The baht is the official currency of Thailand. It is subdivided into 100 satang; the issuance of currency is the responsibility of the Bank of Thailand. According to SWIFT, as of February 2017, the Thai baht is ranked as the 10th most used world payment currency. According to a report in the South China Morning Post, the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation produces at least some Thai banknotes and coins; the Thai baht, like the pound, originated from a traditional unit of mass. Its currency value was expressed as that of silver of corresponding weight, was in use as early as the Sukhothai period in the form of bullet coins known in Thai as phot duang; these were pieces of solid silver cast to various weights corresponding to a traditional system of units related by simple fractions and multiples, one of, the baht. These are listed in the following table: That system was in use up until 1897, when the decimal system devised by Prince Jayanta Mongkol, in which one baht = 100 satang, was introduced by his half-brother King Chulalongkorn.
However, coins denominated in the old units were issued until 1910, the amount of 25 satang is still referred to as a salueng, as is the 25-satang coin. Until 27 November 1902, the baht was fixed on a purely silver basis, with 15 grams of silver to the baht; this caused the value of the currency to vary relative to currencies on a gold standard. In 1857, the values of certain foreign silver coins were fixed by law, with the one baht = 0.6 Straits dollar and five baht = seven Indian rupees. Before 1880 the exchange rate was fixed at eight baht per pound sterling, falling to 10 to the pound during the 1880s. In 1902, the government began to increase the value of the baht by following all increases in the value of silver against gold but not reducing it when the silver price fell. Beginning at 21.75 baht = one pound sterling, the currency rose in value until, in 1908, a fixed peg to the British pound sterling was established of 13 baht = one pound. This was revised to 12 baht in 1919 and after a period of instability, to 11 baht in 1923.
During World War II, the baht was fixed at a value of one Japanese yen. From 1956 until 1973, the baht was pegged to the U. S. dollar at an exchange rate of 20.8 baht = one dollar and at 20 baht = 1 dollar until 1978. A strengthening US economy caused Thailand to re-peg its currency at 25 to the dollar from 1984 until 2 July 1997, when the country was affected by the 1997 Asian financial crisis; the baht was floated and halved in value, reaching its lowest rate of 56 to the dollar in January 1998. It has since risen to about 30 per dollar; the baht was known to foreigners by the term tical, used in English language text on banknotes until 1925. Rama III was the first king to consider the use of a flat coin, he did so not for the convenience of traders, but because he was disturbed that the creatures living in the cowrie shells were killed. When he learned of the use of flat copper coins in Singapore in 1835, he contacted a Scottish trader, who had two types of experimental coins struck in England.
The king rejected both designs. The name of the country put on these first coins was Muang Thai, not Siam. Cowrie shells from the Mekong River had been used as currency for small amounts since the Sukhothai period. Before 1860, Thailand did not produce coins using modern methods. Instead, a so-called "bullet" coinage was used, consisting of bars of metal, thicker in the middle, bent round to form a complete circle on which identifying marks were stamped. Denominations issued included 1⁄128, 1⁄64, 1⁄32, 1⁄16, 1⁄8, 1⁄2, 1, 1 1⁄2, 2, 2 1⁄2, 4, 4 1⁄2, 8, 10, 20, 40, 80 baht in silver and 1⁄32, 1⁄16, 1⁄8, 1⁄2, 1, 1 1⁄2, 2, 4 baht in gold. One gold baht was worth 16 silver baht. Between 1858 and 1860, foreign trade coins were stamped by the government for use in Thailand. In 1860, modern style coins were introduced; these were silver 1 sik, 1 fuang, 1 and 2 salung, 1, 2, 4 baht, with the baht weighing 15.244 grams and the others weight related. Tin 1 solot and 1 att followed in 1862, with gold 2 1⁄2, 4, 8 baht introduced in 1863 and copper 2 and 4 att in 1865.
Copper replaced tin in the 1 solot and 1 att in 1874, with copper 4 att introduced in 1876. The last gold coins were struck in 1895. In 1897, the first coins denominated in satang were introduced, cupronickel 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 20 satang. However, 1 solot, 1 and 2 att coins were struck until 1905 and 1 fuang coins were struck until 1910. In 1908, holed 1, 5, 10 satang coins were introduced, with the 1 satang in bronze and the 5 and 10 satang in nickel; the 1 and 2 salung were replaced by 25 and 50 satang coins in 1915. In 1937, bronze 1⁄2 satang were issued. In 1941, a series of silver coins was introduced in denominations of 5, 10, 20 satang, due to a shortage of nickel caused by World War II; the next year, tin coins were introduced for 1, 5, 10 satang, followed by 20 satang in 1945 and 25 and 50 satang in 1946. In 1950, aluminium-bronze 5, 10, 25, 50 satang were introduced whilst, in 1957, bronze 5 and 10 satang were issued, along with 1 baht coins struck in an unusual alloy of copper, nickel and zinc.
Several Thai coins were issued for many years without changing the date. These include the tin 1942 1 satang and the 1950 5 and 10 satang, struck until 1973, the tin 1946 25 satang struck until 1964, the tin 50 satang struck until 1957, the aluminium bronze 1957 5, 10, 25, 50 satang struck until the 1970s. Cupronickel 1 baht coins were introduced in 1962 and struck without date change until 1982. In 1972, cupronickel 5 baht coins were introduced, switching to cupronickel-cl
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text. The matched pair is best described as closing. Less formally, in a left-to-right context, it may be described as left and right, in a right-to-left context, as right and left. Forms include round, square and angle brackets, as well as various other pairs of symbols. In addition to referring to the class of all types of brackets, the unqualified word bracket is most used to refer to a specific type of bracket. Chevrons, ⟨ ⟩, were the earliest type of bracket to appear in written English. Desiderius Erasmus coined the term lunula to refer to the rounded parentheses, recalling the shape of the crescent moon; some of the following names are contextual. – parentheses, parens, round brackets, first brackets, or circle brackets – braces are "two connecting marks used in printing". – square brackets, closed brackets, hard brackets, third brackets, crotchets, or brackets ⟨ ⟩ – pointy brackets, angle brackets, triangular brackets, diamond brackets, tuples, or chevrons < > – guillemets, inequality signs, pointy brackets, or brackets.
Sometimes referred to as angle brackets, in such cases as HTML markup. Known as broken brackets or "brokets". ⸤ ⸥. The characters ‹ › and « », known as guillemets or angular quote brackets, are quotation mark glyphs used in several European languages. Which one of each pair is the opening quote mark and, the closing quote varies between languages; the corner-brackets ｢ ｣ are quotation marks used in East Asian languages. In English, typographers prefer not to set brackets in italics when the enclosed text is italic. However, in other languages like German, if brackets enclose text in italics, they are also set in italics. Parentheses contain material, aside from the main point. A milder effect may be obtained by using a pair of commas as the delimiter, though if the sentence contains commas for other purposes, visual confusion may result. In American usage, parentheses are considered separate from other brackets, calling them "brackets" is unusual. Parentheses may be used in formal writing to add supplementary information, such as "Sen. John McCain spoke at length".
They can indicate shorthand for "either singular or plural" for nouns, e.g. "the claim". It can be used for gender neutral language in languages with grammatical gender, e.g. "he agreed with his physician". Parenthetical phrases have been used extensively in informal writing and stream of consciousness literature. Examples include the southern American author William Faulkner as well as poet E. E. Cummings. Parentheses have been used where the dash is used in alternatives, such as "parenthesis) educational testing, b) technical writing and diagrams, c) market research, d) elections. Parentheses are used in mathematical notation to indicate grouping inducing a different order of operations. For example: in the usual order of algebraic operations, 4 x 3 + 2 equals 14, since the multiplication is done before the addi
The at sign, @, is read aloud as "at" or "at symbol":. It is used as an accounting and invoice abbreviation meaning "at a rate of", but it is now most used in email addresses and social media platform "handles"; the term "alphasand" is sometimes used to refer to "@" in East Asia. Although not included on the keyboard of the earliest commercially successful typewriters, it was on at least one 1889 model and the successful Underwood models from the "Underwood No. 5" in 1900 onward. It started to be used in email addresses in the 1970s, is now universally included on computer keyboards; the absence of a single English word for the symbol has prompted some writers to use the French arobase or Spanish and Portuguese arroba, or to coin new words such as ampersat and strudel, but none of these has achieved wide use. In unicode, the at sign is encoded as & commat; the earliest yet discovered. Held today in the Vatican Apostolic Library, it features the @ symbol in place of the capital letter alpha "Α" in the word Amen.
Why it was used in this context is still a mystery. In terms of the commercial character of the at sign, there are several theories pending verification. One theory is that the symbol developed as a mercantile shorthand symbol of "each at," the symbol resembling a lowercase "a" inside a lowercase "e," to distinguish it from the different "at" or "per." For example, the cost of "12 apples @ $1" would be $12, whereas the cost of "12 apples at $1" would be $1, a crucial and necessary distinction. Another theory is. One reason for the abbreviation saving space and ink. Since thousands of pages of biblical manuscripts were copied onto expensive papyrus or hides, the words at, toward, by and about repeated millions of times throughout the pages, a considerable amount of resources could be spared this way. A theory concerning this graph puts forward the idea that the form derives from the Latin word ad, using the older form of lowercase d: ∂ used in handwritten German well into the 20th century and known to mathematicians and engineering students as the partial derivative symbol.
It has been theorized that it was an abbreviation of the Greek preposition ανά, meaning at the rate of or per. Another theory is that it derives from the Norman French "à" meaning "at" in the "each" sense, i.e. "2 widgets à £5.50 = £11.00", comes the accountancy shorthand notation in English commercial vouchers and ledgers to the 1990s, when the email usage overtook the accountancy usage. It is used like this in Modern French, Swedish or Czech; the compromise between @ and à in French handwriting is found in street market signs. Whatever the origin of the @ symbol, the history of its usage is more well-known: it has long been used in Spanish and Portuguese as an abbreviation of arroba, a unit of weight equivalent to 25 pounds, derived from the Arabic expression of "the quarter". An Italian academic, Giorgio Stabile, claims to have traced the @ symbol to the 16th century, in a mercantile document sent by Florentine Francesco Lapi from Seville to Rome on May 4, 1536; the document is in particular the price of an @ of wine in Peru.
In Italian, the symbol was interpreted to mean amphora. The word arroba means both the at-symbol and a unit of weight. In Italian, the symbol represents one amphora, a unit of weight and volume based upon the capacity of the standard amphora jar; until now the first historical document containing a symbol resembling a @ as a commercial one is the Spanish "Taula de Ariza", a registry to denote a wheat shipment from Castile to Aragon in 1448. In contemporary English usage, @ is a commercial symbol, called at site or at rate meaning at and at the rate of, it has been used in financial documents or grocers' price tags, is not used in standard typography. In 2012, "@" was registered as a trademark with the German Patent and Trade Mark Office. A cancellation request was filed in 2013, the cancellation was confirmed by the German Federal Patent Court in 2017. A common contemporary use of @ is in email addresses, as in email@example.com. BBN Technologies' Ray Tomlinson is credited with introducing this usage in 1971.
This idea of the symbol representing located at in the form user@host is seen in other tools and protocols. On web pages, organizations obscure email addresses of their members or employees by omitting the @; this practice, known as address munging, makes the email addresses less vulnerable to spam programs that scan the internet for them. On some social media platforms and forums, usernames are in the form @johndoe. On online forums without threaded discussions, @ is used to denote a reply. In some cases, @ is used for "attention" in email message
The austral was the currency of Argentina between June 15, 1985 and December 31, 1991. It was subdivided into 100 centavos; the symbol was an uppercase A with an extra horizontal line, code point U+20B3 AUSTRAL SIGN ₳. This symbol appeared on all coins issued in this currency, to distinguish them from earlier currencies; the ISO 4217 code is ARA. Finance Minister Juan Vital Sourrouille devised the Austral plan; the austral replaced the peso argentino at a rate of 1 austral = 1000 pesos argentinos. In 1992, the austral was itself replaced by a incarnation of the peso at a rate of 1 peso = 10,000 australes. In 1985, coins were introduced for 1, 5, 10 and 50 centavos; the ½ centavo was only issued in 1985, whilst production of the 1 centavo ceased in 1987, 5 centavo ceased in 1988, that of the other centavo coins ended in 1989. In 1989, 1, 5 and 10 austral coins were issued, followed in 1990 and 1991 by 100, 500 and 1,000 austral denominations. In 1985, provisional issues were made consisting of 1000, 5000 and 10,000 peso argentino notes over stamped with the values 1, 5 and 10 australes.
Between 1985 and 1991, the following notes were issued by the Banco Central: All banknotes except the provisional types show on the back an image of Liberty with a torch and shield. The provisional banknotes were produced from modified peso ley plates. On the obverses, the word PESOS were erased, whilst the reverse designs substituted the picture with the denomination written in words without spaces in several rows; the denomination was shown on both faces in the form A 10 MIL, A 50 MIL and A 500 MIL. Official website of the Banco Central de la República Argentina Argentine Notes
A throat lozenge is a small medicated tablet intended to be dissolved in the mouth to temporarily stop coughs and lubricate and soothe irritated tissues of the throat from the common cold or influenza. Cough tablets have taken the name lozenge, based on a diamond. Lozenges may contain an anaesthetic, or eucalyptus oil. Non-menthol throat lozenges use either zinc gluconate glycine or pectin as an oral demulcent. Several brands of throat lozenges contain dextromethorphan. Still other varieties, such as Halls, contain menthol, peppermint oil and/or spearmint as their active ingredient. Honey lozenges are available. Candies to soothe the throat date back to 1000 BC in Egypt's Twentieth Dynasty, when they were made from honey flavored with citrus and spices. In the 19th century, physicians discovered morphine and heroin, which suppress coughing at its source—the brain. Popular formulations of that era included Smith Brothers Cough Drops, first advertised in 1852, Luden's, created in 1879. Concern over the risk of opioid dependence led to the development of alternative medications.
Pastille Ingredients of a throat lozenge, Health Canada
The pilcrow called the paragraph mark, paragraph sign, alinea, or blind P, is a typographical character for individual paragraphs. It is present in Unicode as U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN; the pilcrow can be used as an indent for separate paragraphs or to designate a new paragraph in one long piece of copy, as Eric Gill did in his 1930s book An Essay on Typography. The pilcrow was a type of rubrication used in the Middle Ages to mark a new train of thought, before the convention of visually discrete paragraphs was commonplace; the pilcrow is drawn similar to a lowercase q reaching from descender to ascender height. It may be drawn with the bowl stretching further downwards, resembling a backwards D; the word pilcrow originates from the Greek word paragraphos. This was rendered in Old French as paragraphe and changed to pelagraphe; the earliest reference of the modern pilcrow is in 1440 with the Middle English word pylcrafte. The first way to divide sentences into groups in Ancient Greek was the original paragraphos, a horizontal line in the margin to the left of the main text.
As the paragraphos became more popular, the horizontal line changed into the Greek letter Gamma and into litterae notabiliores, which were enlarged letters at the beginning of a paragraph. This notation soon changed to the letter K, an abbreviation for the Latin word kaput, which translates as "head", i.e. it marks the head of a new thesis. To mark a new section, the Latin word capitulum, which translates as "little head", was used, the letter C came to mark a new section in 300 BC. In the 1100s, C had replaced K as the symbol for a new chapter. Rubricators added one or two vertical bars to the C to stylize it. Scribes would leave space before paragraphs to allow rubricators to draw the pilcrow. With the introduction of the printing press, space before paragraphs was still left for rubricators to draw by hand; this is. The pilcrow remains in use in modern time in the following ways: In legal writing, it is used whenever one must cite a specific paragraph within pleadings, law review articles, statutes, or other legal documents and materials.
In academic writing, it is sometimes used as an in-text referencing tool to make reference to a specific paragraph from a document that does not contain page numbers, allowing the reader to find where that particular idea or statistic was sourced. The pilcrow sign followed by a number indicates the paragraph number from the top of the page, it is used when citing books or journal articles. In proofreading, it indicates that one paragraph should be split into two or more separate paragraphs; the proofreader inserts the pilcrow at the point. In some high-church Anglican and Episcopal churches, it is used in the printed order of service to indicate that instructions follow. King's College, Cambridge uses this convention in the service booklet for the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols; this is analogous to the writing of these instructions in red in some rubrication conventions. Online, it is used in some wikis to denote permalinks; the pilcrow is used in desktop publishing software such as desktop word processors and page layout programs to mark the presence of a carriage return control character at the end of a paragraph.
It is used as the icon on a toolbar button that shows or hides the pilcrow and similar hidden characters, including tabs and page breaks. In typing programs, it marks a return; the pilcrow may indicate a footnote in a convention using a sequence of distinct typographic symbols in sequence to distinguish the footnotes on a given page. The pilcrow symbol is available in the default hardware codepage 437 of IBM PCs at code point 20, sharing its position with the ASCII control code DC4; the pilcrow character was in the 1984 Multinational Character Set extension of ASCII at 0xB6, from where it was inherited by ISO/IEC 8859-1 and by Unicode as U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN. The html entity is ¶. In LaTeX, the pilcrow glyph is invoked by \ textpilcrow. Apart from U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN, Unicode defines U+204B ⁋ REVERSED PILCROW SIGN, U+2761 ❡ CURVED STEM PARAGRAPH SIGN ORNAMENT, U+2E3F ⸿ CAPITULUM. Classic Mac OS and macOS: ⌥ Opt+7 Vim, in insert mode: Ctrl+K PI DOS Alt code: Alt+20. Windows Alt code: Alt+0182 or Alt+20.
Depending on the font used, this character varies in appearance, in some cases, may be replaced by an alternate glyph entirely. TeX: \P X Window System, with a compose key: Compose, ⇧ Shift+P, ⇧ Shift+P Mobile devices, including tablets, may require additional software. Tools may be required to generate a pilcrow, or other special characters. In Chinese, the trad
In punctuation, a word divider is a glyph that separates written words. In languages which use the Latin and Arabic alphabets, as well as other scripts of Europe and West Asia, the word divider is a blank space, or whitespace, a convention, spreading, along with other aspects of European punctuation, to Asia and Africa. However, many languages of East Asia are written without word separation. In character encoding, word segmentation depends on. In Ancient Egyptian, determinatives may have been used as much to demarcate word boundaries as to disambiguate the semantics of words. In Assyrian cuneiform, but in the cuneiform Ugaritic alphabet, a vertical stroke was used to separate words. In Old Persian cuneiform, a diagonally sloping wedge was used; as the alphabet spread throughout the ancient world, words were run together without division, this practice remains or remained until in much of South and Southeast Asia. However, not infrequently in inscriptions a vertical line, in manuscripts a single, double, or triple interpunct was used to divide words.
This practice was found in Phoenician, Hebrew and Latin, continues today with Ethiopic, though there whitespace is gaining ground. The early alphabetic writing systems, such as the Phoenician alphabet, had only signs for consonants. Without some form of visible word dividers, parsing a text into its separate words would have been a puzzle. With the introduction of letters representing vowels in the Greek alphabet, the need for inter-word separation lessened; the earliest Greek inscriptions used interpuncts, as was common in the writing systems which preceded it, but soon the practice of scriptio continua, continuous writing in which all words ran together without separation became common. The interpunct died out in Latin only after the Classic period, sometime around the year 200 CE, as the Greek style of scriptio continua became fashionable. In the 7th century, Irish monks started using blank spaces, introduced their script to France. By the 8th or 9th century, spacing was being used consistently across Europe.
Alphabetic writing without inter-word separation, known as scriptio continua, was used in Ancient Egyptian. It appeared in Post-classical Latin after several centuries of the use of the interpunct. Traditionally, scriptio continua was used for the Indic alphabets of South and Southeast Asia and hangul of Korea, but spacing is now used with hangul and with the Indic alphabets. Today Chinese and Japanese are the main scripts written without punctuation to separate words. In Classical Chinese, a word and a character were the same thing, so that word dividers would have been superfluous. Although Modern Mandarin has numerous polysyllabic words, each syllable is written with a distinct character, the conceptual link between character and word or at least morpheme remains strong, no need is felt for word separation apart from what characters provide. Space is the most common word divider in Latin script. Ancient inscribed and cuneiform scripts such as Anatolian hieroglyphs used short vertical lines to separate words, as did Linear B.
In manuscripts, vertical lines were more used for larger breaks, equivalent to the Latin comma and period. This continues with many Indic scripts today; as noted above, the single and double interpunct were used in manuscripts throughout the ancient world. For example, Ethiopic inscriptions used a vertical line, whereas manuscripts used double dots resembling a colon; the latter practice continues today. Classical Latin used the interpunct in both paper manuscripts and stone inscriptions. Ancient Greek orthography used between two and five dots as word separators, as well as the hypodiastole. In the modern Hebrew and Arabic alphabets, some letters have distinct forms at the ends and/or beginnings of words; this demarcation is used in addition to spacing. The Nastaʿlīq form of Islamic calligraphy uses vertical arrangement to separate words; the beginning of each word is written higher than the end of the preceding word, so that a line of text takes on a sawtooth appearance. Nastaliq spread from Persia and today is used for Persian, Uyghur and Urdu.
In finger spelling and in Morse code, words are separated by a pause. Whitespace Sentence spacing Speech segmentation Zero-width non-joiner Zero-width space Substitute blank Underscore Daniels, Peter T.. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. Knight, Stan. "The Roman Alphabet". In Daniels, Peter T.. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. Ritner, Robert. "Egyptian Writing". In Daniels, Peter T.. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. Saenger, Paul. Space Between Words: The Origins of Silent Reading. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4016-X. Wingo, E. Otha. Latin Punctuation in the Classical Age. Mouton. P. 16