Brikama (local government area)
Brikama is one of eight Local Government Areas in the Gambia. Its boundaries are co-extensive with the Western administrative division; the headquarters of the Brikama LGA are located at Brikama town. As per the 2013 census, the population of Brikama LGA is 699,704
The Gambia the Republic of The Gambia, is a country in West Africa, entirely surrounded by Senegal with the exception of its western coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa; the Gambia is situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia River, the nation's namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 10,689 square kilometres with a population of 1,857,181 as of the April 2013 census. Banjul is the Gambian capital and the largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama; the Gambia shares historical roots with many other West African nations in the slave trade, the key factor in the placing and keeping of a colony on the Gambia River, first by the Portuguese, during which era it was known as A Gâmbia. On 25 May 1765, The Gambia was made a part of the British Empire when the government formally assumed control, establishing the Province of Senegambia. In 1965, The Gambia gained independence under the leadership of Dawda Jawara, who ruled until Yahya Jammeh seized power in a bloodless 1994 coup.
Adama Barrow became The Gambia's third president in January 2017, after defeating Jammeh in December 2016 elections. Jammeh accepted the results refused to accept them, which triggered a constitutional crisis and military intervention by the Economic Community of West African States, resulting in his exile; the Gambia's economy is dominated by farming and tourism. In 2015, 48.6% of the population lived in poverty. In rural areas, poverty is more widespread, at 70%; the name "Gambia" is derived from the Mandinka term Kambra/Kambaa. According to the CIA World Factbook, the US Department of State, the Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use, The Gambia is one of few countries whose self-standing short name for official use should begin with the word "The". Upon independence in 1965, the country used the name The Gambia. Following the proclamation of a republic in 1970, the long-form name of the country became Republic of The Gambia.
The administration of Yahya Jammeh changed the long-form name to Islamic Republic of The Gambia in December 2015. On 29 January 2017 President Adama Barrow changed the name back to Republic of The Gambia. Arab traders provided the first written accounts of the Gambia area in the ninth and tenth centuries. During the tenth century, Muslim merchants and scholars established communities in several West African commercial centres. Both groups established trans-Saharan trade routes, leading to a large export trade of local people as slaves gold and ivory, as well as imports of manufactured goods. By the 11th or 12th century, the rulers of kingdoms such as Takrur, a monarchy centred on the Senegal River just to the north, ancient Ghana and Gao had converted to Islam and had appointed to their courts Muslims who were literate in the Arabic language. At the beginning of the 14th century, most of what is today called The Gambia was part of the Mali Empire; the Portuguese reached this area by sea in the mid-15th century, began to dominate overseas trade.
In 1588, the claimant to the Portuguese throne, António, Prior of Crato, sold exclusive trade rights on the Gambia River to English merchants. Letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the grant. In 1618, King James I of England granted a charter to an English company for trade with the Gambia and the Gold Coast. Between 1651 and 1661, some parts of the Gambia were under the rule of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia belonging to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth—modern-day Latvia—and were bought by Prince Jacob Kettler. During the late 17th century and throughout the 18th century, the British Empire and the French Empire struggled continually for political and commercial supremacy in the regions of the Senegal River and the Gambia River; the British Empire occupied the Gambia when an expedition led by Augustus Keppel landed there following the Capture of Senegal in 1758. The 1783 First Treaty of Versailles gave Great Britain possession of the Gambia River, but the French retained a tiny enclave at Albreda on the river's north bank.
This was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1856. As many as three million people may have been taken as slaves from this general region during the three centuries that the transatlantic slave trade operated, it is not known how many people were taken as slaves by intertribal wars or Muslim traders before the transatlantic slave trade began. Most of those taken were sold by other Africans to Europeans: some were prisoners of intertribal wars. Traders sent people to Europe to work as servants until the market for labour expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century. In 1807, the United Kingdom abolished the slave trade throughout its empire, it tried, unsuccessfully, to end the slave trade in the Gambia. Slave ships intercepted by the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron in the Atlantic were returned to the Gambia, with people, slaves released on MacCarthy Island far up the Gambia River where they were expected to establish new lives; the British established the military post of Bathurst in 1816.
In the ensuing years, Banjul was at times under the jurisdiction of the British Governor-General in Sierra Leone. In 1888, The Gambia became a separate colony. An agreement with the French Republic in 1889 established the present boundaries; the Gambia became a British Crown colony called Briti
North Bank Division
North Bank was one of the five administrative divisions of the Gambia. Its capital was Kerewan, it was subsequently reorganised as the Kerewan Local Government Area, without any change in the area covered. Per 2013 census, the region had a population of 221,054 with a population density of 98 inh./km2. The total number of households was 18,458 as of 2003; as of 2003, the total area of the region is 2255.5 km2. The infant mortality rate was 81 for every thousand births and the under-five mortality was 109 per every thousand births; the poverty gap ratio was 33.2 per cent as of 2003. The Gambia is the smallest country in Africa, with the width of the country never exceeding 48 km, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west, while being surrounded by Senegal in all other directions. The Gambia River flows throughout the country and is the principal source of water and transport medium; the banks of the river have swampy beaches, while it has alluvial soil in all other parts, conducive for the growth of rice.
Peanuts are the major cashcrop. The weather is warm and dry; the elevation of the country reaches to a maximum of 50 m above mean sea level. There are vast segments of sedimentary sandstone and claystone in the valleys of the rivers and the regions surrounding it; the river flows from Guinea and has an east–west axis. The shallow water in the coastline are important sources of fishing. There are banto forests along the coastline. Over the river segemnt of 487 km, there are numerous creeks; the months from June to September experience a wet season. The average annual rainfall is around 1,400 mm in the south east, while it is 720 mm in the northwest. Experts have assessed that the overall rainfall during the century period between 1886 and 1992, there has been a reduction in rainfall of around 15-20 per cent and the wet season has been shortened. Per 2013 census, the region had a population of 221,054 with a population density of 098; the total number of households was 18,458 as of 2003. As of 2003, the total area of the region is 2255.5 km2.
The infant mortality rate was 81 for every thousand births and the under-five mortality was 109 per every thousand births. The poverty gap ratio was 33.2 per cent as of 2003. The literacy rate of the province was 59.8 compared to a national average of 62.9 per cent. The net enrollment ratio in primary education was 57 per cent, children entering first grade of primary school reaching last grade of primary education was 100 per cent and the ratios of boys against girls in primary and tertiary education was 1.09 as of 2007. The Gambia along with modern-day Senegal were colonies of French and British until 1894 when it became a British colony. Both the countries got independence in 1965 and operated in a federation called Senegambia from 1982. During 1989, the confederation collapsed. In a bloodless coup, Lieutenant Yahya Jamme in 1994 and went on to win multi party elections in three subsequent elections, he has defeated coups and unlike the West African countries, the Gambia has a relative stable governance.
The Local Govemment Act passed in 2002 superseded the previous local government acts like Local Government Act, Local Government Act, The Kanifing Municipal Council Act 1991 and the Provinces Act. There were seven local governments defined each subdivided into wards; the Mayor, the chairperson of the council and the council members of each council is elected by people of the area. The legislations indicating the roles were not defined, but the council is responsible for finance and planning for each sector under it. Around 25 per cent of the budget is provisioned by the central government; the council has a Alkalo or Seyfo representative, a Chief representative, a youth nominee, a woman nominee and other nominated members of local interest groups. North Bank is divided into six districts, Central Baddibu, Lower Baddibu, Lower Niumi, Upper Baddibu and Upper Niumi; the city and area council elections were held during April 2002, when Kanimang Sanneh, an APRC candidate became the Mayor, winning 64.2 per cent votes.
The council was led by Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction, which won all fourteen seats. The Atlas of the Gambia
Guinea the Republic of Guinea, is a west-coastal country in West Africa. Known as French Guinea, the modern country is sometimes referred to as Guinea-Conakry in order to distinguish it from other countries with "Guinea" in the name and the eponymous region, such as Guinea-Bissau and Equatorial Guinea. Guinea has an area of 245,860 square kilometres; the sovereign state of Guinea is a republic with a president, directly elected by the people and is head of state and head of government. The unicameral Guinean National Assembly is the legislative body of the country, its members are directly elected by the people; the judicial branch is led by the Guinea Supreme Court, the highest and final court of appeal in the country. The country is named after the Guinea region. Guinea is a traditional name for the region of Africa, it ends at the Sahel. The English term Guinea comes directly from the Portuguese word Guiné, which emerged in the mid-15th century to refer to the lands inhabited by the Guineus, a generic term for the black African peoples below the Senegal River, as opposed to the'tawny' Zenaga Berbers, above it, whom they called Azenegues or Moors.
Guinea is a predominantly Islamic country, with Muslims representing 85 percent of the population. Guinea's people belong to twenty-four ethnic groups. French, the official language of Guinea, is the main language of communication in schools, in government administration, the media, but more than twenty-four indigenous languages are spoken. Guinea's economy is dependent on agriculture and mineral production, it is the world's second largest producer of bauxite, has rich deposits of diamonds and gold. The country was at the core of the 2014 Ebola outbreak. Human rights in Guinea remain a controversial issue. In 2011 the United States government claimed that torture by security forces, abuse of women and children were ongoing abuses of human rights; the land, now Guinea belonged to a series of African empires until France colonized it in the 1890s, made it part of French West Africa. Guinea declared its independence from France on 2 October 1958. From independence until the presidential election of 2010, Guinea was governed by a number of autocratic rulers.
For the origin of the name "Guinea" see Guinea § Etymology. What is now Guinea was on the fringes of the major West African empires; the earliest, the Ghana Empire, grew on trade but fell after repeated incursions of the Almoravids. It was in this period; the Sosso kingdom flourished in the resulting void but the Mali Empire came to prominence when Soundiata Kéïta defeated the Sosso ruler Soumangourou Kanté at the Battle of Kirina in c. 1235. The Mali Empire was ruled by Mansa, the most famous being Kankou Moussa, who made a famous hajj to Mecca in 1324. Shortly after his reign the Mali Empire began to decline and was supplanted by its vassal states in the 15th century; the most successful of these was the Songhai Empire, which expanded its power from about 1460 and surpassed the Mali Empire in both territory and wealth. It continued to prosper until a civil war over succession followed the death of Askia Daoud in 1582; the weakened empire fell to invaders from Morocco at the Battle of Tondibi just three years later.
The Moroccans proved unable to rule the kingdom however, it split into many small kingdoms. After the fall of the major West African empires, various kingdoms existed in. Fulani Muslims migrated to Futa Jallon in Central Guinea and established an Islamic state from 1735 to 1898 with a written constitution and alternate rulers; the Wassoulou or Wassulu empire was a short-lived empire, led by Samori Toure in the predominantly Malinké area of what is now upper Guinea and southwestern Mali. It moved to Ivory Coast before being conquered by the French; the slave trade came to the coastal region of Guinea with European traders in the 16th century. Slaves were exported to work elsewhere in the triangular trade. Guinea's colonial period began with French military penetration into the area in the mid-19th century. French domination was assured by the defeat in 1898 of the armies of Samori Touré, Mansa of the Ouassoulou state and leader of Malinké descent, which gave France control of what today is Guinea and adjacent areas.
France negotiated Guinea's present boundaries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the British for Sierra Leone, the Portuguese for their Guinea colony, Liberia. Under the French, the country formed the Territory of Guinea within French West Africa, administered by a governor general resident in Dakar. Lieutenant governors administered the individual colonies, including Guinea. In 1958, the French Fourth Republic collapsed due to political instability and its failures in dealing with its colonies Indochina and Algeria; the founding of a Fifth Republic was supported by the French people, while French President Charles de Gaulle made it clear on 8 August 1958 that France's colonies were to be given a stark choice between more autonomy in a new French Community or immediate independence in the referendum to be held on 28 September 1958. The other colonies chose the former but Guinea—under the leadership of Ahmed Sékou Touré whose Democratic Party of Guinea had won 56 of 60 seats in 1957 territorial elections — voted overwhelmingly for independence.
The French withdrew and
Fulladu West is one of the ten districts of the Central River Division of the Gambia
Basse is one of eight Local Government Areas in the Gambia. Its boundaries are co-extensive with the administrative division of Upper River
Kanifing is a town in the Kanifing Local Government Area of the Gambia. It is located near the largest urban area in the country; the head office of Gambia Bird, an airline, was located at the Gambia Bird House in Kanifing