South Wales Valleys
The South Wales Valleys are a group of industrialised peri-urban valleys in South Wales. Most of the valleys run north–south parallel to each other. Referred to as "The Valleys", they stretch from eastern Carmarthenshire to western Monmouthshire; until the mid-19th century, the South Wales valleys were sparsely inhabited. The industrialisation of the Valleys occurred in two phases. First, in the second half of the 18th century, the iron industry was established on the northern edge of the Valleys by English entrepreneurs; this made South Wales the most important part of Britain for ironmaking until the middle of the 19th century. Second, from 1850 until the outbreak of the First World War, the South Wales Coalfield was developed to supply steam coal and anthracite; the South Wales Valleys hosted Britain's only mountainous coalfields. Topography defined the shape of the mining communities, with a "hand and fingers" pattern of urban development. There were fewer than 1,000 people in the Rhondda valley in 1851, 17,000 by 1870, 114,000 by 1901 and 153,000 by 1911.
The population of the Valleys in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was disproportionately young and male. The new communities had high birth rates – in 1840, more than 20% of Tredegar's population was aged under 7, Rhondda's birth rate in 1911 was 36 per thousand, levels associated with mid-19th century Britain. Merthyr Tydfil, at the northern end of the Taff valley, became Wales's largest town thanks to its growing ironworks at Dowlais and Cyfarthfa; the neighbouring Taff Bargoed Valley to the east became the centre of serious industrial and political strife during the 1930s in and around the villages of Trelewis and Bedlinog, which served the local collieries of Deep Navigation and Taff Merthyr. The South Wales coalfield attracted huge numbers of people from rural areas to the valleys; the coal mined in the valleys was transported south along railways and canals to Cardiff and Swansea. Cardiff was soon among the most important coal ports in the world, Swansea among the most important steel ports.
The coal mining industry of the South Wales Valleys was buoyed throughout World War II, though there were expectations of a return to the pre-1939 industrial collapse after the end of the war. There was a sense of salvation when the government announced the nationalisation of British coalmines in 1947; the decline in the mining of coal after World War II was a country-wide issue, but South Wales and Rhondda were more affected than other areas of Britain. Oil had superseded coal as the fuel of choice in many industries, there was political pressure influencing the supply of oil. Of the few industries that still relied on coal, the demand was for quality coals coking coal, required by the steel industry. Fifty percent of Glamorgan coal was now supplied to steelworks, with the second biggest market being domestic heating, in which the "smokeless" coal of the South Wales coalfield again became fashionable after the Clean Air Act of 1956 was passed; these two markets now controlled the fate of the mines in South Wales, as demand from both sectors fell, the mining industry contracted further.
In addition exports to other areas of Europe, traditionally France and the Low Countries, experienced a massive decline: from 33% around 1900 to 5% by 1980. The other major factor in the decline of coal was the massive under-investment in South Wales mines over the past decades. Most of the mines in the valleys were sunk between the 1850s and 1880s, so they were far smaller than most modern mines; the Welsh mines were comparatively antiquated, with methods of ventilation, coal-preparation and power supply all of a decades-earlier standard. In 1945 the British coal industry as a whole cut 72% of its output mechanically, whereas in South Wales the figure was just 22%; the only way to ensure the financial survival of the mines in the valleys was massive investment from the National Coal Board, but the "Plan for Coal" drawn up in 1950 was overly optimistic about the future demand for coal, drastically reduced following an industrial recession in 1956 and an increased availability of oil. From 15,000 miners in 1947, Rhondda had just a single pit within the valleys producing coal in 1984, located at Maerdy.
In 1966, the village of Aberfan in the Taff valley suffered one of the worst disasters in Welsh history. A mine waste tip on the top of the mountain, developed over a spring, slid down the valley side and destroyed the village junior school, killing 144 people, 116 of them children. In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, her policies of free market economics soon clashed with the loss-making, government-owned National Coal Board. In 1984 and 1985, after the government announced plans to close many mines across the UK, mineworkers went on strike; this strike, its ultimate failure, led to the virtual destruction of the UK's coal industry over the next decade, although arguably costs of extraction and geological difficulties would have had the same result a little later. No deep coal mines are left in the valleys since the closure in 2008 of Tower Colliery in the Cynon Valley. Tower had been bought
Swansea Docks is the collective name for several docks in Swansea, Wales. The Swansea docks are located south east of Swansea city centre. In the mid-19th century the port was exporting 60% of the world's copper from factories situated in the Tawe valley; the working docks area today is owned and operated by Associated British Ports as the Port of Swansea and the northern part around the Prince of Wales Dock is undergoing re-development into a new urban area branded the SA1 Swansea Waterfront. Docks which have existed or still exist in the complex include: The North Dock was created to fulfil the increasing shipping demands from the nearby metals industry; the North Dock was created by diverting the River Tawe by cutting a new direct course within a meander section near the estuary. The old course of the River became the new dock and work was completed in 1852. Secluded and poorly lit, the area around North Dock was popular with prostitutes and their clients, until lighting was improved following the drowning of Selina Rushbrook in the lock gate in 1907.
The North Dock closed in 1930 after the development of new larger docks on the east side of the River Tawe made the North Dock obsolete. The north dock has since been filled in and the Parc Tawe retail complex was built on the site in the late 1980s. Construction began on the South Dock in 1852 by a private company, it was built on a site west of the River Tawe, just south of the North Dock and was not completed until 1859. The South Dock was redeveloped in the 1980s; the dock itself became the Swansea Marina and the land around the dock was developed as the Maritime Quarter residential area. The Swansea Harbour Trust began constructing the Prince of Wales Dock in 1879 on Fabian's Bay to the east of the River Tawe; when construction was completed, the Prince of Wales dock was opened on 18 October 1881 by Edward, Prince of Wales, extended in 1898 to its present size of 27 acres. Usage of the Prince of Wales dock declined throughout the latter half of the 20th century; the Prince of Wales Dock is now being redeveloped as the Prince of Wales Marina with 500 berths.
A new channel with sea lock and holding basin is under construction to link the Prince of Wales Dock directly with the River Tawe. A new wakeboarding facility opened in the Prince of Wales Dock in 2010. Work began on the King's Dock in 1905 to meet the growing demand of Tinplate exports from the local area; the King's Dock was constructed as a much larger dock than the Prince of Wales on south side of the Prince of Wales Dock and covers some 72 acres. Construction was complete by 1909; the King's Dock is the principal dock in the Port of Swansea, still in use today for cargo operations. At the same time the King's dock was being built, a breakwater was constructed further south of the King's dock which enclosed a large body of water covering some 151 acres; this body of water was opened in 1920 as the Queen's Dock after oil handling facilities were built to handle imports for the nearby BP oil refinery at Llandarcy and petrochemical plant at Baglan Bay. Usage of the Queen's Dock reached its peak in the 1950s when oil imports and exports reached around 8 million tonnes per year.
Since the closure of the oil plants at Baglan Bay and Llandarcy, the Queen's Dock was rendered obsolete as an oil handling facility. The Queen's dock is now used for mussel farming. Due to increases in industrial output and in trade in copper, zinc and tinplate combined with the developments in shipping by the late 19th century Swansea's harbour was in desperate need of expansion; the Swansea Harbour Trust commissioned the construction of the Prince of Wales Dock, the first on the east side of the river. Opened in 1881 by the Prince and Princess of Wales, it was completed in 1882, expanded in 1898; the North Quay frontage was let to the Great Western Railway, the Neath and Brecon Railway and the Rhondda and Swansea Bay Railway, which linked the Dulais Valley and Rhondda Valley coalfields directly with the docks. In addition to shunting locomotives operated by the SHT, further engines were provided by Powlesland and Mason from 1903 onwards; the Port of Swansea is an Atlantic shipping port operated by Associated British Ports which comprises the King's Dock, Queen's Dock, two dry docks and a roll on/roll off ferry terminal in the River Tawe.
The port has three transit sheds with 25,000 m2 of storage space, 12 quayside cranes, two drydocks, a roll-on/roll-off berth. It offers warehouses and facilities for handling dry bulks, ores, forest products and general cargo. There is a roll on/roll off ferry terminal in the western part of the docks. Between 1987 and 2006, a regular passenger and car ferry to Ringaskiddy in County Cork, Ireland departed from here; the ferry was operated by a company called Swansea Cork Ferries. The ferry service was suspended from 2007 A website and online campaign / e-petition was started in an attempt to highlight the effect that the loss of the Swansea Cork ferry was having on Swansea and the South-West of Ireland. In April 2009, a newly formed co-operative purchased a new vessel to provide a service between Swansea and County Cork. Sailings commenced on 10 March 2010 but ceased as untenable on 2 February 2011. In written evidence presented to the Welsh Assembly's Enterprise and Learning Committee in January 2008, Swansea University stated that it was "at an advanced stage of discussion" about a new'Innovation Campus' on a second site.
On 20 March 2008, the university announced that it would conduct a more detailed examination and feasibility assessment of a 100-acre site off Fabian Way, covering an area from the docks and the former BP plant
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression, longer than it is wide; the terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A valley in its broadest geographic sense is known as a dale. Other terms used for valleys are: Vale: A valley. Dell: A small and wooded valley. Glen: A long valley bounded by sloped concave sides. Strath: A wide, flat valley through which a river runs. Mountain cove: A small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. Hollow: A term used sometimes for a small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges. Cwm: A deep, narrow valley. A steephead valley is a deep, flat bottomed valley with an abrupt ending. Erosional valley: A valley formed by erosion.
Structural valley: A valley formed by geologic events such as drop faults or the rise of highlands. Dry valley: A valley not created by sustained surface water flow. Longitudinal valley: An elongated valley found between two parallel mountain chains. Similar geological structures, such as canyons, gorges, gullies and kloofs, are not referred to as valleys. A valley formed by flowing water, called fluvial valley or river valley, is V-shaped; the exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it. Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce a bottom. Shallower slopes may produce gentler valleys. However, in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment and the valley bottom becomes a floodplain; some broad V examples are: North America: Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, others in Grand Canyon NP Europe: Austria: narrow passages of upper Inn valley, affluents of Enns Switzerland: Napf region, Zurich Oberland, Engadin Germany: affluents to the middle reaches of Rhine and MoselSome of the first human complex societies originated in river valleys, such as that of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Ganges, Yellow River and arguably Amazon.
In prehistory, the rivers were used as a source of fresh water and food, as well as a place to wash and a sewer. The proximity of water moderated temperature extremes and provided a source for irrigation, stimulating the development of agriculture. Most of the first civilizations developed from these river valley communities. In geography, a vale is a wide river valley with a wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. In Southern England, vales occur between the escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk formations, where the chalk dome has been eroded, exposing less resistant underlying rock claystone. Rift valleys, such as the Albertine Rift and Gregory Rift are formed by the expansion of the Earth's crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earth's surface. There are various forms of valley associated with glaciation that may be referred to as glacial valleys. A valley carved by glaciers is U-shaped and resembles a trough; this trough valley becomes visible upon the recession of the glacier. When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice.
Floor gradient does not affect the valley's shape, it is the glacier's size. Continuously flowing glaciers – in the ice age – and large-sized glaciers carve wide, deep incised valleys, sometimes with valley steps that reflect differing erosion rates. Examples of U-shaped valleys are found in every mountainous region that has experienced glaciation during the Pleistocene ice ages. Most present U-shaped valleys started as V-shaped before glaciation; the glaciers carved it out wider and deeper changing the shape. This proceeds through the glacial erosion processes of glaciation and abrasion, which results in large rocky material being carried in the glacier. A material called; as the ice melts and retreats, the valley is left with steep sides and a wide, flat floor. A river or stream may remain in the valley; this replaces the original stream or river and is known as a misfit stream because it is smaller than one would expect given the size of its valley. Other interesting glacially carved valleys include: Yosemite Valley Side valleys of the Austrian river Salzach for their parallel directions and hanging mouths.
Some Scottish glens full with flowers. That of the St. Mary River in Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. A tunnel valley is a large, long, U-shaped valley cut under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets such as that now covering Antarctica and covering portions of all continents during past glacial ages. A tunnel valley can be up to 100 km, 4 km wide, 400 m deep. Tunnel valleys were formed by subglacial erosion by water, they served as subglacial drainage pathways carrying large volumes of melt water. Their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, their flat bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion. In northern Central Europe, the Scandinavian ice sheet during the various ice ages advanced uphill against the lie of the land; as a result, its meltwaters flowed parallel to the ice margin to reach the North Sea basin, formin
Swansea, is a coastal city and county known as the City and County of Swansea in Wales. Swansea lies within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan and the ancient Welsh commote of Gŵyr on the southwest coast; the county area includes the Gower Peninsula. Swansea is the twenty-fifth largest city in the United Kingdom. According to its local council, the City and County of Swansea had a population of 241,300 in 2014; the last official census stated that the city and urban areas combined concluded to be a total of 462,000 in 2011. During the 19th-century industrial heyday, Swansea was the key centre of the copper-smelting industry, earning the nickname Copperopolis. Archaeological finds in the Swansea area come from the Gower Peninsula, include items from the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age; the Romans occupied the area. The two largest rivers in the region are the Tawe which passes through the city centre and the Loughor which marks the northern border with Carmarthenshire; the Welsh name, translates to Mouth of the Tawe.
It first appears c.1150 as Aper Tyui. Swansea is thought to have developed as a Viking trading post, its English name may derive from Sveinn's island – Old Norse: Sveinsey – the reference to an island may refer either to a bank at the mouth of the River Tawe or to an area of raised ground in marshes. An alternative explanation derives the place name from the Norse personal name Sweyn and ey, which can mean "inlet"; this explanation supports the tradition. The name is pronounced Swans-y /ˈswɒnzi/), not Swan-sea; the earliest known form of the modern name, appears in the first charter, granted sometime between 1158 and 1184 by William de Newburgh, 3rd Earl of Warwick. The charter gave Swansea the status of a borough, granting the townsmen certain rights to develop the area. In 1215 King John granted a second charter. A town seal, believed to date from this period names the town as Sweyse. Following the Norman conquest, a marcher lordship was established under the title of Gower, it included land around Swansea Bay as far as the River Tawe, the manor of Kilvey beyond the Tawe, the peninsula itself.
Swansea was designated chief town of the lordship and received a borough charter at some point between 1158 and 1184. From the early 1700s to the late 1800s, Swansea was the world's leading copper-smelting area. Numerous smelters along the River Tawe received copper and other metal ores shipped from Cornwall and Devon, as well as from North and South America and Australia; the industry declined in the late 1800s, none of the smelters are now active. The port of Swansea traded in wine, wool, cloth and in coal. After the invention of the reverbatory furnace in the late 1600s, copper smelting was able to use coal rather than more-expensive charcoal. At the same time, the mines of Cornwall were increasing copper production. Swansea became the ideal place to smelt the Cornish copper ores, being close to the coalfields of South Wales and having an excellent port to receive ships carrying Cornish copper ore; because each ton of copper ore smelted used about three tons of coal, it was more economical to ship the copper ore to Wales rather than send the coal to Cornwall.
The first copper smelter at Swansea was established followed by many more. Once smelting was established, the smelters began receiving high-grade ore and ore concentrates from around the world. More coal mines opened to meet demand from northeast Gower to Llangyfelach. In the 1850s Swansea had more than 600 furnaces, a fleet of 500 oceangoing ships carrying out Welsh coal and bringing back metal ore from around the world. At that time most of the copper matte produced in the United States was sent to Swansea for refining.. Smelters processed arsenic, zinc and other metals. Nearby factories produced pottery; the Swansea smelters became so adept at recovering gold and silver from complex ores that in the 1800s they received ore concentrates from the United States, for example from Arizona in the 1850s, Colorado in the 1860s. The city expanded in the 18th and 19th centuries, was termed "Copperopolis". From the late 17th century to 1801, Swansea's population grew by 500%—the first official census indicated that, with 6,099 inhabitants, Swansea had become larger than Glamorgan's county town and was the second most populous town in Wales behind Merthyr Tydfil.
However, the census understated Swansea's true size, as much of the built-up area lay outside the contemporary boundaries of the borough. Swansea's population was overtaken by Merthyr in 1821 and by Cardiff in 1881, although in the latter year Swansea once again surpassed Merthyr. Much of Swansea's growth was due to migration from within and beyond Wales—in 1881 more than a third of the borough's population had been born outside Swansea and Glamorgan, just under a quarter outside Wales. Copper smelting at Swansea declined in the late 1800s for a number of reasons. Copper mining in Cornwall declined; the price of copper dropped from £112 in 1860 to £35 in the 1890s. In the early 1900s, mining shifted to lower-grade copper deposits in North and South America, the lower-grade ore could not support transportation to Swansea; the Swansea and Mumbles Railway was built in 1804 to move limestone from
Wagonways consisted of the horses and tracks used for hauling wagons, which preceded steam-powered railways. The terms plateway and dramway were used; the advantage of wagonways was. The earliest evidence is of the 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC. Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route; the Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD. Paved trackways were built in Roman Egypt; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way; the miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. Around 1568, German miners working in the Mines Royal near Keswick used such a system.
Archaeological work at the Mines Royal site at Caldbeck in the English Lake District confirmed the use of "hunds". In 1604, Huntingdon Beaumont completed the Wollaton Wagonway, built to transport coal from the mines at Strelley to Wollaton Lane End, just west of Nottingham, England. Wagonways have been discovered between Broseley and Jackfield in Shropshire from 1605, used by James Clifford to transport coal from his mines in Broseley to the Severn River, it has been suggested. The Middleton Railway in Leeds, built in 1758 as a wagonway became the world's first operational railway, albeit in an upgraded form. In 1764, the first railway in the America was built in New York as a wagonway. Wagonways improved coal transport by allowing one horse to deliver between 10 to 13 long tons of coal per run— an approximate fourfold increase. Wagonways were designed to carry the loaded wagons downhill to a canal or boat dock and return the empty wagons back to the mine; until the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, rails were made of wood, were a few inches wide and were fastened end to end, on logs of wood or "sleepers", placed crosswise at intervals of two or three feet.
In time, it became common to cover them with a thin flat sheathing or "plating" of iron, in order to add to their life and reduce friction. This caused more wear on the wooden rollers of the wagons and towards the middle of the 18th century, led to the introduction of iron wheels. However, the iron sheathing was not strong enough to resist buckling under the passage of the loaded wagons, so rails made wholly of iron were invented. In 1760 the Coalbrookdale Iron Works began to reinforce their wooden railed tramway with iron bars, which were found to facilitate passage and diminish expenses; as a result, in 1767, they began to make cast iron rails. These were 6 ft long, with four projecting ears or lugs 3 in by 3 3⁄4 in to enable them to be fixed to the sleepers; the rails were 3 3⁄4 in 1 1⁄4 in thick. Descriptions refer to rails 3 ft long and only 2 in wide. A system involved "L" shaped iron rails or plates, each 3 ft long and 4 in wide, having on the inner side an upright ledge or flange, 3 in high at the centre and tapering to 2 in at the ends, for the purpose of keeping the flat wheels on the track.
Subsequently, to increase strength, a similar flange might be added below the rail. Wooden sleepers continued to be used—the rails were secured by spikes passing through the extremities—but, circa 1793, stone blocks began to be used, an innovation associated with Benjamin Outram, although he was not the originator; this type of rail was known as the plate-rail, tramway-plate or way-plate, names that are preserved in the modern term "platelayer" applied to the workers who lay and maintain the permanent way. The wheels of flangeway wagons were plain, but they could not operate on ordinary roads as the narrow rims would dig into the surface. Another form of rail, the edge rail, was first used by William Jessop on a line, opened as part of the Charnwood Forest Canal between Loughborough and Nanpantan in Leicestershire in 1789; this line was designed as a plateway on the Outram system, but objections were laying raised to rails with upstanding ledges or flanges on the turnpike. This difficulty was overcome by paving or "causewaying" the road up to the level of the top of the flanges.
In 1790, Jessop and his partner Outram began to manufacture edge-rails. Another example of the edge rail application was the Lake Lock Rail Road used for coal transport; this was a public railway and opened for traffic in 1798, making it the world's oldest public railway. The route started at Lake Lock, Stanley, on the Aire & Calder Navigation, running from Wakefield to Outwood, a distance of 3 miles. Edge-rails were used on the nearby Middleton-Leeds rack railway; the wheels of an edgeway have flanges, like modern tramways. Causewaying is done on modern level crossings and tramways; these two systems of constructing iron railways continued to exist until the early 19th century. In most parts of England the plate-rail was preferred. Plate-rails were used from Wandsworth to West Croydon; the SIR was sanctioned by Parliament in 1801 and finished in 1803. Like the Lake Lock Rail Road, the SIR was available to
The River Tawe is a river in the south of Wales. It flows in a principally southwesterly direction for some 48 km from its source below Moel Feity in the Old Red Sandstone hills of the western Brecon Beacons to the Bristol Channel at Swansea, its main tributaries are Lower Clydach Rivers and the Afon Twrch. The total area of the catchment is some 246 km2; the Tawe passes through a number of towns and villages including Ystradgynlais, Ystalyfera and Clydach and meets the sea at Swansea Bay below Swansea. The Tawe Valley is more known as the Swansea Valley. Ownership of the riverbed was granted to the Duke of Beaufort in the 17th century by Charles II resulting in exclusive mineral and fishing rights, extended as far as requiring permission and payment for bridges which are built over it; this was last exercised in 2008 when Swansea Council was required to pay £281,431 to the estate, as revealed by a Freedom of Information request. The lower part of the valley was intensely industrialised in the 18th and 19th centuries and was impacted by metal refining and working and to a much lesser extent by porcelain manufacture.
Large areas of the lower valley remain contaminated by industrial spoil containing copper, lead and zinc. The only significant extant relic of those times is a major nickel refinery at Clydach, part of the Canadian company Vale Inco; the quality of the river has now improved. Large salmon swim up the river to spawn, whilst trout are in abundance. In 1992, a barrage was built at the mouth of the river. National Cycle Route 43 follows this river for much of its course. Bridges over the River Tawe within the City and County of Swansea, from north to south: A4067 road bridge B4291 road bridge at Glais A4067 road bridge former rail access to the Vale Inco works at Clydach disused railway bridge A4067 road bridge Park Road bridge at Clydach M4 motorway bridge railway bridge Swansea Vale road bridge A48 Morriston road bridge - links Morriston town centre to the Swansea Enterprise Park Beaufort Bridge - historic access point from Beaufort Road to the now Enterprise Park area. Mannesmann pedestrian and cycle bridge - links the Enterprise Park to Beaufort Road in Plasmarl southern Beaufort Road bridge Landore railway viaduct Morfa footbridge - links the Morfa Retail Park to the Liberty Stadium White Rock Bridge - road and pedestrian bridge linking the Landore district with the Bon-y-maen district Parc Tawe Bridge - road and pedestrian bridge linking Parc Tawe with St Thomas Quay Parade Bridge - road and pedestrian bridge linking Quay Parade with Fabian Way Old Swansea Bridge - a former railway bridge: the bridge deck no longer exists but the piers remain Sail Bridge - a pedestrian and cycle bridge linking the Maritime Quarter near Sainsbury's superstore to the SA1 Swansea Waterfront development area Trafalgar Bridge - a pedestrian and cycle bridge located near the Swansea barrage: built at a cost of £1.2 million, it crosses the barrage lock and part of the bridge swings with the lock gates There are plans for further housing developments on both east and west banks of the River Tawe and a proposal to operate river taxis along the river.
A report was commissioned by Natural Resources Wales in 2015 as part of its'Tawe Trial' initiative - completed by regeneration consultants Trilein Ltd. it recommended a number of initiatives to better connect the urban areas on the west of the river with the more rural areas of Kilvey Hill and Crymlyn Bog beyond to the east. Lower Swansea valley Swansea Barrage Swansea University Rowing Club; the Tawe River and Swansea Harbour River Tawe New Construction