The Koyukuk River' is a 425-mile tributary of the Yukon River, in the U. S. state of Alaska. It is the last major tributary entering the Yukon before the larger river empties into the Bering Sea. Rising at the confluence of the North Fork Koyukuk River with the Middle Fork Koyukuk River, it flows southwest to meet the larger Yukon River at Koyukuk; the river, with headwaters above the Arctic Circle in the Endicott Mountains of the Brooks Range, drains an area north of the Yukon River that includes part of the Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, as well as Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge and Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge. The main stem of the river is lined by the communities of Evansville, Alatna, Allakaket and Huslia before reaching Koyukuk, its headwaters tributaries include the Koyukuk's south and north forks, the Alatna River, the John River. Major tributaries further downstream include the Kanuti, Hogatza, Dulbi and Gisasa rivers. Of these, the Alatna and North Fork are National Wild and Scenic Rivers, as is the Tinayguk River, a tributary of the North Fork.
Koyukuk was derived from the Central Yup'ik phrase kuik-yuk, meaning a river. The Koyukuk River was given this generic C. Yup'ik name by Russian explorer Petr Vasilii Malakhov, because he did not know the local Koyukon name for it; the Western Union Telegraph Expedition used the spelling of Coyukuk before the United States Board on Geographic Names settled on Koyukuk. The Russian Petr Vasilii Malakhov reached the river at its confluence with the Yukon in 1838; the United States acquired Alaska after the American Civil War, but it was 1885 before US representatives Lieutenant Henry Allen and Private Fred Fickett of the United States Army ascended and explored the river. The discovery of gold deposits by Johnnie Folger on the Middle Fork in 1893 on The Tramway bar led to a gold rush in 1898. In 1929, Robert "Bob" Marshall explored the North Fork of the Koyukuk River while studying plant life in the region for his PhD, he gave the name Gates of the Arctic to the high Brooks Range along the river.
In 1980 the United States Congress designated 100 mi of the North Fork of the Koyukuk River in the Brooks Range as the Koyukuk Wild and Scenic River, which authorized certain levels of protection for the habitat. In 1994 the river flooded, sweeping away three villages, forcing the wholesale relocation of the population. Vegetation along the Koyukuk River, sparse along the upper reaches, consists of tundra plants such as dwarf willows and other shrubs and lichens. Further downstream at lower elevations and boreal forest plants are common except in the Koyukuk Flats near the mouth, where sedges and other herbaceous plants dominate the poorly drained muskeg. Trees found in more well-drained areas along the river include mountain alder, trembling aspen and black spruce. Fish species frequenting the lower Koyukuk include Arctic sockeye salmon; the sockeye and other salmon species, including Chinook and chum thrive along the upper reaches and tributaries. Caribou migrate across the upper part of the Koyukuk watershed.
Other major vertebrates in the region include bald eagles and black bears, beaver and river otter. Beluga whales sometimes visit the lower Koyukuk. Moose herds, which thrive in parts of the watershed in riparian zones downstream of Hughes, attract local and non-local hunters and wolves. A consortium of moose hunters and state wildlife officials work to keep the moose population at sustainable levels. Through 2005, no one had published a study of invertebrates of the Koyukuk or its larger tributaries. General information included in a study related to pipeline construction through the watershed suggested the presence of a variety of true flies, black flies, mayflies and caddisflies. List of rivers of Alaska List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers Reuben D'Aigle Benke, Arthur C. ed. and Cushing, Colbert E. ed.. "Chapter 17: Yukon River Basin" in Rivers of North America. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088253-1. OCLC 59003378. NPS: Koyukuk Wild and Scenic River Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge Koyukuk River Floods in Alaska History in Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve
Minto is a census-designated place in Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the CDP is 210, down from 258 in 2000; the name is an anglicized version of the Lower Tanana Athabaskan name Menhti mən̥tʰi, meaning'among the lakes'. After repeated flooding the village was relocated to its present location in 1969; the former village site is now known as Old Minto. Minto is an Athabascan Indian village located at the end of the Minto Spur Road, which comes off the Elliot Highway, it is located at 65°9′28″N 149°22′12″W. The village is located on a bluff above the Tolovana River flats, which contain several lakes formed by the flow of the river through low-lying areas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 138.6 square miles, of which, 135.1 square miles of it is land and 3.6 square miles of it is water. Minto first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated native village; that village was located along the Tanana River, now known as Old Minto.
It had a population of 55 in 1920, it did not report in 1930, 135 in 1940, 152 in 1950 and 161 in 1960. Following flooding of Old Minto, the new village assumed the name of "Minto" beginning with the 1970 U. S. Census. In 1980 it was made a census-designated place; as of the census of 2000, there were 258 people, 74 households, 54 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1.9 people per square mile. There were 99 housing units at an average density of 0.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 7.75% White, 91.86% Native American, 0.39% from two or more races. There were 74 households out of which 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.8% were married couples living together, 21.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.0% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.49 and the average family size was 4.15. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 38.8% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 21.7% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 129.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $21,250, the median income for a family was $37,500. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $28,125 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $9,639. About 18.2% of families and 26.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 12.5% of those sixty five or over. Although a small community, it has a small landing strip called Minto Airport, it gives direct flights to Fairbanks. It is served by the Old Minto Road, visible on Google Maps and on Google Earth imagery. Minto is in the western part of traditional Tanana Athabaskan territory. During the late 1800s, some members of the nomadic Minto band traveled to Tanana and Fort Yukon to trade furs for manufactured goods and flour. After gold was discovered north of Fairbanks in 1902, steamboats began to travel on the Tanana River, bringing goods and people into the area.
Old Minto, on the banks of the Tanana River, became a permanent settlement when some members of the Minto band built log cabins there. Other families lived there seasonally in tents. A school was established in 1937, but most families still did not live in Minto year-round until the 1950s; the people from the Minto band were joined by families from Nenana, Toklat and Chena. Minto was relocated due to repeated flooding and erosion; the present site is 65 km north of the old site. The new site had been used as a winter camp since the early 1900s. New housing and a new school were completed by 1971; the Old Minto Family Recovery Camp is a rustic treatment center operated by the Tanana Chiefs Conference relocated away from the old river edge village site. A residential program, it incorporates daily group and individual counseling for drug and alcohol addictions with traditional lifestyle activities and Athabascan cultural immersion; the old village site is used for seasonal celebrations including by the Cultural Heritage and Education Institute which provides curriculum elements in the school at New Minto.
The Yukon–Koyukuk School District operates the Minto School. The traditional language of Minto is Lower Tanana, one of eleven Athabaskan languages spoken in Alaska; as of 2010, "Speakers who grew up with Lower Tanana as their first language can be found only in the 250-person village of Minto." Minto City, British Columbia Mount Minto, Yukon Minto Mapping Project Tanana Chiefs Conference community profile
Siri Tuttle is the director of at the Alaska Native Language Archive, an Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. She specializes in Dene languages of interior Alaska and has contributed to the fields of acoustic phonetics and morphology. Tuttle started working an Associate Professor of Linguistics at the Alaska Native Language Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks in 2003, she specializes in Dene languages of interior Alaska and has contributed to the fields of acoustic phonetics and morphology. In 2016, Tuttle was named director of the Alaska Native Language Archive. Tuttle is active in Lower Tanana language revitalization efforts, has published reference materials such as the Benhti Kokht’ana Kenaga’: Lower Tanana Pocket Dictionary, she is well known for her documentary and descriptive language work in Lower Tanana and Ahtna, has conducted linguistic fieldwork in New Mexico and Arizona. Tuttle, Siri. Ahtna Athabascan Grammar Reference. Chistochina: Mount Sanford Tribal Consortium.
Tuttle, Siri. Benhti Kokht’ana Kenaga’: Lower Tanana Pocket Dictionary. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. ISBN 978-1555001001. Hargus and Siri Tuttle. "Augmentation as Affixation in Athabaskan Languages". Phonology 14:2, 177-220. JSTOR 4420100 Curriculum Vitae Sustainable Heritage Network: Language Work and Language Collections
The Alaskan Athabascans, Alaskan Athabaskans, Alaskan Athapaskans are Alaska Native peoples of the Northern Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group. They are the original inhabitants of the interior of Alaska and neighboring Yukon and Northwest Territories of Canada to the east. In Alaska, where they are the oldest, there are eleven groups identified by the languages they speak; the word Tinneh was employed to designate the Alaskan Athabaskans, this word being taken from their own language Dinaa or Dena and signifying "men" or "people". The Alaskan Athabascan culture is an inland river fishing and hunter-gatherer culture; the Alaskan Athabascans have a matrilineal system in which children belong to the mother's clan, with the exception of the Yupikized Athabaskans. The Alaska Dene are divided into eleven tribal groups, some of which are found in the adjacent Yukon and Northwest-Territories. Koyukon Kaiyuhkhotana or Lower Yukon Koyukon Koyukukhotana or Koyukuk River Koyukon Yukonikhotana / Unakhotana or Upper Yukon Koyukon 2.
Gwich'in or Kutchin 3. Hän or Han 4. Holikachuk or Innoko 5. Deg Hit'an or Ingalik 6. Upper Kuskokwim or Kolchan / Goltsan Tanana Athabaskans 7. Tanana / Lower Tanana and / or Middle Tanana 8. Tanacross or Tanana Crossing 9. Upper Tanana 10. Dena'ina or Tanaina 11. Ahtna or Copper River Athabasken (Atna Hwt'aene - ″People along the'Atna' River, i.e. Copper River″, auch meist jedoch Koht'aene / Hwt'aene - „Bewohner einer Gegend“ oder „Volk entlang, vom...“, um durch eine Ortsangabe die Zugehörigkeit zu einer regionalen Band/Gruppe zu bestimmen.
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
The Tanana Athabaskans, Tanana Athabascans or Tanana Athapaskans are an Alaskan Athabaskan peoples of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group. They are the original inhabitants of the Tanana River drainage basin in east-central Alaska Interior, United States and a little part lived in Yukon, Canada. Tanana River Athabaskan peoples are called in Lower Tanana and Koyukon language Ten Hʉt'ænæ, in Gwich'in language Tanan Gwich'in. In Alaska, where they are the oldest, there are three or four groups identified by the languages they speak; these are the Tanana proper or Lower Tanana and/or Middle Tanana, Tanacross or Tanana Crossing, Upper Tanana. The Tanana Athabaskan culture have a matrilineal system. Tanana Athabaskans were semi-nomadic and as living in semi-permanent settlements in the Tanana Valley lowlands. Traditional Athabaskan land use includes fall hunting of moose, Dall sheep, small terrestrial animals, trapping; the Athabaskans did not have any formal tribal organization. Tanana Athabaskans were territorial and used hunting and gathering practices in their semi-nomadic way of life and dispersed habitation patterns.
Each small band of 20–40 people had a central winter camp with several seasonal hunting and fishing camps, they moved cyclically, depending on the season and availability of resources. Their neighbors are other Athabaskan-speaking peoples: in Alaska Koyukon, Gwich'in, Hän, Dena'ina, Ahtna; the language of the Upper Kuskokwim people more related to Lower Tanana language, but not neighbor. The homeland of the Tanana Athabaskan people can be divided into four distinct sections. 1) the Yukon Tanana upland draining to the Tanana River, 2) the Northway-Tanacross Lowlands, 3) the Eastern Alaskan range draining into the Tanana river, 4) the Northern foothills. The Goodpaster River to be a natural break in the Tanana Athabaskan language area, separating upriver speakers of the Tanacross and Upper Tanana languages from the Lower Tanana speakers living farther downriver; the Tanana Athabaskans have a system of matrilineal kinship. The Athabaskans loosely recognized membership in a larger bilateral group called regional band, but the more important social unit was the local band.
In the winter, the regional band might split up into smaller units, called local bands, each one made up of four nuclear families. The regional band might meet again at a predetermined place and time in mid-winter for a gathering ceremony called a potlatch, split up again for beaver and muskrat trapping. At the end of the 19th century there were twelve regional bands living in the Tanana Athabaskan homeland: 6 downriver bands and 6 upriver bands; the Lower Tanana regional bands: Minto or Minto Flats band – inhabiting the Minto Flats and Old Minto area. Neighbors: Gwich'in people, Koyukon people, Nenana-Toklat band, Wood River band, Chena band. Nenana-Toklat band – inhabiting the Nenana River, Nenana Valley and Toklat River area. Neighbors: Koyukon people, Dena'ina people, Minto band, Wood River band. Wood River band – inhabiting the Wood River area. Neighbors: Dena'ina people, Nenana-Toklat band and Chena bands, Salcha band. Chena band — inhabiting the Chena River and Chena Village area. Neighbors: Gwich'in people, Minto band, Salcha band.
The Middle Tanana regional bands: Salcha or Salchaket band – inhabiting the Salcha River area. Neighbors: Hän people, Ahtna people, Chena band, Wood River band, Delta-Goodpaster band. Delta-Goodpaster or Big Delta-Goodpaster band – inhabiting the Big Delta, Delta River and Goodpaster River area. Neighbors: Hän people, Ahtna people, Salcha band, Healy River-Joseph band; the Tanacross regional bands: Healy River-Joseph band – inhabiting the Joseph, Healy Lake, George Lake, Sand Lake area. Neighbors: Delta-Goodpaster band, Hän people, Ahtna people, Mansfeld-Kechumstuk band, Healy River-Joseph band. Mansfeld-Kechumstuk band — inhabiting nowadays Tanacross and Dot Lake Ketchumsuk, Mosquito Fork, Lake Mansfield, Mansfield Hill, Dot Lake, Robertson River, Tok River, Tok area. Subdivisions: Dihthâad Xtʼeen Iin, Yaadóg Xtʼeen Iin. Neighbors: Healy River-Joseph band, Hän people, Ahtna people (s
The Tanana River is a 584-mile tributary of the Yukon River in the U. S. state of Alaska. According to linguist and anthropologist William Bright, the name is from the Koyukon tene no, tenene "trail river"; the river's headwaters are located at the confluence of the Chisana and Nabesna rivers just north of Northway in eastern Alaska. The Tanana flows in a northwest direction from near the border with the Yukon Territory, laterally along the northern slope of the Alaska Range paralleled by the Alaska Highway. In central Alaska, it emerges into a lowland marsh region known as the Tanana Valley and passes south of the city of Fairbanks. In the marsh regions it is joined by several large tributaries, including the Nenana and the Kantishna, it passes the village of empties into the Yukon near the town of Tanana. Ice on the river accumulates each winter to an average maximum thickness of 43 inches at Nenana; the Nenana Ice Classic, begun in 1917, is an annual guessing game about the date of the ice break-up.
In October or November, after the freeze has begun, a tripod is planted in ice in the middle of the river. The tripod is connected to an on-shore clock that stops when the tripod begins to move during the spring thaw. Over the years, the break-up date has varied from April 20 to May 20. Betting on the exact time of the break-up takes the form of a lottery, called the Nenana Ice Classic. Human habitation of the Yukon basin, including the Tanana watershed, began more than 12,000 years ago. Several sites in the watershed have produced evidence of occupation by Paleo-Arctic people. Residents include people of the Tanana tribe, which has had a presence in the region for 1,200 years. In the summer of 1885, Lieutenant Henry Tureman Allen of the U. S. Army undertook the first recorded exploration of the Tanana River. In 1883, Lieutenant Frederick Schwatka and his party had entered the Yukon watershed by way of Canada and floated to the mouth of the Yukon. Allen's goal was to find an all-Alaska route to the Yukon River.
He and his men ascended the Copper River, crossed into Tanana River drainage, descended the Tanana to the Yukon and down it to the mouth. During the five-month trip, the Allen party mapped the courses of the Copper and Koyukuk rivers. In the early 21st century, the basin is wilderness unchanged by human activity. Fairbanks, a metropolitan area with about 100,000 residents in 2019, is a center of placer gold mining, which has continued in the basin since the mid-19th century. Limited farming occurs in the valley near Fairbanks. Since the early 1900s, Alaskans have been gambling on; each year, thousands pay $2.50 to guess the exact date and minute the Tanana River ice will go out in Nenana. The Nenana Ice Classic has awarded some large prizes. In 2010, after the ice went out on April 29, three lottery winners split a jackpot of $279,030. In 2012, the record prize was $350,000. Chisana River Nabesna River Kalutna River Tok River Robertson River Johnson River Little Gerstle River Healy River Volkmar River Gerstle River Clearwater Creek Goodpaster River Delta River Delta Creek Little Delta River Salcha River Little Salcha River Chena River North Fork South Fork Wood River Tatlanika River Nenana River Teklanika River Seventeen Mile Slough Tolovana River Kantishna River Zitziana River Cosna River Chitanana River List of rivers of Alaska List of longest rivers of the United States Notes References Benke, Arthur C. ed. and Cushing, Colbert E. ed..
Rivers of North America. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088253-1