Northwich is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It lies at the confluence of the rivers Weaver and Dane; the town is 15 miles south of Warrington. 19 miles south of Manchester and 12 miles south of Manchester Airport. Northwich has been named as one of the best places to live in the United Kingdom according to The Sunday Times in 2014. Northwich is an area of High Growth, with the Winsford and Northwich Locality having a population of over 108,000 in 2018, this has grown from 100,000 in 2011. With an estimated population of 125,000 by 2030. Northwich itself with the Proposed 6,000 new homes being built will have a population of over 85,000 by 2030; the area around Northwich has been exploited for its salt pans since Roman times, when the settlement was known as Condate. The town has been affected by salt mining, subsidence has been a significant problem. There has been recent investment in mine stabilisation.
During Roman times, Northwich was known as Condate, thought to be a Latinisation of a Brittonic name meaning "Confluence". There are several other sites of the same name in France. Northwich can be identified through two contemporary Roman documents; the first of these is a 3rd-century road map split into 14 sections. Two of these sections, or Itinerary, mention Condate: Route II and Route X; the second document is the 7th-century Ravenna Cosmography. This document refers to Condate between the entries for Salinae and Ratae, at the time the capital of the Corieltauvi tribe; the Romans' interest in the Northwich area is thought to be due to the strategic river crossing and the location of the salt brines. Salt was important in Roman society, it is theorised that this is the basis for the modern word salary. Another theory is. See History of salt for further details. There is archaeological evidence of a Roman auxiliary fort within the area of Northwich now known as "Castle" dated to AD 70; this and other northwestern forts were built as the Romans moved north from their stronghold in Chester.
The association with salt continues in the etymology of Northwich. The "wich" suffix applies to other towns in the area: Middlewich and Leftwich; this is considered to have been derived from the Norse, for bay, is associated with the more traditional method of obtaining salt by evaporating sea water. Therefore, a place for making salt became a wych-house; the existence of Northwich in the early medieval period is shown by its record in the Domesday Book: In the same Mildestuic hundred there was a third wich called Norwich and it was at farm for £8. There were the same laws and customs there as there were in the other wiches and the king and the earl divided the renders.... All the other customs in these wiches are the same; this was waste. The manor of Northwich belonged to the Earls of Chester until 1237. Subsequently, Northwich became a royal manor and was given to a noble family to collect tolls in exchange for a set rent; that salt production continued throughout the centuries and can be seen through John Leland's description of the town in 1540: Northwich is a pratie market town but fowle,and by the Salters houses be great stakes of smaul cloven wood, to seethe the salt water that thei make white salt of.
Between 1642 and 1643, during the English Civil War, Northwich was fortified and garrisoned by Sir William Brereton for the Parliamentarians. The salt beds beneath Northwich were re-discovered in the 1670s by employees of the local Smith-Barry family; the Smith-Barrys were looking for coal, but instead discovered rock salt, in the grounds of the family home, Marbury Hall, to the north of Northwich. During the 19th century it became uneconomical to mine for the salt. Instead hot water was pumped through the mines; the resultant brine was pumped out and the salt extracted from the brine. This technique led to land subsidence as they collapsed. Subsidence affected the surrounding landscape. For example, collapses in 1880 formed Witton Flash as the River Weaver flowed into a huge hole caused by subsidence. Subsidence allegedly accounts for many old timber-framed houses in the town centre, which were better able to withstand the movement of the ground; some houses were built on a base of steel girders that could be jacked up to level the house with each change in the underlying ground.
The town's historical link with the salt industry is celebrated in its museum, today in the old workhouse. In 1874, John Brunner and Ludwig Mond founded Brunner Mond in Winnington and started manufacturing soda ash using the Solvay ammonia-soda process; this process used salt as a main raw material. The chemical industry used the subsided land for the disposal of waste from the manufacture of soda-ash; the waste was transported through a network of rails to the produce limebeds. This caused the landscape to be abandoned as unusable. Brine bathsThe first known swimming baths of Northwich was the Verdin Baths, situated on Verdin Park, it was presented by Robert Verdi
North West Ambulance Service
The North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the ambulance service for North West England. It is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with Emergency medical services, is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. NWAS was formed on 1 July 2006, it was created by the merge of 4 previous services as part of Health Minister Lord Warner's plans to combine ambulance services. Based in Bolton, the new Trust provides services to 7 million people in Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Lancashire and the North Western fringes of the High Peak district of Derbyshire in an area of some 5,500 square miles. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's charter, every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. NWAS provides emergency ambulance response via the 999 system, as well as operating the NHS 111 advice service for North West England, they operate non-emergency patient transport services, in 2013/2014 carried out 1.2 million such journeys.
Since 2016, the PTS in Cheshire and Wirral has instead been carried out by West Midlands Ambulance Service. NWAS utilise a mixed fleet of emergency ambulances based on the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter or Fiat Ducato, the former consisting of a demountable box body on a chassis, the latter a van conversion; the Trust uses Skoda Octavia estates as the main Rapid response car although since 2017 begun using BMW i3 electric cars and use Renault Masters for Intermediate, Urgent care and Patient Transport vehicles. In Central Manchester, some paramedics respond on specially converted bicycles; the Trust operates from 104 ambulance stations across the North West. The most northerly station is at Carlisle, the furthest south is at Crewe, it maintains three Emergency Operations Centres for the handling of 999 calls and dispatch of emergency ambulances. Parkway Anfield Preston In 2017, NWAS signed an agreement to purchase a new EOC and area office for £2.9m at Liverpool International Business Park next to Liverpool John Lennon Airport As of 2019, this building has been converted and services are being moved from the Anfield site.
Over recent years, the Trust has combined many of their older ambulance stations into purpose-built facilities shared with other emergency services, including Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue, Lancashire Fire and Rescue and Greater Manchester Police. NWAS was the first ambulance trust to be inspected by the Care Quality Commission, in August 2014; the Commission found the trust provided safe and effective services which were well-led and with a clear focus on quality but it was criticised for taking too many callers to hospital and for sending ambulances when other responses would have been more appropriate. The Trust was subsequently inspected in 2018 and was found to have improved with a rating of "Good" Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Healthcare in Greater Manchester North West Air Ambulance List of NHS trusts NWAS Website
Listed buildings in Nether Peover
Nether Peover is a civil parish in Cheshire West and Chester, England. It contains twelve buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England as designated listed buildings. St Oswald's Church is listed at Grade I. Apart from the village of Lower Peover, the parish is completely rural; this is reflected in the listed buildings which, apart from the church and its associated structures and the adjacent school, are either domestic buildings or related to farming. Citations Sources
Aston is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 111, reducing to 106 at the 2011 census; the village is just outside the Runcorn urban area. St Peter's Church is a Grade I listed building. Aston was the seat of the Aston baronets of the County of Chester. Listed buildings in Aston-by-Sutton Media related to Aston-by-Sutton at Wikimedia Commons Aston in the Domesday Book
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Peover Inferior is a civil parish in the Borough of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. The village is known for its picturesque surrounding countryside and convenient location; the name Peover is pronounced'Peever' and derives from the Anglo-Saxon'Peeffer' meaning'a bright river', this'bright river' being the River Peover which runs through the parish. The village and its neighbour Peover Superior lie on the river Peover,'Inferior' here meaning downstream; the parish is situated on the B5081 25 km south south west of Manchester between Knutsford and Holmes Chapel and within five miles of junction 19 on the M6. Together with Nether Peover, it forms part of the village of Lower Peover, Lower Peover being the parish council. Peover Inferior is in Cheshire East, however Nether Peover is in Cheshire West, this causes complications for the Lower Peover parish council. According to the 2011 census, it had a population of 220; the Domesday Book of 1086 describes the area known as Nether Peover as'a small vill and woodland, held by William Fitznigel from Earl Hugh'.
The parish developed around St Oswald's Church. A Chapel of Ease was built in 1269 by Richard Grosvenor of Hulme Hall, this was to save the long journey to worship at St Mary and All Saints Church in Great Budworth, 6 miles north west of the parish therefore making it inaccessible by foot for the people of Lower Peover. St Mary and All Saints Church was incidentally the Lower Peover Chapel of Ease's mother church. In 1464, Robert Grosvenor added a chantry chapel, demolished in 1542 by order of Henry VIII; the Bog Oak chest housed in the Shakerley Chapel was used for many years to keep the Parish Register, vicars' robes and church documents. Tradition has it that if a girl wished to be a farmer's wife she should be able to lift the chest lid with one arm, it is believed that this tale originated because it was said that a farmer's wife in those days needed to be strong enough to be able to lift the famous Cheshire cheeses made in the area. In the 15th century the Shakerley family, who continued the Grosvenor tradition of support for the church, inherited Hulme Hall.
The Shakerley family crest, a hare and wheatsheaf, can still be seen on several of the box pews today. The church just consisted of an oak-framed nave and two aisles with east chapels until 1582 when the tower was built under the reign of Queen Elizabeth I; the latest modifications took place in 1851 by Anthony Salvin, an English architect, who altered the aisles and reroofed the nave and chancel. The Warren de Tabley Arms Public House was built in the mid thirteenth century, it still stands today as a Grade I listed building however it has acquired a new name: The Bells of Peover; this name did not originate from its proximity to the church, but from the Bell family, who once lived there in the 1890s. The Old School House, just outside the St Oswald's graveyard, was founded in 1710 by Richard Comberbach. Comberbach had been the curate of St Oswald's Church until his resignation in 1691, he acquired land off Sir James Leycester and built the original school building with the aid of funds from his wife and farming.
Comberbach, his wife and the curate of St Oswald's taught in the school until 1722 when they endowed £300 in the school trust. Profit from a further £100 investment was to be used for maintenance of the building and the purchasing of spelling books, New Testaments and Bibles, any surplus was used in the encouragement of Latin or buying books for scholars; the original syllabus consisted of the teaching of English catechism. The St Oswald's curate continued to act as the headmaster with the aid of an assistant until the Education Act of 1870. Following this act, a new school was built next to the original site; the earliest occupational data for Peover Inferior is from 1881. The stacked bar chart presents a simplified version of the 1881 occupational data, using the 24'Orders' used in the published reports for 1881, plus an'Unknown' category. Many of these categories combine'Workers and Dealers' in different commodities, so it is impossible to distinguish workers in manufacturing and services.
The graph shows that the most common occupation in Peover Inferior in 1881 was agriculture, this was due to the rural surroundings and abundance of arable land. Additionally, many sectors that exist today may have been small or ceased to exist all together in the late 19th century therefore there was less choice of occupation. In contrast to agriculture, the majority of people working in the domestic service or offices were women however this was the only sector with a significant proportion of female workers because the majority of them had unspecified or unknown occupations. According to the 2011 census, the sector with the highest level of employment in Peover Inferior is wholesale and retail trade and automotive repairs with 16.5% of the population followed behind by professional and technical activities with 14.9%. However, the pattern of these statistics is not just specific to Peover Inferior because these two sectors are among the largest in the North West and England.73.7% of the parish's population are economically active and in employment, 12.3% are of the working age but unemployed, this leaves 14% of the population that have retired.
The greatest number of residents are full-time employees with 33.5% of the total population followed behind by full-time self-employers with 26.2%. The only retail outlet in Peover Inferior is The Smithy on Smithy Green, a small shop that sells bird feeders and small garden ornaments; the nearest village shop is in Lower Peover a mile away. The earlies
Allostock is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, about five miles south of Knutsford and 20 miles south of Manchester. Allostock was in the borough of Vale Royal until it was abolished on 1 April 2009 to form Cheshire West and Chester. Allostock is located on an affluent of the river Weaver, it had a population of 816 according to the 2011 census data as well as 325 households. John Bartholemew wrote this in 1887 about Allostock: "Allostock, Great Budworth par. Mid. Cheshire, 5 miles S. of Knutsford, 3017 ac. pop. 501." Allostock's name was developed from the Old English word ` Lostock'. The first part of the name, added to distinguish it from Lostock Gralam, may be from'Hall', or from'Auld' or'Old Lostock' which led to the name Allostock. Despite it being overlooked in the Doomsday Book, the origin of the name implies that the piggery was a growing concern before the Norman invasion and even the Romans; the earliest recorded reference of'Alostocke' was in the 13th century in the Leycester of Tabley papers.
During the Saxon settlement in the 7th-century part of today's Allostock was named'Bradshaw'. The name still exists in Brook, with Bradshaw Brook Farm, Bradshaw Brook Methodist church and Bradshaw House. Shakerley Mere is a former sand quarry, filled with water when production was stopped in the 1960s, it is home to much wildlife, where dog walking are popular activities around the area. There are two churches in Allostock, one is part of the ecclesiastical parish of St Oswald's, Lower Peover. There is Bradshaw Brooks Methodist church on Middlewich road. Allostock has no school and younger children attend Byley School – some going to Lower Peover C. E. Primary School. Older children can go to Holmes Chapel Comprehensive and Knutsford and Middlewich have comprehensive schools. There are three pubs/restaurants in Allostock, The Drovers Arms, The Three Greyhounds on the junction between Middlewich road and Holmes Chapel road, The Cottage located on the A50. Hulme Hall with its moat and medieval bridge is Allostock's oldest and most archaeologically significant monument.
The site is an English Heritage Scheduled Ancient Monument and the Hall and bridge are Grade II* listed structures. Danes settled at Hulme Hall in the 10th and 11th century and there are records than an Anglo-Norse squire who lived here, perished in the Battle of Namptwiche in the Northern Rebellion of 1069. "Houlme" was an early version of the Norse word meaning "land above the water" or "island". The Shakerleys built the 15th-century bridge, one entrance to Hulme Hall across the moat, 20 yards wide; the other entrance is reputed to be the site of the old drawbridge. Recent renovations have found evidence of medieval and earlier occupation, a record of, with the Chester Records Office. Allostock has links dating back to the 7th century. With known records of Allostock dating to the 13th century. Allostock is known with strong connections to the Grosvenors and the Shakerleys; the manor of Allostock was conveyed to the Grosvenors in the reign of Edward I by John de Lostock. The Grosvenors had their chief seat at Hulme in this township, till the death of Robert Grosvenor Esq. in whom the male line of the elder line became extinct in 1465, when his estates were divided between his daughters.
A part of the manor was inherited by Sir John Leicester, who married one of the heiresses of the Grosvenors. Mr Shakerley inherited a fifth from his ancestor, of Booths. In 1234 Richard Grosvenor of Hulme took over Hulme Hall from another Norman family; this Richard Grosvenor was related to the first Norman Earl of Chester. In 1269 Richard built a Chapel of Ease at Lower Peover to save the long journey to Great Budworth. In 1464 Robert Grosvenor had a Chantry Chapel built at Lower Peover, pulled down in 1547 under Henry VIII; the Grosvenors established Hulme Mill and Bradshaw Brook was diverted about ¾ of a mile to obtain a better head of water. In 1453 the Shakerleys inherited Hulme Hall and about 1000 acres of Allostock's 3000 acres, through the female line. Several of the Shakerleys are buried in the Shakerley Chapel in the south aisle of Lower Peover Church where memorials may be seen including one to Sir Geoffrey Shakerley who fought for the King in the Civil War. At the Battle of Rowton Moor near Chester, Sir Geoffrey rowed across the Dee in an old tub with his horse swimming beside him.
Roundheads were blocking the roads and he needed to warn the King. The King hesitated with his orders. Sir Geoffrey rowed back but arrived too late and the battle was lost. In Lower Peover Church the Shakerley crest can still be seen on several of the box pew ends; the pews were reserved for the Shakerley tenants. In 1720 the Shakerleys built Somerford Hall as their main residence and Hulme Hall became a farm house. Listed buildings in Allostock