Sinaia is a town and a mountain resort in Prahova County, Romania. It is situated in the historical region of Muntenia; the town was named after Sinaia Monastery of 1695. The monastery in turn is named after the Biblical Mount Sinai. King Carol I of Romania built his summer home, Peleș Castle, near the town in the late nineteenth century. Sinaia is about 65 kilometres northwest of Ploiești and 48 kilometres south of Brașov, in a mountainous area on the Prahova River valley, just east of the Bucegi Mountains; the altitude varies from 767 to 860 metres above sea level. The city is a popular destination for hiking and winter sports downhill skiing. Among the tourist landmarks, the most important are Peleș Castle, Pelișor Castle, Sinaia Monastery, Sinaia Casino, Sinaia train station, the Franz Joseph and Saint Anne Cliffs. Sinaia was the summer residence of the Romanian composer George Enescu, who stayed at the Luminiș villa; the climate is a characteristic of low-altitude mountain passes. Annual average temperature: 8 °C Average temperature in June: 15 °C Average temperature in January: −4 °C.
Summers are bracing and rainy in the beginning of the season. Winters are mild, with heavy snow. Average annual rainfall is 900 millimetres; the minimum rainfall was recorded in February 40 mm. A uniform layer of snow is deposited in November and it melts from March to April, sometimes at the beginning of May; the thickness of the snow layer varies between 3 meters in higher elevations. In recent years, Sinaia has felt the effects of global climate change – change that has meant shorter summers, with temperatures over 30 °C, a slight reduction in the length of spring and autumn, longer winters, colder winters with entire weeks dominated by frost −25 to −19 °C and numerous blizzards. Proponents claim that Sinaia has a refreshing and stimulating climate, beneficial to the human body. There are some mineral springs in Câinelui Valley that have sulphur-ferric mineral water and contain other soluble minerals. In the town of Sinaia and its surroundings restrictions are in place regarding cutting down or picking flora.
The felling of trees is not allowed. It is forbidden to pick any alpine plants. Severe punishments are enforced for anyone who gathers: the Mountain Peony and the Yellow Gentiana. Tourist camping is only authorized in designated places, following necessary and compulsory protection standards; the mountainous area in which Sinaia is located is the Bucegi Natural Park region. The Park covers a total area of 326.63 square kilometres, of which 58.05 km2 are under strict protection and shelter natural monuments. The Bucegi Natural Preserve area includes all the most precipitous areas of the mountains Vârful cu Dor and Piatra Arsă; the mountainous area is continuously patrolled by mountain rescue patrols as well as by members of the Mountain Police. At the entrance to the Cumpătu district, one can find the “Sinaia alder-tree grove” botanical reservation placed under the protection of the Romanian Academy and the Bucharest Biology Institute. In the same district, there is another ecological research station under the patronage of UNESCO – Jacques-Yves Cousteau, belonging to the University of Bucharest, which includes a museum of Bucegi Mountains fauna.
Peleș Castle Pelișor Castle Sinaia Monastery Sinaia Casino International Conference Center Carmen Sylva Cultural Center George Enescu Memorial House Dimitrie Ghica park and the Bucegi Reserve Museum Heroes Cemetery Franz Joseph and Saint Anne Cliffs Old electrical power plant Sinaia railway station Many other old villas Bucegi Mountains with a cable car connecting the resort with Cota 1400 and Cota 2000 Baiu Mountains 16 ski slopes Sinaia Forever, or the Autumn Festival, is one of the main festivals that takes place in Sinaia. The goal of the festival is to recreate the atmosphere of the 1940s while bringing in modern performers; the festival once took place during the last weekend of September, but was just changed to the first weekend of the month. During the festival, the downtown area of Sinaia is closed off to motorized vehicles, it becomes full of people, food stands, children’s rides. The three-day festival consists of the opening parade, concerts from well known musical artists of Romania, amusement rides.
Sinaia is twinned with: Aosta, Italy Cetinje, Montenegro Hod HaSharon, Israel Cascais, Portugal Thame, United Kingdom George Enescu Romanian Royal family
Lugoj is a city in Timiș County, western Romania. The Timiș River divides the city into two halves, the so-called Romanian Lugoj that spreads on the right bank and the German Lugoj on the left bank, it is the seat of the Eparchy of Lugoj in the Romanian Church United with Greek-Catholic. The city administers Măguri and Tapia. In German: Lugosch. In Hungarian, Măguri is called Szendelak, Tapia is known as Tápia. Lugoj was once a fortified city that developed along the Timiș River. During the Middle Ages and eighteenth century, it was of greater relative importance than at present. A diploma dated Wednesday 22 August 1376, signed by King Sigismund of Luxemburg, shows that Lugoj city was donated to landowners Ladislaus and Stephen Loszonczy. At the end of the 14th century, after the Battle of Nicopolis, the Turks crossed the Danube, invading Banat and reached the gates of Lugoj. During major campaigns against the Turks, Hunyadi, as a comite of Timis, took steps to organize the city's defense system.
He strengthened the city with trenches and palisades. The Banate of Lugoj-Caransebeș resisted Ottoman pressures until 1658, when Ákos Barcsay, Prince of Transylvania, asked Lugoj and Caransebeș to accept the decision taken by the Diet of Sighișoara to agree to Turkish occupation. After the defeat of the Turks during the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Habsburgs went on the offensive and occupied the cities of Lugoj and Lipova. On September 25, 1695 the battle between the armies of the Habsburg Empire and the Ottoman Empire that took place near Lugoj ended with the defeat of the Austrians. After signing the Treaty of Karlovitz, Banat remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 20 years; the Treaty of Passarowitz was signed and the Turks were expelled. The Habsburg Monarchy wanted to repopulate the Banat, which had emptied following the years of occupation and earlier bubonic plague; the government recruited Germans from Bavaria and Alsace-Lorraine farmers to revive agriculture in the rich floodplain.
They traveled down the Danube River on boats to this area. They took the rafts apart to use to build their first houses. In this area, the first German colonists settled on the left bank of the river Timis, creating what was called "German Lugoj"; the government had offered them the privileges of keeping their German religion. In the 18th century, many public buildings were built in the city, including the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church "Assumption". In 1778, following the incorporation of Banat into Hungary, Lugoj became the county seat of Caras. In 1795 the government unified the German Lugoj. Eftimie Murgu settled in Lugoj in 1841. In June 1848 he chaired the second National Assembly of Romanians of Banat, where they expressed in postulates the National Order of Romanians during the Revolutionary Movement from Banat, whose center was Lugoj. In the summer of 1842 a great fire took place, in which about 400 houses and important buildings were destroyed. In August 1849 Lugoj was the last seat of the Hungarian revolutionary government.
It served as the last refuge of Lajos Kossuth and several other leaders of the Revolution prior to their escape to the Ottoman Empire. Under the imperial resolution of 12 December 1850, Lugoj became the seat of the Greek-Catholic Diocese of Banat. Lugoj was the seat of Krassó-Szörény County from 1881 to 1918. Following the break-up of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, the Banat, after a brief period of Serbian occupation, came under Romanian administration. Severin County was organized and named, its seat was located in Lugoj until the temporary abolition of counties in 1950; the Iron Bridge, a symbol of Lugoj, was built in 1902. On November 3, 1918 a Great National Assembly took place in Lugoj; the right of self-determination of the Romanian nation was proclaimed after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I. In modern times, the city was the home town of famous Dracula actor Bela Lugosi. Lugosi's family name was Blaskó. Coriolan Brediceanu National College Iulia Hașdeu National College Aurel Vlaicu School Group Valeriu Braniște College Drăgan European University of Lugoj Simona Arghir, handballer Caius Brediceanu, diplomat Coriolan Brediceanu and lawyer Tiberiu Brediceanu, composer Corina Caprioriu, judoka Aurel Ciupe, painter Konstantin Danil, portraiture painter Georges Devereux, ethnopsychologist Iosif Constantin Drăgan and author Traian Grozăvescu, opera tenor György Kurtág, composer Bela Lugosi, actor Lavinia Miloșovici, gymnast Victor Neumann, historian Dumitru Pârvulescu, wrestler Aurel Popovici, politician Josef Posipal, soccer player Otilia Ruicu-Eșanu, 400m athlete Aura Twarowska, mezzo-soprano Lugoj is twinned with: Vršac Szekszárd Orléans Jena Assos-Lechaio Nisporeni Monopoli City Hall site Lugojul - local info site Lugoj Lugoj fun "Drăgan" European University of Lugoj Actualitatea, weekly newspaper Redeşteptarea, weekly newspaper Lugoj Online, online newspaper
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Lowton is a suburban village within the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, in Greater Manchester, England. It is around 2 miles from Leigh, 7 miles south of Wigan and 11.0 miles west of Manchester city centre. The settlement lies across the A580 East Lancashire Road. A part of Lancashire, Lowton's history is connected with Byrom Manor, the ancestral home of the Byroms, a family which included poet John Byrom. During the Industrial Revolution Lowton was associated with coal mining and manufacturing, given its proximity to several nearby collieries and factories. At the 2011 census, the population of Lowton was split between two wards, Lowton East, Golborne and Lowton West; the latter counted the entire population of Golborne, the population of Lowton's western half, with the boundary between them being at Scott Road to the north and Windsor Road to the south. The population comes to 14,605 if the appropriate parts of Golborne and Lowton West east of these streets, are added up with the population of the Lowton East ward.
Lowton has an unclear toponymy: it is from Old English tun "farm, village" with an uncertain first element A record of the name as Liewetune in 1176 suggests Old English hleowe "lee", although this is not a certain etymology. Lowton was one of the berewicks of the Royal Manor of Newton being one of the members of the Barony of Makerfield. Byrom Manor to feature the ancestral home of the poet John Byrom and was constructed during the 18th century, is recorded as early as 1212, where the family prospered for centuries. Byrom Hall at one time featured a moat; the Hare and Hounds public house, built in the 17th century, was once used as a place to hold trials of local criminals, including murders. The Lowton stocks can still be found today nearby at St Luke’s Parish Church and are Grade II listed; the former Lowton railway station was used as a resting point for the royal train. Lowton had a second station – Lowton St Mary's – which closed in 1964. Lowton had a toffee factory, along with other sites of heavy industry.
Many of these factories have been replaced with light industry. Lowton's Sandy Lane is reputedly haunted by the ghost of Joshua Rigby, a local farmer who died in 1883. Between 1894 and 1974, Lowton was part of the Golborne Urban District, in the administrative county of Lancashire. In 1974 as part of the local government reorganisation enacted in the Local Government Act 1972 it became part of Greater Manchester with the boundary at Newton-le-Willows marking the edge of the new county of Merseyside. Lowton is within the constituency of Leigh and is represented in parliament by the Labour MP Jo Platt. Locally, the area is represented at Wigan Council by three Conservative Party members, James Grundy, Noel Houlton and Kathleen Houlton. Situated on the A580 East Lancashire Road, the village has direct access to the cities of Manchester to the east and Liverpool to the west. From this road, the M6 motorway runs north and south, the M60 connects with the M62 across the Pennines; the nearest railway station is Newton-le-Willows on the Chester to Manchester Line and Liverpool to Manchester Line.
Public transport in Lowton is co-ordinated by the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive and is served by buses to Manchester, Leigh, Newton-le-Willows and St Helens. Buses: X34 Lowton/Leigh-Manchester, 34 St Helens-Leigh, 600 Leigh-Wigan. To the south of Lowton is Highfield Moss, part of, designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the 52.6 acres site was designated in 1986 for its biological interest. It is predominantly notable as a mire community and it is the best example in Greater Manchester. Lowton Church of England High School Lowton Primary School Lowton St. Marys Primary School Lowton West Primary School St. Catherine of Siena Catholic Primary School St. Lukes Church of England Primary School In 1635 the Puritan clergyman, Richard Mather, his family left for New England as a result of religious intolerance. Lowton's churches include the two Anglican churches of St Mary's and St Lukes, the Roman Catholic of St Catherine of Siena, Lowton Independent Methodist] and Lowton Community Church.
Lane Head Methodist church closed in 2010. Lowton Christian Fellowship. Visit the Independent Methodist website for links to other Lowton Churches The churches in Lowton organise some joint activities including ecumenical services, their charity work has included the Lowton Churches Romania Appeal, formed after the collapse of the Communist regime in Romania in 1990. It supported an orphanage in Lugoj but its remit has since expanded to include several projects in the country, it is that the parish of Winwick was formed shortly after the death of Oswald, a Christian prince of Northumbria, who had his palace in this district at the time. A commission under the Great Seal sat at Wigan in 1650 and considered that a chapel should be built for the townships of Lowton and Kenyon; some eighty years under the "Lowton Chapel Agreement" of 1 December 1731, twenty-seven charterers and freeholders within the township of Lowton agreed to enclose eleven acres of waste and common land on Lowton Common and on Lowton Heath, near the Locking Stoops, "for the erecting of a Chapel of Ease, of a convenient schoolhouse", with the consent of Peter Legh, Lord of the
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Trafford and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK, it is landlocked and borders Cheshire, West Yorkshire and Merseyside. There is a mix of high-density urban areas, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry, it has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.
Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development and transport. Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; the county council was abolished in 1986, so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011. Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs.
Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as an exporter of media and digital content and dance music, association football. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. There is evidence of Iron Age habitation at Mellor, Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was part of the land believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe, lay on their border with the Cornovii on the southern side of the River Mersey; the remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade.
The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade. In the late-18th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the local domestic system. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, produce cotton goods on an industrial scale for a global market; the townships in and around Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in industrial textile production and processing. This population increase resulted in the "vigorous concentric growth" of a conurbation between Manchester and an arc of surrounding mill towns, formed from a steady accretion of houses and transport infrastructure. Places such as Bury and Bolton played a central economic role nationally, by the end of the 19th century had become some of the most important and productive cotton-producing towns in the world.
However, it was Manchester, the most populous settlement, a major city, the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods, the natural centre of its region. By 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world". In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester. However, the English term "Greater Mancheste
Nicolae Ceaușescu was a Romanian communist politician. He was the general secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989 and hence the second and last Communist leader of Romania, he was the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council and from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic until his overthrow in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989, part of a series of anti-Communist and anti-Soviet Union uprisings in Eastern Europe that year. Born in 1918 in Scornicești, Olt County, Ceaușescu was a member of the Romanian Communist youth movement. Ceaușescu rose up through the ranks of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej's Socialist government and, upon Gheorghiu-Dej's death in 1965, he succeeded to the leadership of Romania’s Communist Party as General Secretary. Upon his rise to power, he eased press censorship and condemned the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in his speech on 21 August 1968, which resulted in a surge in popularity. However, the resulting period of stability was brief as his government soon became totalitarian and was considered the most repressive in Eastern Europe at the time.
His secret police, the Securitate, was responsible for mass surveillance as well as severe repression and human rights abuses within the country and he suppressed and controlled the media and press, implementing methods that were among the harshest, most restrictive and brutal in the world. Economic mismanagement due to failed oil ventures during the 1970s led to skyrocketing foreign debts for Romania. In 1982, he exported much of the country's agricultural and industrial production in an effort to repay them; the shortages that followed drastically lowered living standards, leading to heavy rationing of food, oil, electricity and other necessities. His cult of personality experienced unprecedented elevation, followed by extensive nepotism and the intense deterioration of foreign relations with the Soviet Union; as anti-government protesters demonstrated in Timișoara in December 1989, he perceived the demonstrations as a political threat and ordered military forces to open fire on 17 December, causing many deaths and injuries.
The revelation that Ceaușescu was responsible resulted in a massive spread of rioting and civil unrest across the country. The demonstrations, which reached Bucharest, became known as the Romanian Revolution—the only violent overthrow of a communist government in the turn of the Revolutions of 1989. Ceaușescu and his wife Elena fled the capital in a helicopter, but they were captured by the military after the armed forces changed sides. After being tried and convicted of economic sabotage and genocide, they were executed by firing squad on 25 December and Ceaușescu was succeeded as President by Ion Iliescu, who had played a major part in the revolution. Capital punishment was abolished shortly thereafter. Ceaușescu was born in the small village of Scornicești, Olt County on 26 January 1918, being one of the nine children of a poor peasant family, his father Andruță owned 3 hectares of agricultural land and a few sheep, he supplemented his large family's income through tailoring. He studied at the village school until at the age of 11, when he ran away from his religious and strict father to Bucharest.
He lived with his sister, Niculina Rusescu, became an apprentice shoemaker. He worked in the workshop of Alexandru Săndulescu, a shoemaker, an active member in the then-illegal Communist Party. Ceaușescu was soon involved in the Communist Party activities, but as a teenager he was given only small tasks, he was first arrested in 1933, at the age of 15, for street fighting during a strike and again, in 1934, first for collecting signatures on a petition protesting the trial of railway workers and twice more for other similar activities. By the mid-1930s, he had been in missions in Bucharest, Craiova, Câmpulung and Râmnicu Vâlcea, being arrested several times; the profile file from the secret police, Siguranța Statului, named him "a dangerous Communist agitator" and "distributor of Communist and antifascist propaganda materials". For these charges, he was convicted on 6 June 1936 by the Brașov Tribunal to 2 years in prison, an additional 6 months for contempt of court, one year of forced residence in Scornicești.
He spent most of his sentence in Doftana Prison. While out of jail in 1939, he met Elena Petrescu, whom he married in 1947 and who would play an increasing role in his political life over the years. Soon after being freed, he was arrested again and sentenced for "conspiracy against social order", spending the time during the war in prisons and internment camps: Jilava, Caransebeș, Văcărești, Târgu Jiu. In 1943, he was transferred to Târgu Jiu internment camp, where he shared a cell with Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, becoming his protégé. Enticed with substantial bribes, the camp authorities gave the Communist prisoners much freedom in running their cell block, provided they did not attempt to break out of prison. At Târgu Jiu, Gheorghiu-Dej ran "self-criticism sessions" where various Party members had to confess before the other Party members to misunderstanding the dogma of Marx-Engels-Lenin-Stalin as interpreted by Gheorghiu-Dej; these "self-criticism sessions" not only helped to cement Gheorghiu-Dej's control over the Party, but endeared his protégé Ceaușescu to