Wellesley is a town in Norfolk County, United States. Wellesley is part of Greater Boston; the population was 27,982 at the time of the 2010 census. In 2008, Wellesley had family incomes in all of Massachusetts. In 2018, data from the American Community Survey revealed that Wellesley was the 7th wealthiest city in the United States, it is best known as the home of Wellesley College, Babson College, a campus of Massachusetts Bay Community College. Wellesley was settled in the 1630s as part of Massachusetts, it was subsequently a part of Needham, Massachusetts called Massachusetts. On October 23, 1880, West Needham residents voted to secede from Needham, the town of Wellesley was christened by the Massachusetts legislature on April 6, 1881; the town was named after the estate of local benefactor Horatio Hollis Hunnewell. Wellesley's population grew by over 80 percent during the 1920s; the town designated Cottage Street and its nearby alleys as the historic district in its zoning plan. Most houses in this district were built around the 1860s and qualify as protected buildings certified by the town's historic commission.
Wellesley is located in eastern Massachusetts. It is bordered on the east by Newton, on the north by Weston, on the south by Needham and Dover and on the west by Natick. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 10.49 square miles, of which 10.18 square miles is land and 0.32 square miles is water. The town's historic 19th century inn was demolished to make way for condominiums and mixed-use development in 2006; the Wellesley Country Club clubhouse, the building where the town was founded, was demolished in 2008, a new clubhouse was built. The town's pre-World War II high school building was torn down & replaced, with a brand new high school finished in 2012; the entire 1960s-style Linden Street strip-mall has been replaced by "Linden Square" – a shopping district that includes a flagship Roche Bros. supermarket, cafes, clothing stores, along with a mixture of national chains and local shops. The Census Bureau has defined the town as a census-designated place with an area equivalent to the town.
As of the census of 2000, there were 26,613 people, 8,594 households, 6,540 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,614.1 people per square mile. There were 8,861 housing units at an average density of 870.4 per square mile. According to a 2007 Census Bureau estimate, the racial makeup of the town was 84.6% White, 10.0% Asian, 2.2% Black, 0.01% Native American, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 8,594 households out of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.2% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.9% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.14. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 13.9% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.1 males. The median income for a household was $159,167, the median income for a family was $186,518; the per capita income in the town was $72,046. About 2.4% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.0% of those under age 18 and 2.1% of those age 65 or over. According to Boston Magazine's yearly "Best Places To Live", Wellesley ranks first in the United States in percentage of adults who hold at least one college degree. Over 66% of the households have at least one individual holding an advanced degree beyond a bachelor's degree. In 2009, Wellesley ranked #2 in "America's Most Educated Small Towns" according to Forbes.com. Wellesley was ranked number 31 on the Bloomberg list of America's 100 Richest Places with an average household income of $264,145 in 2016; the town government has been run by town meeting since the town's founding.
Since Proposition 2½ limited property tax increases to 2.5% per year in 1980, the town has had to ask residents for a number of overrides to maintain funding for certain programs. Although the main 2005 override passed, a simultaneous supplemental override to preserve certain specific programs and services failed by 17 votes; the 2006 override passed with a large majority. Wellesley receives funding from the state government. Local roads have been repaved several times in the 2000s. Wellesley opened its new Free Library building in 2003, part of the Minuteman Library Network. Due to the structure of budget override votes and the size of the new main branch of the library, the two branch libraries—one in Wellesley Hills, purpose-built to be a branch library in the 1920s, another in Wellesley Fells—closed in the summer of 2006; the branch libraries reopened in September 2008. On December 18, 2014, Wellesley College and the Town of Wellesley announced that the College's Board of Trustees had chosen the Town's $35M bid for the purchase of 46 acres of land adjacent to its campus.
Under this agreement, at least 50% of the North 40 property will be preserved in perpetuity as open space. A special town meeting in January 2015 resulted in a near-unanimous vote in favor of the purchase, in March 2015, 80 percent of residents that cast votes at the Town election, voted to approve the purchase. Wellesley is serviced by the Wel
Middletown Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania
Middletown Township is a township in Bucks County, United States. The population was 45,436 at the 2010 census. Many sections of Levittown, are located in the southern end of the township; the municipality surrounds the boroughs of Langhorne, Langhorne Manor and Hulmeville. Located within the township is Core Creek Park; the township has many acres of protected woods, the largest being the woods behind Neshaminy High School. The Neshaminy Creek flows through these woods. There are a few protected farms that of Styer's Orchards, saved from turning into the site of 632 homes in the late 1990s. Sesame Place is located in Middletown Township. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 19.4 square miles, of which, 19.1 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. Place names in Middletown Township include Bucktoe, Chicken Foot, Glenlake, Maple Point, Oxford Valley, Pickpocket and Woodbourne. Natural features include Core Creek, Lake Luxembourg in Core Creek Park, Edge Hill, Langhorne Water Works Run, Neshaminy Creek, Newtown Creek.
Middletown Township began as a farming community, with close proximity to trading towns such as Langhorne and Newtown. There are not many significant historical places located in the township apart from homes and farms constructed in the late 18th century. Middletown Township was sparsely populated before 1950: there were only a little more than 2,000 people in 1930, compared to about 46,000 in 2010. William Levitt began his second Levittown, which included land of four municipalities, including that of Middletown. Twelve developments were constructed in the township, with the majority of them containing hundreds of homes; this marked the first planned residential development in the township. Meanwhile, Langhorne Terrace was being constructed out of the Neshaminy Woods. During this decade, the township grow by more than 20,000 new residents; as the decades worn on, hundreds and hundreds of acres of pristine woods, rolling countryside, productive farms continued to be swallowed into homes and businesses.
In the 1970s, the Oxford Valley Mall was constructed, at the time was named the country's largest mall for a short time. Growth continues to this day; the township preserved hundreds of acres now known as Core Creek Park, which includes the sprawling Lake Luxembourg. Many woodlands and a few farms have been saved; the township has transformed from a bucolic, rural area to a desirable and well-planned community, with low crime and an award-winning school district. This is why the township is still seeing a growing population, attracting many out-of-state residents and international migrants. Middletown benefits from its convenient location. Located in the near center of the county, Middletown is close to any other municipality nearby, including the cities of Philadelphia and Princeton. Both I-295 and U. S. 1 pass through the township, offering its residents an easy commute, with the exception of rush hour traffic, which too has been reduced and continues to be in ongoing road projects. Edgemont and Harewood and Beechwood are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
In a 2014 estimate, the township was 84.1% Non-Hispanic White, 5.5% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 0.2% Some other race, 1.4% were two or more races. 4.9% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the 2010 census, the township was 88.3% Non-Hispanic White, 3.2% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.0% Asian, 1.6% were two or more races. 3.1% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 44,141 people, 15,321 households, 11,659 families residing in the township; the population density was 2,309.5 people per square mile. There were 15,713 housing units at an average density of 822.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 93.86% White, 2.10% African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.40% Asian, 0.55% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.71% of the population. The Asian population is a fast-growing segment of the township. There were 15,321 households, out of which 38.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.3% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.9% were non-families.
19.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.25. In the township the population was spread out, with 26.2% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $63,964, the median income for a family was $71,271. Males had a median income of $47,244 versus $32,154 for females; the per capita income for the township was $25,213. About 2.1% of families and 3.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.8% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over. Like much of the Delaware Valley, Middletown's immigrant population is skyrocketing. With many new, upscale housing developments, many of the households were bought by foreign-born residents.
Falls Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania
Falls Township is a Suburban Philadelphia township in Bucks County, United States. The population was 34,300 at the 2010 census. Portions of Fairless Hills and Levittown, are located in the township. Portions of Falls Township are called Morrisville and Yardley, due to the location of the Morrisville Post Office outside the Borough of Morrisville in Falls Township. Dutch settlements here were established as early as 1616. A number of colonists came to Falls Township before William Penn founded Pennsylvania in 1681, including William Biles. Fallsington is the only settlement of this period, in continuous use. Fallsington is an example of a crossroads village typical of the time; the Bucks County Courthouse, established in 1663, is said to have been located in Fallsington until it was moved to Bristol in 1705. The Friends Meeting, whose first meetings were held at the home of William Biles on Biles Island, found a site for a brick meeting house, built about 1690 in Fallsington on 6 acres of land, donated by Samuel Burges.
In 1690, Thomas Janney donated 72 acres of land to be used as the Quaker burial grounds for Falls Monthly Meeting. William Penn donated a tract of 120 acres, for a Falls commons; the Township itself was established in 1692. Numerous villages were located within the township, with Fallsington being the center of social and commercial activity in the township. Morrisville was another prominent village, until it was partitioned as a borough in 1804. Tullytown was a village until it was partitioned as a borough in 1891. Villages and other place names and present, include Dogtown, Fairless Hills, Kildorpy, Levittown, Oxford Valley (located in both Falls Township and Middletown Township, Penns Manor, Penn Valley, Slickville and Wheatsheaf; the growth of Fallsington continued, with the construction of homes, an inn, public buildings and small craftsmen's shops. Until the construction of Fairless Hills and Levittown, it was the largest village in the Township, functioned for many years as a commercial center.
In 1682, William Penn began construction of Pennsbury Manor. The 8,431-acre site in Falls Township was chosen for its easy access to Philadelphia along the Delaware River; this island was sold by Penn's heirs and the last original building was destroyed in 1864. In 1932, a small portion of the original site was purchased by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and reconstruction of Pennsbury Manor was begun. Pennsbury is now a historical site, open to the public, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969. The proximity of major transportation systems influenced much of the Township's development; the earliest of these was the Delaware River. The Township is located at the upper end of the navigable portion of the river. In 1686, the Provincial Council ordered the construction of the King's Highway, which ran from Philadelphia to Trenton along an existing Indian trail, through Bristol and Morrisville; the King's Highway still exists today as U. S. Route 13, flowing the original configuration.
Additional roads and turnpikes were built through the Township in the early 19th centuries. Other transportation systems were laid out through Falls Township in the 19th and early 20th centuries; the Delaware Canal from Easton to Bristol was opened in 1832. A railroad line from Philadelphia to Trenton via Morrisville was built between 1833 and 1835; the rail line became part of Pennsylvania Railroad's main New York-Philadelphia line. The "West Trenton" cut-off of the Pennsylvania Railroad was built through the northern part of the Township at the end of 19th century; these rail lines now accommodate SEPTA, CONRAIL passenger and freight between Philadelphia and Trenton. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 26.6 square miles, of which, 22.3 square miles of it is land and 4.3 square miles of it is water. Natural features include Biles Island, Common Creek, Martins Creek, Mint Island, Queen Anne Creek, Scotts Creek, Turkey Hill. Falls Township contains the easternmost point of Pennsylvania's southern half.
As of the 2010 census, the township was 84.1% Non-Hispanic White, 5.8% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.2% Asian, 2.1% were two or more races. 4.4% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestryAs of the census of 2000, there were 34,865 people, 13,170 households, 9,403 families residing in the township. The population density was 1,565.0 people per square mile. There were 13,528 housing units at an average density of 607.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 90.22% White, 4.89% African American, 0.16% Native American, 2.58% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.77% from other races, 1.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.35% of the population. There were 13,170 households, out of which 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families. 23.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.15. In the township the population was spread out, with 25.8% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the township was $50,129, t
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It drains an area of 14,119 square miles in five U. S. states: Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. Rising in two branches in New York state's Catskill Mountains, the river flows 419 miles into Delaware Bay where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near Cape May in New Jersey and Cape Henlopen in Delaware. Not including Delaware Bay, the river's length including its two branches is 388 miles; the Delaware River is one of nineteen "Great Waters" recognized by the America's Great Waters Coalition. The Delaware River rises in two main branches that descend from the western flank of the Catskill Mountains in New York; the West Branch begins near Mount Jefferson in the Town of Jefferson in Schoharie County. The river's East Branch begins at Grand Gorge near Roxbury in Delaware County; these two branches flow west and merge near Hancock in Delaware County, the combined waters flow as the Delaware River south. Through its course, the Delaware River forms the boundaries between Pennsylvania and New York, the entire boundary between New Jersey and Pennsylvania, most of the boundary between Delaware and New Jersey.
The river meets tide-water at the junction of Morrisville and Trenton, New Jersey, at the Falls of the Delaware. The river's navigable, tidal section served as a conduit for shipping and transportation that aided the development of the industrial cities of Trenton and Philadelphia; the mean freshwater discharge of the Delaware River into the estuary of Delaware Bay is 11,550 cubic feet per second. Before the arrival of European settlers, the river was the homeland of the Lenape Native Americans, they called the river Lenapewihittuk, or Lenape River, Kithanne, meaning the largest river in this part of the country. In 1609, the river was first visited by a Dutch East India Company expedition led by Henry Hudson. Hudson, an English navigator, was hired to find a western route to Cathay, but his discoveries set the stage for Dutch colonization of North America in the 17th century. Early Dutch and Swedish settlements were established along the lower section of river and Delaware Bay. Both colonial powers called the river the South River, compared to the Hudson River, known as the North River.
After the English expelled the Dutch and took control of the New Netherland colony in 1664, the river was renamed Delaware after Sir Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and the Virginia colony's first royal governor who defended the colony during the First Anglo-Powhatan War. The Delaware River is named in honor of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and the Virginia colony's first royal governor who defended the colony during the First Anglo-Powhatan War. Lord de la Warr waged a punitive campaign to subdue the Powhatan after they had killed the colony's council president, John Ratcliffe, attacked the colony's fledgling settlements. Lord de la Warr arrived with 150 soldiers in time to prevent colony's original settlers at Jamestown from giving up and returning to England and is credited with saving the Virginia colony; the name of barony is pronounced as in the current spelling form "Delaware" and is thought to derive from French de la Guerre. It has been reported that the river and bay received the name "Delaware" after English forces under Richard Nicolls expelled the Dutch and took control of the New Netherland colony in 1664.
However, the river and bay were known by the name Delaware as early as 1641. The state of Delaware was part of the William Penn's Pennsylvania colony. In 1682, the Duke of York granted Penn's request for access to the sea and leased him the territory along the western shore of Delaware Bay which became known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware." In 1704, these three lower counties were given political autonomy to form a separate provincial assembly, but shared its provincial governor with Pennsylvania until the two colonies separated on June 15, 1776 and remained separate as states after the establishment of the United States. The name became used as a collective name for the Lenape, a Native American people who inhabited an area of the basins of the Susquehanna River, Delaware River, lower Hudson River in the northeastern United States at the time of European settlement; as a result of disruption following the French & Indian War, American Revolutionary War and Indian removals from the eastern United States, the name "Delaware" has been spread with the Lenape's diaspora to municipalities and other geographical features in the American Midwest and Canada.
The Delaware River's drainage basin has an area of 14,119 square miles and encompasses 42 counties and 838 municipalities in five U. S. states—New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware. This total area constitutes 0.4% of the land mass in the United States. In 2001, the watershed was 18% agricultural land, 14% developed land, 68% forested land. There are 216 tributary streams and creeks—an estimated 14,057 miles of streams and creeks—in the watershed. While the watershed is home to 4.17 million people according to the 2000 Federal Census, these bodies of water provide drinking water to 17 million people—roughly 6% of the population of the United States. The waters of the Delaware River's basin are used to sustain "fishing, power, cooling and other industrial and residential purposes." It is the 33rd largest river in the United States in terms of flow, but the nation's most used rivers in daily volume of tonnage. The average annual flow rate of the Delaware is 11,700 cubic feet per s
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –