Loya jirga

A loya jirga is a special type of jirga, or legal assembly, in Pashtunwali, the traditional code of laws of the Pashtun people. It is organized for choosing a new head of state in case of sudden death, adopting a new constitution, or to settle national or regional issue such as war, it predates modern-day written or fixed laws and is favored by the Pashtun people but to a lesser extent by other nearby groups that have been influenced by Pashtuns. In Afghanistan, loya jirgas have been organized since at least the early 18th century when the Hotaki and Durrani dynasties rose to power. There is a myth in the sense that the ancient Aryan tribes, who are hypothesized to have spoken Proto-Indo-Iranian, came down in intermittent waves from Central Asia and Afghanistan, they practiced a sort of jirga system with two types of councils – simite and sabhā. The simite comprised tribal chiefs; the king joined sessions of the simite. Sabhā was a sort of rural council. In India it is referred to as Sabha, it was used over time for the selection of rulers and headmen and the airing of matters of principle.

From the time of the great Kushan ruler Kanishka to the 1970s, there were sixteen national loya jirgas and hundreds of smaller ones. The institution, centuries old, is a similar idea to the Islamic shura. In the Afghan society, the loya jirga is still maintained and favored by tribal leaders to solve internal or external disputes with other tribes. In some cases it functions like a town hall meeting; when the Afghans took power they tried to legitimize their hold with such a jirga. While in the beginning only Pashtuns were allowed to participate in the jirgas other ethnic groups like Tajiks and Hazaras were allowed to participate as well, however they were little more than observers; the member of the jirgas were members of the Royal Family, religious leaders and tribal leaders of the Afghans. King Amanullah Khan institutionalized the jirga. From Amanullah until the reign of Mohammed Zahir Shah and Mohammed Daoud Khan the jirga was recognized as a common meeting of regional Pashtun leaders; the meetings do not have scheduled occurrences, but rather are called for when issues or disputes arise.

There is no time limit for a loya jirga to conclude, the meetings take time because decisions can only be made as a group and arguments can drag out for days. Various issues can be addressed such as major disaster, foreign policy, declaration of war, the legitimacy of leaders, the introduction of new ideas and laws; some of the historical loya jirgas in the history of Afghanistan are: 1707–1709 – Loya jirga was gathered by Mir Wais Hotak at Kandahar in 1707, but according to Ghulam Mohammad Ghobar it was gathered in Manja in 1709. October 1747 – A jirga at Kandahar was attended by Afghan representatives who appointed Ahmad Shah Durrani as their new leader. September 1928 – A jirga at Paghman, called by King Amanullah, the third loya jirga of his reign to discuss reforms. September 1930 – A jirga of 286 called by Mohammed Nadir Shah to confirm his accession to the throne. 1941 – Called by Mohammed Zahir Shah to approve neutrality in World War II. 1947 – Held by Pashtuns in the Tribal Agencies to choose between joining India or Pakistan.

July 26, 1949 – Afghanistan-Pakistan relations deteriorated over a dispute declared that it did not recognize the 1893 Durand Line border any longer between the two countries. September 1964 – A meeting of 452 called by Mohammed Zahir Shah to approve a new constitution. July 1974 – A meeting with Pakistan over the Durand Line. January 1977 – Approved the new constitution of Mohammed Daoud Khan establishing one-party rule in the Republic of Afghanistan. April 1985 – To ratify the new constitution of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. September 2001 – Four different loya jirga movements anticipating the end of Taliban rule. Little communication took place between each of them; the first was based in Rome around Mohammed Zahir Shah, it reflected the interests of moderate Pashtuns from Afghanistan. The Rome initiative called for fair elections, support for Islam as the foundation of the Afghan state, respect for human rights; the second was based in Cyprus and led by Homayoun Jarir, a member of the Islamic Party of his father-in-law, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.

Critics of the Cyprus initiative suspected. The members of the Cyprus initiative, considered themselves closer to the Afghan people and regard the Rome group as too close to the long-isolated nobility; the most significant was based in Germany. This agreement was made under United Nations auspices, established the Afghan Interim Authority and paved the way for the jirgas that established the Constitution of Afghanistan. A lesser initiative based in Pakistan. June–July 2002 – Hamid Karzai elected to oversee it; this was possible only because in the fall of 2001, Karzai was able to lead one of the largest southern Afghanistan tribes against the draconian rule of the Taliban. The Loya Jirga was organized by the interim administration of Hamid Karzai, with about 1600 delegates, either selected through elections in various regions of the country or allocated to various political and religious groups, it was held in a large tent in the grounds of Kabul Polytechnic from June 11 and was scheduled to last about a week.

It formed a new Transitional Administration. December 2003 – To consider the proposed Afghan Constitution. 2006 – Afghan president Hamid Karzai said that he and the Pakistani president will jointly lead

Barbecue spaghetti

Barbecue spaghetti is a dish from Memphis, that combines spaghetti with a sauce made from shredded smoked pork or pulled pork and barbecue sauce. It is served as a side dish in some Memphis barbecue restaurants. Southern Living called the dish iconic and "perhaps the city's most unusual creation". HuffPost called it "a Memphis staple". Barbecue spaghetti can be made with shredded smoked pork; the sauce is "half marinara and half barbecue sauce", sometimes with onions and peppers included, is simmered before adding the pork. The spaghetti is cooked until soft tossed in the hot sauce; this dish is sometimes as a main course. The dish was invented by former railroad cook Brady Vincent, who opened a barbecue restaurant called Brady and Lil's. In 1980 Frank and Hazel Vernon renamed it The Bar-B-Q Shop. Vincent taught the recipe for barbecue spaghetti to Jim Neely, who opened Interstate Bar-B-Q in the late 1970s. State Park restaurant in Cambridge, serves a "Memphis BBQ spaghetti" that uses pulled pork in a marinara that uses a barbecue sauce as its base.

According to John Shelton Reed, "Barbecue spaghetti is to spaghetti Bolognese as Cincinnati chili is to the Tex-Mex variety". Filipino spaghetti is spaghetti topped with hot dogs. List of foods of the Southern United States List of pasta dishes List of pork dishes List of regional dishes of the United States Cincinnati chili, another example of a fusion-cuisine spaghetti dish Filipino spaghetti, another example of a fusion-cuisine spaghetti dish


Laemodonta is a genus of small air-breathing, saltmarsh snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Ellobiidae. Species within the genus Laemodonta include: Laemodonta bella Laemodonta cubensis Laemodonta exarata Laemodonta exaratoides Kawabe, 1992 Laemodonta livida Perugia, 2010 Laemodonta madagascariensis Bozzetti, 2007 Laemodonta monilifera Laemodonta octanfracta Laemodonta punctigera Laemodonta siamensis Laemodonta striata Laemodonta typica According to the Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database, the following species are included in Laemodonta Laemodonta minuta Laemodonta rapax Species brought into synonymy Laemodonta affinis: synonym of Pedipes affinis Férussac, 1821 Laemodonta bronni": synonym of Allochroa bronnii Laemodonta exigua: synonym of Laemodonta bella Vaught, K. C.. A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL. ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp