists from Austria and Germany started to visit Chalkidiki more frequently. Since the start of the big tourist boom in the 1970s, the whole region has been captured by tourism. In the region there is a golf course, with plans for four others in the future. Gold was mined in the region during antiquity by Philip II of the next rulers. Since 2013, a revival of mining for gold and other minerals was underway with a number of concessions having been granted to Eldorado Gold of Canada. However, critics claim that mining would adversely affect the environment; the regional unit Chalkidiki is subdivided into five municipalities. These are: Aristotelis Kassandra Nea Propontida Polygyros Sithonia As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Chalkidiki was created out of the former prefecture Chalk
History of Macedonia (ancient kingdom)
The kingdom of Macedonia was an ancient state in what is now the Macedonian region of northern Greece, founded in the mid-7th century BC during the period of Archaic Greece and lasting until the mid-2nd century BC. Led first by the Argead dynasty of kings, Macedonia became a vassal state of the Achaemenid Empire of ancient Persia during the reigns of Amyntas I of Macedon and his son Alexander I of Macedon; the period of Achaemenid Macedonia came to an end in 479 BC with the ultimate Greek victory against the second Persian invasion of Greece led by Darius the Great and the withdrawal of Persian forces from the European mainland. During the age of Classical Greece, Perdiccas II of Macedon became directly involved in the Peloponnesian War between Classical Athens and Sparta, shifting his alliance from one city-state to another while attempting to retain Macedonian control over the Chalcidice peninsula, his reign was marked by conflict and temporary alliances with the Thracian ruler Sitalces of the Odrysian Kingdom.
He made peace with Athens, which formed an alliance with Macedonia that carried over into the reign of Archelaus I of Macedon. His reign brought peace and financial security to the Macedonian realm, yet his little-understood assassination left the kingdom in peril and conflict; the turbulent reign of Amyntas III of Macedon witnessed devastating invasions by both the Illyrian ruler Bardylis of the Dardani and the Chalcidian city-state of Olynthos, both of which were defeated with the aid of foreign powers, the city-states of Thessaly and Sparta, respectively. Alexander II invaded Thessaly but failed to hold Larissa, captured by Pelopidas of Thebes, who made peace with Macedonia on condition that they surrender noble hostages, including the future king Philip II of Macedon. Philip II came to power when his older brother Perdiccas III of Macedon was defeated and killed in battle by the forces of Bardylis. With the use of skillful diplomacy, Philip II was able to make peace with the Illyrians, Thracians and Athenians who threatened his borders.
This allowed him time to reform the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that would prove crucial to his kingdom's success in subduing Greece, with the exception of Sparta. He enhanced his political power by forming marriage alliances with foreign powers, destroying the Chalcidian League in the Olynthian War, becoming an elected member of the Thessalian and Amphictyonic Leagues for his role in defeating Phocis in the Third Sacred War. After the Macedonian victory over a coalition led by Athens and Thebes at the 338 BC Battle of Chaeronea, Philip established the League of Corinth and was elected as its hegemon in anticipation of commanding a united Greek invasion of the Achaemenid Empire under Macedonian hegemony. However, when Philip II was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, he was succeeded by his son Alexander III, better known as Alexander the Great, who invaded Achaemenid Egypt and Asia and toppled the rule of Darius III, forced to flee into Bactria where he was killed by one of his kinsmen, Bessus.
This pretender to the throne was executed by Alexander, yet the latter succumbed to an unknown illness at the age of 32, whose death led to the Partition of Babylon by his former generals, the diadochi, chief among them being Antipater, regent of Alexander IV of Macedon. This event ushered in the Hellenistic period in West Asia and the Mediterranean world, leading to the formation of the Ptolemaic and Attalid successor kingdoms in the former territories of Alexander's empire. Macedonia continued its role as the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece, yet its authority became diminished due to civil wars between the Antipatrid and nascent Antigonid dynasty. After surviving crippling invasions by Pyrrhus of Epirus, Seleucus I Nicator, the Celtic Galatians, Macedonia under the leadership of Antigonus II of Macedon was able to subdue Athens and defend against the naval onslaught of Ptolemaic Egypt in the Chremonidean War. However, the rebellion of Aratus of Sicyon in 351 BC led to the formation of the Achaean League, which proved to be a perennial problem for the ambitions of the Macedonian kings in mainland Greece.
Macedonian power saw a resurgence under Antigonus III Doson, who defeated the Spartans under Cleomenes III in the Cleomenean War. Although Philip V of Macedon managed to defeat the Aetolian League in the Social War, his attempts to project Macedonian power into the Adriatic Sea and formation of a Macedonian–Carthaginian Treaty with Hannibal alarmed the Roman Republic, which convinced a coalition of Greek city-states to attack Macedonia while Rome focused on defeating Hannibal in Italy. Rome was victorious in the First and Second Macedonian War against Philip V, defeated in the Cretan War by a coalition led by Rhodes. Macedonia was forced to relinquish its holdings in Greece outside of Macedonia proper, while the Third Macedonian War succeeded in toppling the monarchy altogether, after which Rome placed Perseus of Macedon under house arrest and established four client state republics in Macedonia. In an attempt to dissuade rebellion in Macedonia, Rome imposed stringent constitutions in these states that limited their economic growth and interactivity.
However, Andriscus, a pretender to the throne claiming de