Frederick Denison Maurice
John Frederick Denison Maurice known as F. D. Maurice, was an English Anglican theologian, a prolific author, one of the founders of Christian socialism. Since World War II, interest in Maurice has expanded. John Frederick Denison Maurice was born in Normanton, Suffolk, on 29 August 1805, the only son of Michael Maurice and his wife, Priscilla. Michael Maurice was the evening preacher in a Unitarian chapel. Deaths in the family brought about changes in the family's "religious convictions" and "vehement disagreement" between family members. Maurice wrote about these disagreements and their effect on him: My father was a Unitarian minister, he wished me to be one also. He had a strong feeling against the English Church, against Cambridge as well as Oxford. My elder sisters, my mother, abandoned Unitarianism, but they continued to be Dissenters. I was much confused between the opposite opinions in our household. What would surprise many, I felt a drawing towards the anti-Unitarian side, not from any religious bias, but because Unitarianism seemed to my boyish logic incoherent and feeble.
Michael was "of no little learning" and gave his son his early education. The son responsive to teaching and always dutiful, he had little inclination for games. Serious and precocious, he at this time harboured ambitions for a life of public service."For his higher education in civil law, Maurice entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1823 that required no religious test for admissions though only members of the established church were eligible to obtain a degree. With John Sterling Maurice founded the Apostles' Club, he moved to Trinity Hall in 1825. In 1826, Maurice went to London to read for the bar and returned to Cambridge where he obtained a first-class degree in civil law in 1827. During the 1827 -- 1830 break in his higher education, Maurice lived in Southampton. While in London, he contributed to the Westminster Review and made the acquaintance of John Stuart Mill. With Sterling he edited the Athenaeum; the magazine did not pay and his father had lost money which entailed moving the family to a smaller house in Southampton and Maurice joined them.
During his time in Southampton, Maurice rejected his earlier Unitarianism and decided to be ordained in the Church of England. Maurice entered Oxford, in 1830 to prepare for ordination, he was older than most of students, he was poor and he "kept to himself, toiling at his books". However, "his honesty and intellectual powers" impressed others. In March 1831, Maurice was baptised in the Church of England. After taking a second-class degree in November 1831, he worked as a "private tutor" in Oxford until his ordination as a deacon in January 1834 and appointment to a curacy in Bubbenhall near Leamington. Being twenty-eight years old when he was ordained deacon, Maurice was older and with a wider experience than most ordinands, he had attended both universities and been active in "the literary and social interests of London". All this, coupled with his diligence in study and reading, gave Maurice a knowledge "scarcely paralleled by any of his contemporaries", he was ordained as priest in 1835. Except for his 1834–1836 first clerical assignment, Maurice's career can be divided between his conflicted years in London and his peaceful years in Cambridge For his first clerical assignment, Maurice served an assistant curacy in Bubbenhall in Warwickshire from 1834 until 1836.
During his time in Bubbenhall, Maurice began writing on the topic of "moral and metaphysical philosophy". Writing on this topic by "revision and expansion" continued the rest of his life until the publication of Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy, 2 vols in 1871–1872, the year of his death. Maurice's novel Eustace Conway, begun c. 1830, was praised by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. In 1836, he was appointed chaplain of Guy's Hospital where he took up residence and "lectured the students on moral philosophy", he continued this post until 1860. Maurice's public life began during his years at Guy's. In June 1837, Maurice met Anna Barton, they became engaged and were married on 7 October 1837."In 1838, the first edition of The Kingdom of Christ was published. It was "one of his most significant works." A second enlarged edition was published in 1842 and a third edition in 1883. For Maurice the signs of this kingdom are "the sacraments of baptism and the eucharist, to which must be added the creeds, the liturgy, the episcopate, the scriptures—in fact, all the marks of catholicity as exemplified in the Church of England."
The book was met with criticism when published, a criticism "that lasted throughout Maurice's career." Maurice served as editor of the Educational Magazine during its entire 1839–1841 existence. He argued that "the school system should not be transferred from the church to the state." Maurice was elected professor of English literature and history at King's College, London, in 1840. When the college added a theological department in 1846, he became a professor there also; that same year Maurice was elected chaplain of Lincoln's Inn and resigned the chaplaincy at Guy's Hospital. In 1845, Maurice was made both the Boyle lecturer by the Archbishop of York's nomination and the Warburton lecturer by the Archbishop of Canterbury's nomination, he held these chairs until 1853. Maurice's wife, died on 25 March 1845, leaving two sons, one of whom was John Frederick Maurice who wrote his father's biography. Queen’s College During his London years, Maurice engaged in two lasting educational initiatives: founding Queen's College, London in 1848 and the Workin
Hugh Culling Eardley Childers was a British Liberal statesman of the nineteenth century. He is best known for his reform efforts at the Admiralty and the War Office. In his career, as Chancellor of the Exchequer, his attempt to correct a budget shortfall led to the fall of the Liberal government led by William Ewart Gladstone. Childers was born in London, the son of Reverend Eardley Childers and his wife Maria Charlotte, sister of Sir Culling Eardley, 3rd Baronet and granddaughter of Sampson Eardley, 1st Baron Eardley, he was educated at Cheam School under Pestalozzi and both Wadham College and Trinity College, graduating B. A. from the latter in 1850. Influential on his intellectual development were Adam Smith's theories of free trade, capital returns. Childers decided to seek a career in Australia and on 26 October 1850 arrived in Melbourne, Victoria along with his wife Emily Walker. Childers joined the government of Victoria and served as Inspector of Denominational schools and immigration agent.
In 1852 he became a director of Mount Alexander and Murray River Railway Co.. Childers became auditor-general on 26 October 1852 and was nominated to the Victorian Legislative Council. In 1852 he placed a bill before the state legislature proposing the establishment of a second university for Victoria, following the foundation of the University of Sydney in 1850. With the receipt of the Royal Assent in 1853, the University of Melbourne was founded, with Childers as its first vice-chancellor. Childers was Collector of Customs from 5 December 1853 to 28 November 1855 and Commissioner of Trade & Customs 28 November 1855 to 25 February 1857. Childers was elected to the inaugural Victorian Legislative Assembly for Portland in November 1856, a seat he held until resigning in February 1857. Childers retained the vice-chancellorship until his return to Britain in March 1857 and received an M. A. from Cambridge in the same year. In 1860 he entered the House of Commons as a Liberal member for Pontefract, within a few years joined the government of Lord Palmerston, becoming a Civil Lord of the Admiralty in 1864 and Financial Secretary to the Treasury in 1865.
With the election of Gladstone's government in December 1868 he rose to greater prominence, serving as First Lord of the Admiralty. Childers "had a reputation for being hardworking, but inept and notoriously overbearing in his dealing with colleagues." He "initiated a determined programme of cost and manpower reductions backed by the Prime Minister, Gladstone described him as'a man to scan with a rigid eye the civil expenses of the Naval Service'. He got the naval estimates just below the psychologically important figure of £10,000,000. Childers strengthened his own position as First Lord by reducing the role of the Board of Admiralty to a purely formal one, making meetings rare and short and confining the Sea Lords rigidly to the administrative functions... Childers had the support of the influential Controller of the Navy, Vice-Admiral Sir Spencer Robinson." "His re-organisation of the Admiralty was unpopular and poorly done."Childers was responsible for the construction of HMS Captain in defiance of the advice of his professional advisers, the Controller and the Chief Constructor Edward James Reed.
Captain was commissioned in April 1870, sank on the night of 6/7 September 1870. She was, as predicted by Reed, insufficiently stable. "Shortly before the battleship sank, Childers had moved his son, Midshipman Leonard Childers from Reed's designed HMS Monarch onto the new ship-of-the-line. Childers "faced strong criticism following the Court Martial on the loss of HMS Captain, attempted to clear his name with a 359 page memorandum, a move described as "dubious public ethics". Vice Admiral Sir Robert Spencer Robinson wrote'His endeavors were directed to throw the blame which might be supposed to attach to himself on those who had throughout expressed their disapproval of such methods of construction'." Childers unfairly blamed Robinson for the loss of the Captain, as a result of this Robinson was replaced as Third Lord and Controller of the navy in February 1871. "Following the loss of his son and the recriminations that followed, Childers resigned through ill health as First Lord in March 1871."
Following his resignation he spent some months on the Continent, recovered sufficiently to take office in 1872 as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. The consequent ministerial by-election on 15 August 1872 was the first Parliamentary election to be held after the Ballot Act 1872 required the use of a secret ballot; when the Liberals regained power in 1880, Childers was appointed Secretary for War, a position he accepted reluctantly. He therefore had to bear responsibility for cuts in arms expenditure, a policy that provoked controversy when Britain began fighting. Childers was very unpopular with Horse Guards for the reinforcement and expansion of the Cardwell reforms. On 1 May 1881 he passed General Order 41, which outlined a series of improvements known as the Childers reforms. Childers became Chancellor of the Exchequer in a post he had coveted; as such, he attempted to implement a conversion of Consols in 1884. Although the scheme proved a failure, it paved the way for the subsequent conversion in 1888.
He attempted to resolve a budget shortfall in June 1885 by increasing alcohol income tax. His budget was rejected by Parliament, the government - unpopular due to events in Egypt - was forced out of office. Childers's colleague the Earl of Rosebery commen
John Bright was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, one of the greatest orators of his generation and a promoter of free trade policies. A Quaker, Bright is most famous for battling the Corn Laws. In partnership with Richard Cobden, he founded the Anti-Corn Law League, aimed at abolishing the Corn Laws, which raised food prices and protected landowners' interests by levying taxes on imported wheat; the Corn Laws were repealed in 1846. Bright worked with Cobden in another free trade initiative, the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty of 1860, promoting closer interdependence between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Second French Empire; this campaign was conducted in collaboration with French economist Michel Chevalier, succeeded despite Parliament's endemic mistrust of the French. Bright sat in the House of Commons from 1843 to 1889, promoting free trade, electoral reform and religious freedom, he was a lone voice in opposing the Crimean War. He was a spokesman for the middle class, opposed to the privileges of the landed aristocracy.
In terms of Ireland, he sought to end the political privileges of Anglicans, disestablished the Church of Ireland, began land reform that would turn land over to the Catholic peasants. He coined the phrase "the mother of parliaments." Bright was born at Greenbank, Rochdale, in Lancashire, England—one of the early centres of the Industrial Revolution. His father, Jacob Bright, was a much-respected Quaker, who had started a cotton mill at Rochdale in 1809. Jacob's father, was a Wiltshire yeoman, early in the 18th century, moved to Coventry, where his descendants remained. Jacob Bright was educated at the Ackworth School of the Society of Friends, apprenticed to a fustian manufacturer at New Mills, Derbyshire. John Bright was his son by his second wife, Martha Wood, daughter of a Quaker shopkeeper of Bolton-le-Moors. Educated at Ackworth School, she was a woman of great strength of character and refined taste. There were eleven children of this marriage, his younger brother was an MP and mayor. His sisters included Margaret Bright Lucas.
John was a delicate child, was sent as a day pupil to a boarding school near his home, kept by William Littlewood. A year at the Ackworth School, two years at Bootham School, a year and a half at Newton, near Clitheroe, completed his education, he learned, he himself said, but little Latin and Greek, but acquired a great love of English literature, which his mother fostered, a love of outdoor pursuits. In his sixteenth year, he entered his father's mill, in due time became a partner in the business. In Rochdale, Jacob Bright was a leader of the opposition to a local church-rate. Rochdale was prominent in the movement for parliamentary reform, by which the town claimed to have a member allotted to it under the Reform Bill. John Bright took part in both campaigns, he was an ardent Nonconformist, proud to number among his ancestors John Gratton, a friend of George Fox, one of the persecuted and imprisoned preachers of the Religious Society of Friends. His political interest was first kindled by the Preston election in 1830, in which Edward Stanley, after a long struggle, was defeated by Henry "Orator" Hunt.
But it was as a member of the Rochdale Juvenile Temperance Band that Bright first learned public speaking. These young men went out into the villages, borrowed a chair of a cottager, spoke from it at open-air meetings. John Bright's first extempore speech was at a temperance meeting. Bright got his notes muddled, broke down; the chairman gave out a temperance song, during the singing told Bright to put his notes aside and say what came into his mind. Bright obeyed, began with much hesitancy, but found his tongue and made an excellent address, although sometimes he spoke with a confused syntax. Tales of these early years circulated through Britain and the United States late into his career, to the extent that students at institutions such as the young Cornell University regarded him as an exemplar for activities such as the Irving Literary Society. On some early occasions, however, he committed his speech to memory. In 1832 he called on the Rev. John Aldis, an eminent Baptist minister, to accompany him to a local Bible meeting.
Mr Aldis described him as a slender, modest young gentleman, who surprised him by his intelligence and thoughtfulness, but who seemed nervous as they walked to the meeting together. At the meeting he made a stimulating speech, on the way home asked for advice. Mr Aldis counselled him not to learn his speeches, but to write out and commit to memory certain passages and the peroration; this "first lesson in public speaking", as Bright called it, was given in his twenty-first year, but he had not contemplated a public career. He was a prosperous man of business happy in his home, always ready to take part in the social and political life of his native town. A founder of the Rochdale Literary and Philosophical Society, he took a leading part in its debates, on returning from a holiday journey in the east, gave the society a lecture on his travels, he first met Richard Cobden in 1836 or 1837. Cobden was an alderman of the newly formed Manchester Corporation, Bright went to ask him to speak at an education meeting in Rochdale.
Cobden consented, at the meeting was much struck by Bright's short speech, urged him to speak against the Corn Laws. His first speech on the Corn Laws was made at Rochdale in 1838, in the same year he joined the Manchester provisional committee which in 1839 founded the Anti-Corn Law
Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville
Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, styled Lord Leveson until 1846, was a British Liberal statesman from the Leveson-Gower family. In a political career spanning over 50 years, he was thrice Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, led the Liberal Party in the House of Lords for 30 years and was joint Leader of the Liberal Party between 1875 and 1880, he is best known for his pacific stewardship of Britain's external relations, 1870–74 and 1880–85, in co-operation with his best friend, Prime Minister Gladstone. His foreign policy was based on patience, no alliances. Leveson-Gower was born in London, the eldest son of Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville, by Lady Harriet Cavendish, daughter of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, his father was a younger son of Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford, by his Second wife. He was educated at Oxford. Leveson-Gower went to Paris for a short time under his father, in 1836 was returned to parliament in the Whig interest for Morpeth.
For a short time he was Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in Lord Melbourne's ministry. From 1841 until his father's death in 1846, when he succeeded to the title, he sat for Lichfield. In the House of Lords he distinguished himself as a Free Trader, Lord John Russell made him Master of the Buckhounds, he became Vice-President of the Board of Trade in 1848, took a prominent part in promoting the Great Exhibition of 1851. In the latter year, having been admitted to the cabinet, he for about two months at the first of the year succeeded Palmerston as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs until Russell's defeat in 1852. Under Lord Palmerston he was again president of the council, his interest in education led to his election as chancellor of the University of London, a post he held for thirty-five years. From 1855 Lord Granville led the Liberals in the Upper House, both in office, after Palmerston's resignation in 1858, in opposition, he went in 1856 as head of the British mission to the tsar's coronation in Moscow.
In June 1859 the Queen, embarrassed by the rival ambitions of Palmerston and Russell, sent for him to form a ministry, but he was unable to do so, Palmerston again became prime minister, with Russell as foreign secretary and Granville once again as president of the council. He received an honorary degree from Cambridge University in 1864, he retained his office when, on Palmerston's death in 1865, Lord Russell became prime minister and took over the leadership in the House of Lords. Granville, now an established Liberal leader, was made Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports; as Lord Warden, he was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 1st Cinque Ports Artillery Volunteers on 23 April 1866. Lord Granville owned coal and ironstone mines at Stoke-on-Trent and was the principal shareholder of the Shelton Iron & Steel Co In 1873 the company operated 8 blast furnaces and 97 puddling furnaces, he held shares in the Lilleshall Company. During the American Civil War, Granville was non-interventionist along with the majority of Palmerston's cabinet.
His memorandum against intervention in September 1862 drew Prime Minister Palmerston's attention. The document proved to be a strong reason why Palmerston refused to intervene, why Britain's relations with the North remained stable throughout the rest of the conflict despite tensions. From 1866 to 1868 he was in opposition, but in December 1868 he became Colonial Secretary in Gladstone's first ministry, his tact was invaluable to the government in carrying the Irish Church and Land Bills through the House of Lords. On 27 June 1870, on Lord Clarendon's death, he became foreign secretary. With war clouds gathering in Europe, Granville worked to authorise preliminary talks to settle American disputes and in appointing the British High Commission to sail to the United States and negotiate the most comprehensive treaty of the nineteenth century in Anglo-American relations with an American commission in Washington. Lord Granville's name is associated with his career as foreign secretary, his Gladstonian foreign policy based on patience, no alliances kept Britain free from European wars.
It brought better relations with the United States, it was innovative in supporting Gladstone's wish to settlement British-American fisheries and Civil War disputes over the Confederate cruisers built in Britain, like the Alabama, through international arbitration in 1872. For example, the long-standing San Juan Island Water Boundary Dispute in Puget Sound, left ambiguous in the Oregon Treaty of 1846 to salve relations and get a treaty sorting out the primary differences, was arbitrated by the German Emperor in 1872. In putting British-American relations up to the world as a model for how to resolve disputes peacefully, Granville helped create a breakthrough in international relations; the Franco-Prussian War
See Portrait for more about the general topic of portraits. Portrait painting is a genre in painting; the term'portrait painting' can describe the actual painted portrait. Portraitists may create their work by commission, for public and private persons, or they may be inspired by admiration or affection for the subject. Portraits are important state and family records, as well as remembrances. Portrait paintings have memorialized the rich and powerful. Over time, however, it became more common for middle-class patrons to commission portraits of their families and colleagues. Today, portrait paintings are still commissioned by governments, groups and individuals. In addition to painting, portraits can be made in other media such as prints, photography and digital media. A well-executed portrait is expected to show the inner essence of the subject or a flattering representation, not just a literal likeness; as Aristotle stated, "The aim of Art is to present not the outward appearance of things, but their inner significance.
Artists may strive for photographic realism or an impressionistic similarity in depicting their subject, but this differs from a caricature which attempts to reveal character through exaggeration of physical features. The artist attempts a representative portrayal, as Edward Burne-Jones stated, "The only expression allowable in great portraiture is the expression of character and moral quality, not anything temporary, fleeting, or accidental."In most cases, this results in a serious, closed lip stare, with anything beyond a slight smile being rather rare historically. Or as Charles Dickens put it, "there are only two styles of portrait painting: the serious and the smirk." Given these limitations, a full range of subtle emotions is possible from quiet menace to gentle contentment. However, with the mouth neutral, much of the facial expression needs to be created through the eyes and eyebrows; as author and artist Gordon C. Aymar states, "the eyes are the place one looks for the most complete and pertinent information" about the subject.
And the eyebrows can register, "almost single-handedly, pity, pain, concentration, wistfulness and expectation, in infinite variations and combinations."Portrait painting can depict the subject "full-length", "half-length", "head and shoulders", or just the head. The subject's head may turn from "full face" to profile. Artists have created composites with views from multiple directions, as with Anthony van Dyck's triple portrait of Charles I in Three Positions. There are a few portraits where the front of the subject is not visible at all. Andrew Wyeth's Christina's World is a famous example, where the pose of the disabled girl – with her back turned to the viewer – integrates with the setting in which she is placed to convey the artist's interpretation. Among the other possible variables, the subject can be nude. Portrait paintings can be of individuals, couples and children, families, or collegial groups, they can be created in various media including oils, watercolor and ink, charcoal and mixed media.
Artists may employ a wide-ranging palette of colors, as with Pierre-Auguste Renoir's Mme. Charpentier and her children, 1878 or restrict themselves to white or black, as with Gilbert Stuart's Portrait of George Washington. Sometimes, the overall size of the portrait is an important consideration. Chuck Close's enormous portraits created for museum display differ from most portraits designed to fit in the home or to travel with the client. An artist takes into account where the final portrait will hang and the colors and style of the surrounding décor. Creating a portrait can take considerable time requiring several sittings. Cézanne, on one extreme, insisted on over 100 sittings from his subject. Goya on the other hand, preferred one long day's sitting; the average is about four. Portraitists sometimes present their sitters with a portfolio of drawings or photos from which a sitter would select a preferred pose, as did Sir Joshua Reynolds. Some, such as Hans Holbein the Younger make a drawing of the face complete the rest of the painting without the sitter.
In the 18th century, it would take about one year to deliver a completed portrait to a client. Managing the sitter's expectations and mood is a serious concern for the portrait artist; as to the faithfulness of the portrait to the sitter's appearance, portraitists are consistent in their approach. Clients who sought out Sir Joshua Reynolds knew that they would receive a flattering result, while sitters of Thomas Eakins knew to expect a realistic, unsparing portrait; some subjects voice strong preferences, others let the artist decide entirely. Oliver Cromwell famously demanded that his portrait show "all these roughnesses, pimples and everything as you see me, otherwise I will never pay a farthing for it."After putting the sitter at ease and encouraging a natural pose, the artist studies his subject, looking for the one facial expression, out of many possibilities, that satisfies his concept of t
Royal Academy of Arts
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. It has a unique position as an independent funded institution led by eminent artists and architects, its purpose is to promote the creation and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions and debate. The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition; the motive in founding the Academy was twofold: to raise the professional status of the artist by establishing a sound system of training and expert judgement in the arts, to arrange the exhibition of contemporary works of art attaining an appropriate standard of excellence. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation and interest among the public based on recognised canons of good taste. Fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain was based on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works.
From 1746 the Foundling Hospital, through the efforts of William Hogarth, provided an early venue for contemporary artists in Britain. The success of this venture led to the formation of the Society of Artists of Great Britain and the Free Society of Artists. Both these groups were exhibiting societies; the combined vision of education and exhibition to establish a national school of art set the Royal Academy apart from the other exhibiting societies. It provided the foundation upon which the Royal Academy came to dominate the art scene of the 18th and 19th centuries, supplanting the earlier art societies; the origin of the Royal Academy of Arts lies in an attempt in 1755 by members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, principally the sculptor Henry Cheere, to found an autonomous academy of arts. Prior to this a number of artists were members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, including Cheere and William Hogarth, or were involved in small-scale private art academies, such as the St Martin's Lane Academy.
Although Cheere's attempt failed, the eventual charter, called an'Instrument', used to establish the Royal Academy of Arts over a decade was identical to that drawn up by Cheere in 1755. It was Sir William Chambers, a prominent architect and head of the British government's architects' department, the Office of Works, who used his connections with George III to gain royal patronage and financial support for the Academy in 1768; the painter Joshua Reynolds was made its first president, Francis Milner Newton was elected the first secretary, a post he held for two decades until his resignation in 1788. The instrument of foundation, signed by George III on 10 December 1768, named 34 founder members and allowed for a total membership of 40; the founder members were Reynolds, John Baker, George Barret, Francesco Bartolozzi, Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Augustino Carlini, Charles Catton, Mason Chamberlin, William Chambers, Francis Cotes, George Dance, Nathaniel Dance, Thomas Gainsborough, John Gwynn, Francis Hayman, Nathaniel Hone the Elder, Angelica Kauffman, Jeremiah Meyer, George Michael Moser, Mary Moser, Francis Milner Newton, Edward Penny, John Inigo Richards, Paul Sandby, Thomas Sandby, Dominic Serres, Peter Toms, William Tyler, Samuel Wale, Benjamin West, Richard Wilson, Joseph Wilton, Richard Yeo, Francesco Zuccarelli.
William Hoare and Johann Zoffany were added to this list by the King and are known as nominated members. Among the founder members were two women, a father and daughter, two sets of brothers; the Royal Academy was housed in cramped quarters in Pall Mall, although in 1771 it was given temporary accommodation for its library and schools in Old Somerset House a royal palace. In 1780 it was installed in purpose-built apartments in the first completed wing of New Somerset House, designed by Chambers, located in the Strand and designed by Chambers, the Academy's first treasurer; the Academy moved in 1837 to Trafalgar Square, where it occupied the east wing of the completed National Gallery. These premises soon proved too small to house both institutions. In 1868, 100 years after the Academy's foundation, it moved to Burlington House, where it remains. Burlington House is owned by the British Government, used rent-free by the Royal Academy; the first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, opened on 25 April 1769 and ran until 27 May 1769.
136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 the Academy expanded its exhibition programme to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters, following the cessation of a similar annual exhibition at the British Institution; the range and frequency of these loan exhibitions have grown enormously since that time, making the Royal Academy a leading art exhibition institution of international importance. Britain's first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, as another way to fulfil its mission. Led by Reynolds, the first president, a program included lectures by Dr. William Hunter, John Flaxman, James Barry, Sir John Soane, J. M. W. Turner; the last three were all graduates of the RA School, which for a long time was the only established art school in the Royal Academy. In 2018, the Academy's 250th anniversary, the results of a major refurbishment were unveiled.
The project began on 1 January 2008 with the appointment of David Chipperfield Architects. Heritage Lottery
Working Men's College
The Working Men's College, is among the earliest adult education institutions established in the United Kingdom, Europe's oldest extant centre for adult education. Founded by Christian Socialists, at its inception it was at the forefront of liberal education philosophy. Founded in 1854 the College was established by Christian Socialists to provide a liberal education for Victorian skilled artisans to counter what its founders saw as the failings in practice of the social theory of Associationism; the founding of the College was partially a response to concerns about the revolutionary potential of the Chartist Movement. Its early protagonists were closely associated with the Co-operative Movement and labour organisations; the College's founders – a view reached in 1904 – were Frederick Denison Maurice, Thomas Hughes, John Malcolm Forbes Ludlow, Frederick James Furnivall, Lowes Cato Dickinson, John Westlake, Richard Buckley Litchfield and John Llewelyn Davies. Notable early promoters and supporters of the College and its foundation were Edward Vansittart Neale, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, John Ruskin, Charles Blachford Mansfield, John Stuart Mill, James Clerk Maxwell, Charles Kingsley, while ones included G.
M. Trevelyan, E. M. Forster, C. E. M. Joad and Seamus Heaney. In the 1870s the new college failed to take up an offer to merge with the Working Women's College, founded by Elizabeth Malleson. Malleson decided to make her college co-educational and this caused a dispute amongst her organisation; as a result, Frederick Denison Maurice with Frances Martin helped to set up the College for Working Women in Fitzroy Street in 1874. This was to be called The Frances Martin College; this sister college, through financial and organisational difficulties ran its courses for women at The Working Men's College, this in name only as it, its associated charity, had become unviable. The College's charitable funds were absorbed into those of The Working Men's College, The Frances Martin College ceased to exist in 1967. Around this time, in 1965, The Working Men's College admitted female students for the first time; the decision to admit women was an expression of what was seen by the College as its unique and progressive historic feature: educational and financial management through a democratically elected Council of teachers and students.
Teachers, students were both considered as, called, Members of College as a mark of equality and respect. This educational and management tradition, seen as being in the spirit of a liberal education that promotes values and responsible civic behaviour, being a direct link to the founders' concern over the failure of Associationism, lasted until the mid-1990s. Sir Wilfred Griffin Eady, principal of the College from 1949 to 1955, defined Liberal Education, the raison d'etre of the College, as "something you can enjoy for its own sake, something, a personal possession and an inward enrichment, something which teaches a sense of values". During the 1970s the College introduced and increased a number of certificated courses, by the beginning of the 1980s there were successful moves to change the voluntary tradition by remunerating teachers; this led to a drain on the financial reserves of the College. Where it supported itself from interest on donations as investments, by the late 1980s it felt obliged to seek government financial aid.
In 1996–97, the governance of the college was changed. Before the change, two bodies regulated college under Articles of Association and a Scheme of Management: a College Council of 12 teachers and 12 students elected by members of college, a College Corporation of 16 members self-appointed. Council directed education and finance policy through its committees, elected college officers: the Principal, Vice Principal, Dean of Studies and Librarian. Corporation managed college charitable trust funds and provided for asset maintenance and part-finance for courses. Both bodies and their officers were voluntary. Before 1996, an administrative staff of Warden, Deputy Warden, Financial Controller, College Secretary ran the College day-to-day, managing a small number of part-time reception and maintenance staff. After legal advice, representations to the Charity Commission, Corporation introduced a new Scheme of Management that dissolved Council, created a self-appointed governing Board of 21 members to decide policy and oversee what became an enlarged paid management.
Forceful argument on the change was made on both sides. Seeing Liberal Education’s civic values and democratic control as being relevant was a view opposed by one that saw a more management-based method being needed for financial and educational viability; the College opened at 31 Red Lion Square moving to Great Ormond Street in 1857, both in Central London. In 1905 it located to its new Crowndale Road building in the borough of St Pancras, now part of The London Borough of Camden; this new home had been designed by W. D. Caroe. Since 1964 the building has been Grade II listed; the Working Men's College foundation stone inscription reads: This first stone of the new home of The Working Men’s College was laid by H. R. H; the Prince of Wales on the 16th of July 1904 The Jubilee Year of the College. In memory of Frederick Denison Maurice and of those who worked with him and followed in his footsteps. Albert V. Dicey KC Principal / Reginald J. Mure M. A. Chairman of Building Committee / William D. Caroe M.
A. Architect; the Prince of Wales m