A manor in English law is an estate in land to which is incident the right to hold a court termed court baron, that is to say a manorial court. The proper unit of tenure under the system is the fee, on which the manor became established through the process of time. The manor is nevertheless often described as the basic unit of tenure and is historically connected with the territorial divisions of the march, hundred, parish. And so by continuance of time made a manor, of the portion reserved by the lord for his own use, termed the demesne, part was occupied by villeins, with the duty of cultivating the rest for the lords use. These were originally tenants at will and in a state of semi-serfdom and it is of the essence of copyhold that it should be regulated by the custom of the manor, as evidenced in the manorial roll produced by the manorial court. Manors cannot be created at the present day because manorial courts cannot be established with any legal jurisdiction, the statute did not apply to a tenant-in-chief of the king, who might have alienated his land under a license.
When a great baron had granted out smaller manors to others, all land was differentiated by its legal status and by physical characteristics. It should be noted that legal status of land in England, land retained in-hand by the lord of the manor, without subtenant. Other land could be, land not belonging to the reserved for the support of the parish priest. Common land, by open land, over which the lord, certain manorial tenants. For example, a right of estovers may belong to one of groups or all of them. Freehold Copyhold Customary Freehold Leasehold, the Reversion is held by its former freeholder, usually before the sale of land belonging to manors, ploughed land used to grow crops. Pasture, grassland used for grazing livestock, small enclosed fields created by hedge or stone wall boundaries, used for example to house ewes with their lambs requiring close observation. Marsh Woodland, a fuel resource. Furze, a resource used by the lower tenants. Fallow, land resting within the cycle of crop rotation agriculture, used to breed fish such as carp A manor was akin to the modern firm or business or other going concern.
It was further similar in that its ownership could be transferred, with the licence to alienate having been obtained from the overlord. The administration was self-contained and the new lord needed only to collect its net revenues to form his return on investment, the direction was ultimately provided by the manorial court, presided over by the lords personal steward, whose members included the freehold tenants of the manor
North Devon is a local government district in Devon, England. Its council is based in Barnstaple, other towns and villages in the North Devon District include Braunton, Ilfracombe, South Molton and Lynmouth. The district was formed on 1 April 1974 as a merger of the Barnstaple municipal borough, the Ilfracombe and Lynton urban districts, the wider geographic area of North Devon is divided between North Devon District and the district of Torridge, based in Bideford. North Devon is popular with retired people, the 2011 census showed that 18% of residents were aged 15 years and under, 60% were aged 16–64 and 23% were aged 65 and over. This compares to the 20% of the population who were aged 65, for comparison, the same age distributions across England were 19%, 64% and 17% respectively. Life expectancy for men, at 77.7, is close to the English average, female life expectancy is good at 83.1, around 1 year above the English average. There is a gap of 6 years in the life expectancy of men in the least deprived fifth of wards, the region has one of the most ethnically homogenous populations in England, with 97. 9% reporting their ethnicity as white in the 2011 census of the population.
However, this is a decrease on the 99. 0% of the population who declared themselves to be White on the 2001 census, North Devon District Council is elected every four years, with currently 43 councillors being elected at each election. From the first election to the council in 1973 to 1987 the council was controlled by independents and this was followed by a period under Liberal Democrat control until the Conservative Party took control at the 2007 election. The political composition of the borough has been as follows, Along with its neighbours to the east and west and West Somerset, the rump of the post-Beeching railway network has left a branch line to Exeter as the areas sole railway service. Despite being served only by one line, the borough is served by 5 railway stations. The region is served by three A roads, the primary link is the A361 which was constructed between 1986 and 1989. It heads north-west from the M5 motorway, past South Molton, to Barnstaple, the modern Link Road continues westwards from Barnstaple as the A39 where it is designated the Atlantic Highway, and runs via Bideford into Cornwall.
The eastern section of the A39 links Barnstaple to Lynton, traverses the coastal hills of Exmoor into Somerset. Due to the agricultural nature of the economy, many areas of North Devon are considered deprived. The average income for the district is 73% of the average for the United Kingdom as a whole, the largest employers in the area are the National Health Service, the Ministry of Defence and North Devon Council. Barnstaple is on the River Taw estuary, and functions both as the service centre and the administrative centre for North Devon Council. The parish of Barnstaple has a population of 23,710 but the population of the area of the town taking in Sticklepath, Roundswell
W. G. Hoskins
William George Hoskins CBE FBA was an English local historian who founded the first university department of English Local History. His great contribution to the study of history was in the field of landscape history, Hoskins demonstrated the profound impact of human activity on the evolution of the English landscape in a pioneering book, The Making of the English Landscape. His work has had lasting influence in the fields of local and landscape history, William George Hoskins was born at 26–28 St Davids Hill, Devon on 22 May 1908, his father, like his grandfather, was a baker. He won a scholarship to Heles School in 1918, and attended the University College of South West England where he gained BSc and MSc degrees in economics by the age of 21, both his MSc in 1929 and his PhD in 1938 were on the history of Devon. The remainder of his life was devoted to university teaching and the authorship of historical works and he died on 11 January 1992 in Cullompton, Devon. Hoskins was appointed Assistant Lecturer in Commerce at University College, Leicester in 1931 and he found the trade statistics to be dull lecture material, but he enjoyed the evenings that he spent teaching archaeology and local history at Vaughan College.
His academic researches covered historical demography, urban history, agrarian history and he became a member of the Leicestershire Archaeological Society in September 1935. After the award of his doctorate Hoskins was appointed Reader in English Local History at University College, in his obituary, this was stated to be generally acknowledged as a mistake. Hoskins was one of the founders of the Exeter Group in 1960 and he was president of the Dartmoor Preservation Association from 1962 until 1976. He became the first professor of history at the University of Leicester in 1965 when he was appointed Hatton Professor of English History. Hoskins wrote and presented a BBC television series Landscapes of England in 1976, Hoskins was awarded the Fellowship of the British Academy in 1969 and the CBE in 1971. He was made an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1973, the University of Exeter acknowledged his links with the city by conferring an honorary Doctorate of Letters upon him in 1974. G.
Hoskins lecture, and another at St Annes College, Oxford, in 1955, Hoskins published the book that was to make his name. The Making of the English Landscape is a history of England. The brief history of one thousand years has become a standard text in local and environmental history courses. Hoskins sets out his stall in the introduction with No book exists to describe the manner in which the various landscapes of this came to assume the shape. The brief concluding chapter contains only one image, Plate 82, The completed English landscape showing a tree in a wide open field. The book has well received by critics
Berrynarbor is a village and civil parish in the North Devon district of Devon, England. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 749, the village is located near Exmoor and is about three miles east of Ilfracombe. It is the neighbour of Combe Martin, the village contains a small school, Berrynarbor VC Primary School which is voluntary controlled, and a voluntary controlled and run village shop. Other shops in the area are on the Mill Park camp-site and, during the summer, on Watermouth Valley Camping Park. There are two pubs, Ye Olde Globe which is a village pub, and The Sawmill Inn which is on the outskirts of the village. There are guest houses and tearooms, along with the St Peters Church in the village square. St Peters Church has a 15th-century tower, a 17th-century lychgate, the church tenor bell was recently restored through donations from the village and can now be heard every Sunday morning during the church service. The Berrie family were lords of the manor of Berrie Nerbert in the 17th century, the tablet underneath to the left is inscribed, Here lyeth enterred the body of Richard Berrie Esq.
r Lord of this Manour of Berrie Nerbert. A man of wisdom and gravitie hee maryed to his first wife Mary daughter of S. r William Kirkham of Blackdon in this countie of Devon, knight. And to his wife he maryed Dorothey eldest daughter of George Turvile of Aston Flamvil in the countie of Leycester. The family of Kirkham were of ancient origin, seated at Pinhoe near Exeter, at Blagdon in the parish of Paignton and at Collaton St Mary, Sir John Kirkham of Pinhoe was Sheriff of Devon in 1523. His second son was Richard Kirkham, father of Sir William Kirkham who married into the family of Tichborne of Hampshire, thomas Kirkham of Blagdon, Clovelly was the father of George Kirkham, MP for Devon 1525-82. Hee departed this life the 9th day of May Anno Dni 1645 aetat 63, Berrynarbor has within its purview to all sides a mixture of dense woodlands and farms and lies within the North Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. 51. 205°N04. 070°W /51.205, -04.070 Contiguous to Lee, east Hagginton within the manor of Berrynarbor was an estate mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086.
Steep wooded slopes here give rise to springs, and on one eastern slope is the park homes resort/retreat of Berrynarbor Park here. 51. 215°N04. 065°W /51.215, -04.065 Watermouth to the north becomes a substantial hamlet in holiday season and its wide sandy outlet, Watermouth Castle here is a Grade II* listed country home, started 1825-6 with final works 1845 by George Wightwick. The Bassett family mentioned above sold this in 1946 to assist in paying a tax bill. Berrynarbor has won awards including Best Kept Village and Britain in Bloom
Lynmouth is a village in Devon, England, on the northern edge of Exmoor. The village straddles the confluence of the West Lyn and East Lyn rivers, in a gorge 700 feet below Lynton, both villages are connected by the Lynton and Lynmouth Cliff Railway, which works two cable-connected cars by gravity, using water tanks. The two villages are a civil parish governed by Lynton and Lynmouth Town Council, the parish boundaries extend southwards from the coast, and include hamlets such as Barbrook and small moorland settlements such as East Ilkerton, West Ilkerton and Shallowford. Lynmouth was described by Thomas Gainsborough, who honeymooned there with his bride Margaret Burr, the Sillery Sands beach is just off the South West Coast Path and is used by naturists. Percy Bysshe Shelley, his wife Harriet and his sister-in-law Eliza stayed in Lynmouth between June and August 1812, Shelley worked on political pamphlets and on the poem Queen Mab. A lifeboat station was established in Lynmouth on 20 January 1869, the lifeboat was kept in a shed on the beach, until a purpose-built boat house was built at the harbour.
This was rebuilt in 1898 and enlarged in 1906–07 and it was closed at the end of 1944 because other stations in the area could provide cover with their newer motor lifeboats. The boat house was used as a club, but was washed away in the flood of 15 August 1952. It has since rebuilt, and now includes a public shelter. She had been under tow, but the tow rope had broken and she was dragging her anchor and had lost her steering gear. The alarm was raised for the Louisa, the Lynmouth lifeboat, launching was impossible because of the terrible weather. Jack Crocombe, the coxswain of the Louisa, proposed to take the boat by road to Porlocks sheltered harbour,13 miles around the coast, the boat plus its carriage weighed about 10 tons, and transporting it would not be easy. 20 horses and 100 men started by hauling the boat up the 1 in 4 Countisbury Hill out of Lynmouth, six of the men were sent ahead with picks and shovels to widen the road. The highest point is 1,423 feet above sea level, after they had crossed the 15 miles of wild Exmoor paths, they had to descend the dangerous Porlock Hill, with horses and men pulling ropes to stall the descent.
During this, they had to part of a garden wall and fell a large tree to make a way. The lifeboat reached Porlock Weir at 6,30 am, and was launched, although cold, wet and exhausted, the crew rowed for over an hour in heavy seas to reach the stricken Forrest Hall and rescue the thirteen men and five apprentices with no casualties. However, four of the horses employed died of exhaustion, the Forrest Hall was towed into Barry, Wales. The feat was immortalised in C Walter Hodges 1969 childrens historical novel The Overland Launch, on 15 and 16 August 1952, a storm of tropical intensity broke over South West England, depositing 229 millimetres of rain within 24 hours on an already waterlogged Exmoor
Barnstaple /ˈbɑːrnstəbəl/ or /ˈbɑːrnstəpəl/ is the main town of North Devon and possibly the oldest borough in the United Kingdom. It is a former river-port, located at the lowest crossing-point of the River Taw, from the 14th century, it was licensed to export wool, since the merchants claimed that the town had been declared a free borough in Saxon times. This brought great wealth to Barnstaple, whose town centre still preserves a medieval layout, the town became an importer of Irish wool, but its harbour silted up, and it developed other industries, such as shipbuilding and sawmills. Its Victorian market survives, with its glass and timber roof on iron columns. Barnstaple railway station is the terminus of a line from Exeter. Since 1974, Barnstaple has been a civil parish governed by town council, the parish itself had a population of 24,033 and including the satellite settlements known as the Barnstaple Town Area, it is 53,514. The old spelling Barnstable is now obsolete, but is retained by an American county, Barnstaple was formerly referred to as Barum, from a contraction of the Latin form of the name in Latin documents such as the episcopal registers of the Diocese of Exeter.
Barum was mentioned by Shakespeare, and the name was revived and popularised in Victorian times, the name Barum is retained in the names of a football team, and of several local businesses. The former Brannam Pottery works which was sited in Litchdon Street was known for its trademark Barum etched on the base of its products, the earliest settlement in the area was probably at Pilton on the bank of the River Yeo, now a northern suburb of the present town. Barnstaple had its own mint before the Norman Conquest, the large feudal barony of Barnstaple had its caput at Barnstaple Castle. It was granted by William the Conqueror to Geoffrey de Montbray, the barony escheated to the crown in 1095 after Montbray had rebelled against King William II. William re-granted the barony to Juhel de Totnes, formerly feudal baron of Totnes, in about 1107, who had already founded Totnes Priory, founded Barnstaple Priory, of the Cluniac order, dedicated to St Mary Magdalene. After Juhels son died without children, the barony was split into two, passing through the de Braose and Tracy families, before being reunited under Henry de Tracy.
It passed through other families, before ending up in the ownership of Margaret Beaufort. See Feudal barony of Barnstaple for full details, in the 1340s the merchants of the town claimed that the rights of a free borough had been granted to them by King Athelstan in a lost charter. Although this was challenged from time to time by subsequent lords of the manor, the towns wealth in the Middle Ages was founded on its being a staple port licensed to export wool. It had a merchant guild, known as the Guild of St. Nicholas. In the early 14th century it was the third richest town in Devon, behind Exeter and Plymouth and its wool trade was further aided by the towns port, from which in 1588 five ships were contributed to the force sent to fight the Spanish Armada
Bratton Fleming is a large village, civil parish and former manor near Barnstaple, in Devon, England. The population in 2001 was 942, falling to 928 in 2011, the village is a few miles east-south-east of Exmoor. The parish is surrounded, clockwise from the north, by the parishes of Challacombe, Stoke Rivers, Shirwell, Arlington, there is an electoral ward with the same name. The ward population at the 2011 census was 2,117, the former Manor of Bratton Fleming was owned by a succession of families from the Norman Conquest to the 19th century. The Flemings had their seat at Chimwell, now a farmhouse called Chumhill and Haxton were other small Domesday manors. The great jurist Henry de Bracton was probably born at Bratton, the village was once served by a railway station, supposedly the most beautiful in England, on the narrow gauge Lynton & Barnstaple Railway, the trackbed runs close to the village. The street names Station Road and Station Hill survive, St Peters Church was rebuilt on the site of a much older building, in 1861.
He gave £10 toward the Combination Room of that college, a mural monument exists in St Peters Church, Bratton Fleming, to Rev. Bartholomew Wortley, the first rector to be appointed by Gonville & Caius College. He was aged about 50 when appointed and remained in office until his death in 1749 aged 97, baron Slane Henry de Bracton Exmoor Steam Railway Devon by W. G. Hoskins et al. Bratton Fleming home page Bratton Fleming at GENUKI Bratton Fleming community page Media related to Bratton Fleming at Wikimedia Commons
Arlington is a former manor and civil parish in the North Devon district of Devon in England. The parish includes the villages of Arlington and Arlington Beccott, the population of the parish is 98. Victoria Cross holder Sir Mark Walker lived in Arlington, dying there in 1902, the manor of Alferdintone was listed in the Exeter Domesday Book of 1086 as held by Alvred de Ispania as a tenant-in-chief of the king. The estate of Twitchen, now a farm within Arlington parish, was stated to have added to the manor of Arlington. Alfred held Orway, and held no lands in Devon. It was acquired by the de Raleigh family, lords of the manor of Raleigh in the parish of Pilton, for the descent of the lands of the de Raleigh family to the Chichester family see Raleigh. His will was witnessed by his brother-in-law Robert Brett and his will dated 12 October 1530, written five years before he made the grant sets out his intentions clearly, Will of John Chechester, Esq. Manors, advowsons of churches, etc. of and in Dunwere, Beggernhuysche alias Huyshe Gaunte, Rokesford, Cheryton Fytz Payne and Treverbyan, to Johan his wife for her life.
After her death and advowson of Arlington to his son Amys and his heirs male and manor of Dunwere to his son John, Johan his wife, and Amys his son. Overseers, Robert Brett, Richard Chechester, John Forde, amias married Jane Giffard, daughter of Sir Roger Giffard of Brightley in the parish of Chittlehampton. The Heralds Visitation of Devon lists 19 children produced from this marriage, the heiress of the Burgoynes married Jackson, of Exeter. William Courtenay Burgoyne, Esq. died in 1750, Azure, a talbot passant argent on a mullet or a crescent sable for difference. A monument to Robert Burgoyne dated 1651 exists in the church at South Tawton and their 14th-century manor house at nearby South Zeal is now the Oxenham Arms public house. The arms of Burgoyne can be seen on the monument to Thomas Chafe of Dodscott, amias Chichester, married Susan Platters, daughter of William Platters of Saterley in Suffolk. His eldest so Henry predeceased his father in 1620, John Chichester, married Anne Howe, daughter of Francis Howe of East Tilbury, Essex.
John Chichester, married firstly Ursula Borlase, daughter of Nicholas Borlase of TYreludra, Giles Chichester, married Catherine Palmer and heiress of James Palmer and niece of *Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine. She was buried in the Catholic Chapel at Bath, John Palmer Chichester, an officer in the Guards, married firstly in 1790 Mary Cary, daughter of George Cary of Torre Abbey, Torquay. Sir John Palmer Bruce Chichester, 1st Baronet, created Baronet of Arlington Court in 1840 and he married in 1838 Caroline Thistlethwaite, daughter of Thomas Thistlethwaite of Southwick Park, Hampshire
For the small village near Bodmiscomnbe named Goodleigh, see Goodleigh, Bodmiscombe. Goodleigh is a village, civil parish and former manor in North Devon, the village lies about 2 1/2 miles north-east of the historic centre of Barnstaple. Apart from one adjunct at the south, it is generally a linear settlement, the parish church of St Gregory is a grade II* listed building with surviving ancient parts but was largely rebuilt in 1881. Two 17th century mural monuments survive in Goodleigh Church to members of the Acland family of Combe, the descent was as follows, James I Acland of Combe, who married Margaret Markham of Barnstaple. James was the son of Anthony Acland of Hawkridge, Chittlehampton. Thomas I Acland, eldest son and heir, who married Katherine Palmer of Barnstaple, James II Acland, who died without progeny. His mural monument survives in Goodleigh Church and he was the son and heir of Thomas II Acland, by his wife Agnes Shepherd. Agnes survived him and remarried to Rev. Josias Gole, yeotown is situated in the sequestered wooded valley of the small River Yeo, about 1 mile south-west of the village of Goodleigh.
It was demolished during his lifetime and today one of the large gatehouse survives. The geographic coordinates are from the Ordnance Survey, media related to Goodleigh at Wikimedia Commons
Lynton was once the terminus for the narrow-gauge Lynton & Barnstaple Railway, which served both towns. The two communities are governed at local level by Lynton and Lynmouth Town Council, in Lynton is the Parish Church of St Mary, which stands overlooking the sea, surrounded by shops and hotels. The tower is mainly 13th century but the church itself has been enlarged and altered — most notably in 1741, when the nave was rebuilt, many of the towns buildings were constructed in the latter part of the 19th century and the early 20th century. The town hall was given to the town by Sir George Newnes, a major benefactor of the town, it was opened on 15 August 1900. He gave the town the Congregational church on Lee Road, evidence of Iron Age activity can be found at the nearby Roborough Castle. The novel Lorna Doone was set in the Lynton area, half a mile to the west are the spectacular Valley of Rocks and Wringcliff Bay. The British technical modern rock band InMe make semi frequent lyrical references to the Lynton/Lynmouth area in their lyrical material, Lynton is name-checked in In Loving Memory on their third album Daydream Anonymous and Lynmouth is name checked in Saccharine Arcadia on Phoenix, The Very Best of InMe.
Lead singer Dave McPherson has a song entitled Sunny Lynton on his EP Crescent Summer Sessions, there is an electoral ward called Lynton and Lynmouth whose total ward population at the 2011 census was 1.647. The town of Lynton and Lynmouth is twinned with Bénouville in France, Lynton at DMOZ Lynton & Lynmouth Town Council
Saunton is a village located approximately two miles from Braunton on the North Devon coast in the South West of England. Several kilometres long, the village borders Braunton Burrows, the heart of North Devons Biosphere Reserve and its beach Saunton Sands is part of the Taw-Torridge Estuary. The Saunton Surf Life Saving Club is based here, the South West Coast Path National Trail runs through the village, and gives access to walks along the rugged North Devon coast. Saunton Down lies within the North Devon Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, served by Stagecoach 308 bus service between Barnstaple and Georgeham Media related to Saunton at Wikimedia Commons
The Normans introduced the design into England and Wales following their invasion in 1066. Motte-and-bailey castles were adopted in Scotland, the Low Countries, by the end of the 13th century, the design was largely superseded by alternative forms of fortification, but the earthworks remain a prominent feature in many countries. The term motte and bailey is a modern one, and is not medieval in origin. The word bailey comes from the Norman-French baille, or basse-cour, in medieval sources, the Latin term castellum was used to describe the bailey complex within these castles. One contemporary account of these comes from Jean de Colmieu around 1130. De Colmieu described how the nobles would build a mound of earth as high as they can and dig a ditch about it as wide and deep as possible. The space on top of the mound is enclosed by a palisade of very strong hewn logs, inside the enclosure is a citadel, or keep, which commands the whole circuit of the defences. Mottes were made out of earth and flattened on top, some were built over older artificial structures, such as Bronze Age barrows.
The size of mottes varied considerably, with these mounds being 3 metres to 30 metres in height and this minimum height of 3 metres for mottes is usually intended to exclude smaller mounds which often had non-military purposes. In England and Wales, only 7% of mottes were taller than 10 metres high, a motte was protected by a ditch around it, which would typically have been a source of the earth and soil for constructing the mound itself. A keep and a wall would usually be built on top of the motte. Smaller mottes could only support simple towers with room for a few soldiers, wooden structures on mottes could be protected by skins and hides to prevent them being easily set alight during a siege. The bailey was a courtyard overlooked by the motte and surrounded by a wooden fence called a palisade. The bailey was often kidney-shaped to fit against a circular motte, the bailey would contain a wide number of buildings, including a hall, kitchens, a chapel, stores, forges or workshops, and was the centre of the castles economic activity.
The bailey was linked to the motte either by a bridge stretching between the two, or, more popularly in England, by steps cut into the motte. Typically the ditch of the motte and the bailey joined, forming a figure of eight around the castle, wherever possible, nearby streams and rivers would be dammed or diverted, creating water-filled moats, artificial lakes and other forms of water defences. In practice, there was a number of variations to this common design. A castle could have more than one bailey, at Warkworth Castle an inner, some baileys had two mottes, such as those at Lincoln