Jawi is an Arabic alphabet for writing Malay, Banjarese, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia. Jawi is one of the two official scripts in Brunei and is used as an alternative script in Malaysia and Malay-dominated areas in Indonesia, it used to be the standard script for the Malay language but has since been replaced by a Latin alphabet, called Rumi. Jawi has since been relegated to a script used for religious and some administrative purposes. Jawi can be typed with the Jawi keyboard, its day-to-day usage is maintained in the more-conservative Malay-populated areas such as Kelantan in Malaysia and Pattani. According to Kamus Dewan, "Jawi" is a term synonymous to'Malay'; the term has been used interchangeably with'Malay' in other terms including Bahasa Jawi or Bahasa Yawi, Masuk Jawi, Jawi pekan or Jawi Peranakan. With verb-building circumfixes men-...-kan, menjawikan refers to the act of translating a foreign text into Malay language. The word Tulisan Jawi that means "Jawi script" is another derivative that carries the meaning'Malay script'.
Prior to the onset of Islamisation, when Hindu-Buddhist influences were still established in the region, the Pallava script was used in writing the Malay language. This is evidenced from the discovery of several stone inscriptions in Old Malay, notably the Kedukan Bukit Inscription and Talang Tuwo inscription; the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and the subsequent introduction of Arabic writing system began with the arrival of Muslim merchants in the region since the seventh century. Among the oldest archaeological artefacts inscribed with Arabic script are. Islam was spread from the coasts to the interior of the island and in a top-down process in which rulers were converted and introduced more or less orthodox versions of Islam to their peoples; the conversion of King Phra Ong Mahawangsa of Kedah in 1136 and King Merah Silu of Samudra Pasai in 1267 were among the earliest examples. At the early stage of Islamisation, the Arabic script was taught to the people who had newly embraced Islam in the form of religious practices, such as the recitation of Quran as well as salat.
It is not too far-fetched to say that the Arabic script was accepted by the Malay community together with their acceptance of Islam and they didn't take Long to modify the script and adapt it to suit the spoken Classical Malay – it is written from right to left and has 6 sounds not found in Arabic: ca pa ga nga va and nya. Many Arabic characters are never used as they are not pronounced in Malay language, some letters are never joined and some joined obligatorily so; this was the same for the acceptance of Arabic writing in Turkey and India which had taken place earlier and thus, the Jawi script was deemed as the writing of the Muslims. The oldest remains of Malay using the Jawi script have been found on the Terengganu Inscription Stone, dated 702 AH, nearly 600 years after the date of the first recorded existence of Arabic script in the region; the inscription on the stone contains a proclamation issued by the "Sri Paduka Tuan" of Terengganu, urging his subjects to "extend and uphold" Islam and providing 10 basic Sharia laws for their guidance.
This has attested the strong observance of the Muslim faith in the early 14th century Terengganu and the Malay world as a whole. The development of Jawi script was different from that of Pallava writing, restricted to the nobility and monks in monasteries; the Jawi script was embraced by the entire Muslim community regardless of class. With the increased intensity in the appreciation of Islam, scriptures written in Arabic were translated in Malay and written in the Jawi script. Additionally local religious scholars began to elucidate the Islamic teachings in the forms of original writings. Moreover, there were individuals of the community who used Jawi for the writing of literature which existed and spread orally. With this inclusion of written literature, Malay literature took on a more sophisticated form; this was believed to have lasted right up to the 19th century. Other forms of Arabic-based scripts existed in the region, notably the Pegon alphabet of Javanese language in Java and the Serang alphabet of Bugis language in South Sulawesi.
Both writing systems applied extensively the Arabic diacritics and added several letters other than Jawi letters to suit the languages. Due to their limited usage, the spelling system of both scripts did not undergo similar advance developments and modifications as experienced by Jawi script; the script became prominent with the spread of Islam. The Malays held the script in high esteem as it is the gateway to understanding Islam and its Holy Book, the Quran; the use of Jawi script was a key factor driving the emergence of Malay as the lingua f
Strait of Malacca
The Strait of Malacca or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, 550 mi stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. As the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, it is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world, it is named after the Malacca Sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1400 and 1511. The International Hydrographic Organization define the limits of the Strait of Malacca as follows: Early traders from Arabia, Africa and the Southern Indian kingdoms reached Kedah before arriving at Guangzhou. Kedah served as a western port on the Malay Peninsula, they traded glassware, cotton goods, ivory, sandalwood and precious stones. These traders sailed to Kedah via the monsoon winds between November, they returned between May. Kedah provided accommodations, small vessels, bamboo rafts, elephants, as well as tax collections for goods to be transported overland toward the eastern ports of the Malay Peninsula such as Langkasuka and Kelantan.
After the Tenth Century, ships from China began to trade at these eastern trading ports. Kedah and Funan were famous ports throughout the 6th century, before shipping began to utilize the Strait of Malacca itself as a trade route. In the 7th century the maritime empire of Srivijaya based on Palembang, rose to power, its influence expanded to the Malay peninsula and Java; the empire gained effective control on two major choke points in maritime Southeast Asia. By launching a series of conquests and raids on potential rival ports on both sides of the strait, Srivijaya ensured its economic and military domination in the region, which lasted for about 700 years. Srivijaya gained great benefits from the lucrative spice trade, e.g. the tributary trade system with China, trade with Indian and Arab merchants. The Strait of Malacca became an important maritime trade route between China; the importance of the Strait of Malacca in global trade networks continued well into centuries with the rise of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century, the Johor Sultanate, the rise of the modern city-state of Singapore.
Since the 17th century, the strait has been the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Different major regional powers managed the straits during different historical periods. In the early 19th century, the Dutch and British empires drew an arbitrary boundary line in the strait and promised to hunt down pirates on their respective sides; the strait was established as one of the world's busiest shipping lanes, with Indonesia controlling the majority of the sea lane. From an economic and strategic perspective, the Strait of Malacca is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world; the strait is the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, linking major Asian economies such as India, Indonesia, Philippines, China, Japan and South Korea. Over 94,000 vessels pass through the strait each year making it the busiest strait in the world, carrying about 25% of the world's traded goods, including oil, Chinese manufactured products, palm oil and Indonesian coffee.
About a quarter of all oil carried by sea passes through the Strait from Persian Gulf suppliers to Asian markets. In 2007, an estimated 13.7 million barrels per day were transported through the strait, increasing to an estimated 15.2 million barrels per day in 2011. In addition, it is one of the world's most congested shipping choke points because it narrows to only 2.8 km wide at the Phillips Channel. The maximum size of a vessel that can pass through the Strait is referred to as Malaccamax, that is, for some of the world's largest ships, the Strait's minimum depth is not deep enough; this is determined by the shallow Singapore Strait, which provides passage to the Karimata Strait in the east. The next closest passageway is more shallow and narrow. Therefore, ships exceeding the Malaccamax must detour a few thousand nautical miles and use the Lombok Strait, Makassar Strait, Sibutu Passage, or Mindoro Strait instead. Piracy has been a problem in the strait. Piracy had been high in the 2000s, with additional increase after the events of September 11, 2001.
After attacks rose again in the first half of 2004, regional navies stepped up their patrols of the area in July 2004. Subsequently, attacks on ships in the Strait of Malacca dropped, to 79 in 2005 and 50 in 2006. Recent reports indicate. There are some dating to the 1880s, in the local TSS channel; these pose a collision hazard in the shallow strait. On 20 August 2017, the United States Navy destroyer USS John S. McCain lost ten of its crew's lives in a collision with the merchant ship Alnic MC a short distance east of the strait whilst full steering capabilities had been lost and making a series of errors in attempted mitigation, its external lights being changed to "red over red". Another risk is the annual haze due to bush fires in Indonesia, it may reduce visibility to 200 metres. The strait is used by ships longer than 350 m
Central Luzon, designated as Region III, is an administrative region in the Philippines serving to organize the 7 provinces of the vast central plains of the island of Luzon, for administrative convenience. The region contains the largest plain in the country and produces most of the country's rice supply, earning itself the nickname "Rice Granary of the Philippines", its provinces are: Aurora, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga and Zambales. The current name of the region is in reference to its position on Luzon island; the term was coined by American colonialists after the defeat of the First Philippine Republic. There have been proposals to rename the current Central Luzon region into the Luzones region; the proposed name is in reference to the old name of Luzon island, Luções, used to refer to the central area of the island. The term Luções translates into Luzones. Central Luzon Region is located north of the nation's capital. Bordering it are the regions of Ilocos and Cagayan Valley to the north.
Pangasinan is historico-culturally and geographically a part of this region, but was politically made part of the Ilocos Region by President Ferdinand Marcos on June 22 of 1973. There are fourteen cities in the region: Balanga in Bataan. Central Luzon produces the most rice in the whole country. Excess rice is imported to other provinces of the Philippines; the City of San Fernando, provincial capital of Pampanga, is designated as the regional center. Aurora was transferred from Region IV through Executive Order No. 103 on May 2002. Eighty percent of the population of Central Luzon is Roman Catholic. Other religions represented are Protestants, Iglesia Ni Cristo, indigenous religions such as Anitism. There are other denominations such as Jesus Is Lord, Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ, Ang Dating Daan, Jesus Miracle Crusade, United Methodist Church and others. Central Luzon comprises 7 provinces, 2 urbanized cities, 12 component cities, 116 municipalities, 3,102 barangays The Central Luzon Region has fourteen cities.
San Jose del Monte is the city with the most population while Angeles is the most densely populated city in the region. Tarlac City is the largest based on land area. Super regions of the Philippines Philippine Revolution Central Luzon Local Search North Luzon Super Region: Potentials North Luzon Super Region: Projects Executive Order No. 103
Maritime Southeast Asia
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Timor-Leste. The local Malayo-Polynesian name for the region is Nusantara. Maritime Southeast Asia is sometimes referred to as "island Southeast Asia" or "insular Southeast Asia"; the 16th-century term East Indies, the 19th-century term Malay Archipelago refers to a similar area. The main demographic difference that sets Maritime Southeast Asia apart from Indochina is that its population predominantly belongs to the Austronesian groups, although through trade with neighbouring groups from the Asian mainland like the Tai-Kadai, Austroasiatic, or Chinese, as well as other Oceanic groups like Papuans and Negritos there has been significant intermixing and cultural exchange; the prevailing cultures of this region are maritime-based and predominantly non-sinicized. Kingdoms based on Java and Sumatra such as Srivijaya and Majapahit spread similar cultural motifs throughout the subregion’s five countries.
Maritime Southeast Asia makes up the oldest bloc within Austronesia, with the Philippine archipelago representing the urheimat of all Malayo-Polynesians. As of 2017, there were over 540 million people live in the region, with the most populated island being Java; the people living there are predominantly from Austronesian subgroupings and correspondingly speak western Malayo-Polynesian languages. This region of Southeast Asia shares social and cultural ties with the peoples of mainland Southeast Asia and with other Austronesian peoples in the Pacific. Islam is the predominant religion, with Christianity being the dominant religion in the Philippines and Timor Leste. Buddhism and traditional Animism are practiced among large populations; the region has been referred to as part of Greater India, as seen in Coedes' Indianized States of Southeast Asia, which refers to it as "Island Southeast Asia". Historians have emphasized the maritime connectivity of the Southeast Asian region whereby it can be analyzed as a single cultural and economic unit, as has been done with the Mediterranean basin.
This region stretches from the Yangtze delta in China down to the Malay Peninsula, including the South China Sea, Gulf of Thailand and Java Sea. It is argued that many of the peoples connected in this trade network had more in common with one another than their inland neighbors, thus the utility of analyzing it as a single cultural and economic unit. However, this maritime Southeast Asian region differed from the Mediterranean in that there was a single dominant political and economic power driving trade and exchange, China. Historian Anthony Reid argues that this Southeast Asian region entered an ‘age of commerce’ between the early 1400’s and the 1600’s; this age of commerce sparked the multicultural and transnational dynamics which forged the region into a single maritime unit. Demand for Southeast Asian products and trade was driven by the increase in China’s population in this era, whereby it doubled from 75 to 150 million; the naval expeditions of Zheng He between 1405 and 1431 played a critical role in opening up the Southeast Asian region to increased trade.
China’s role in Southeast Asian maritime trade can be seen in the growing Hokkien diaspora which emigrated to various cities in the region throughout this period. Despite not having the official sanction of the Chinese government these communities formed business and trade networks between cities such as Melaka, Hội An and Ayutthaya. Sino-Southeast Asian trade had been going on since at least the 9th century, but their prominence in Southeast Asian port cities expanded in this era. Many of these Chinese businesspeople integrated into their new countries, becoming political officials and diplomats. East Indies East Malaysia Farther India Greater India Greater Indonesia Mainland Southeast Asia Malay Archipelago Malay Peninsula Malay race Malay world Malesia Nanyang Nusantara Peninsular Malaysia Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia Art of Island Southeast Asia, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Capture of Malacca (1511)
The Capture of Malacca in 1511 occurred when the governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque conquered the city of Malacca in 1511. The port city of Malacca controlled the narrow, strategic Strait of Malacca, through which all seagoing trade between China and India was concentrated; the capture of Malacca was the result of a plan by King Manuel I of Portugal, who since 1505 had intended to beat the Castillians to the Far-East, Albuquerque's own project of establishing firm foundations for Portuguese India, alongside Hormuz and Aden, to control trade and thwart Muslim shipping in the Indian Ocean. Having set sail from Cochin in April 1511, the expedition would not have been able to turn around due to contrary monsoon winds. Had the enterprise failed, the Portuguese could not hope for reinforcements and would have been unable to return to their bases in India, it was the farthest territorial conquest in the history of mankind until then. The first Portuguese references to Malacca appear after Vasco da Gama's return from his expedition to Calicut that opened a direct route to India around the Cape of Good Hope.
It was described as a city, 40 days' journey from India, where clove, nutmeg and silks were sold, was ruled by a sovereign who could gather 10,000 men for war and was Christian. Since King Manuel had showed an interest in making contact with Malacca, believing it to be at, or at least close to, the antimeridian of Tordesillas. In 1505 Dom Francisco de Almeida was dispatched by King Manuel I of Portugal as the first Viceroy of Portuguese India, tasked to, among other things, discover its precise location. De Almeida, unable to dedicate resources to the enterprise, sent only two undercover Portuguese envoys in August 1506, Francisco Pereira and Estevão de Vilhena, aboard a Muslim merchant's ship; the mission was aborted once they were detected and nearly lynched on the Coromandel Coast, narrowly making it back to Cochin by November. Founded in the beginning of the 15th century, through Malacca passed all trade between China and India; as a result of its ideal position, the city harboured many communities of merchants which included Arabians, Turks, Birmanese, Siamese and Lusong, the four most influential being the Muslim Gujaratis and Javanese, Hindus from the Coromandel Coast, Chinese.
According to the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires, who lived in Malacca between 1512 and 1514, as many as 84 dialects were spoken in Malacca. The Portuguese factor Rui de Araújo said it had 10,000 homes, with an estimated population of at least 40,000; the city however was built on swampy grounds and surrounded by inhospitable tropical forest, needed to import everything for its sustenance, such as vital rice, supplied by the Javanese. Malacca kept a group of captured cannibals from New Guinea to whom were fed the perpetrators of serious crimes. According to Brás de Albuquerque, the son of Afonso de Albuquerque: The Kingdom of Malacca is confined on one part by the Kingdom of Kedah and on the other by the Kingdom of Pahang and is 100 leagues long in coastline and 10 leagues into the land to a mountain range which it parted with the Kingdom of Siam. All this land was once subject to the Kingdom of Siam until about ninety years prior Unimpressed with Almeida's lack of results, in April 1508, King Manuel decided to dispatch a fleet directly to Malacca, composed of four ships under the command of Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, tasked with charting Madagascar and gathering information on the Chinese.
Sequeira received royal orders instructing him to obtain permission to open a trading post and trade diplomatically, not to respond to any provocations and not to open fire unless fired upon. By April 1509 the fleet was in Cochin and the Viceroy, Dom Francisco de Almeida, incorporated another carrack in the fleet to strengthen it; the decision was not innocent, as aboard traveled several supporters of Almeida's political rival, Afonso de Albuquerque. Among its crewmen was Ferdinand Magellan; the expedition arrived in Malacca in September 1509 and Sequeira sought to contact the Chinese merchants in the harbor. They invited him aboard one of their trade junks and received him well for dinner and arranged him a meeting with Sultan Mahmud; the Sultan promptly granted the Portuguese authorization to establish a feitoria and provided a vacant building for that purpose. Wary of the threat that the Portuguese posed to their interests, the powerful merchant communities of Muslim Gujaratis and Javanese convinced Sultan Mahmud and the Bendahara to betray and capture the Portuguese.
De Sequeira in the meantime was so convinced of the Sultan's amiability that he disregarded the information that Duarte Fernandes, a New Christian who spoke Parsi, obtained from a Persian innkeeper word about the ongoing preparations to destroy the fleet, confirmed by the Chinese merchants. He was playing chess aboard his flagship when the Malayan fleet, disguised as merchants, ambushed the Portuguese ships; the Portuguese repelled every boarding attempt, but faced with the sheer number of Malayan ships and unable to land any forces to rescue those Portuguese who had stayed in the feitoria, de Sequeira made the decision to sail back to India before the monsoon started and left them stranded in Southeast Asia. Before departing he sent a message to the Sultan and the bendahara in the form of two captives each with an arrow through his skull as a testimony to what would happen to them should any harm come to the 20 Portuguese left behind, who surrendered. Upon reaching Travancore in April, Sequeira heard that Afonso de Albuquerque had succeeded Dom Francisco de Almeida as Governor of Portuguese I
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia. In a more restricted sense, the Indies can be used to refer to the islands of Southeast Asia the Indonesian Archipelago and the Philippine Archipelago; the name "Indies" is derived from the River Indus and is used to connote parts of Asia that came under Indian cultural influence. Dutch-occupied colonies in the area were known for about 300 years as the Dutch East Indies before Indonesian independence, while Spanish-occupied colonies were known as the Spanish East Indies before the American conquest and Philippine independence; the East Indies may include the former French-occupied Indochina, former British territories Brunei and Singapore and former Portuguese East Timor. It does not, include the former Dutch New Guinea western New Guinea, geographically considered to be part of Melanesia; the inhabitants of the East Indies are never called East Indians, distinguishing them both from inhabitants of the Caribbean and from the indigenous peoples of the Americas who are called "American Indians."
In colonial times they were just "natives". However, the peoples of the East Indies comprise a wide variety of cultural diversity, the inhabitants do not consider themselves as belonging to a single ethnic group. Buddhism, Islam and Hinduism are the most popular religions throughout the region, while Sikhism, Chinese folk religion and various other traditional beliefs and practices are prominent in some areas; the major languages in this area draw from a wide variety of language families, should not be confused with the term Indic, which refers only to a group of Indo-Iranian languages from South Asia. The extensive East Indies are subdivided into two sections, archaically called Hither India and Further India; the first is the former British India, the second is Southeast Asia. Regions of the East Indies are sometimes known by the colonial empire they once belonged to, British East Indies refers to Malaysia, Dutch East Indies means Indonesia, Spanish East Indies means the Philippines; the king of Abyssinia was identified with "Prester John of the Indies", since that part of the world was imagined to be one of "Three Indias".
Exploration of these regions by European powers first began in the late 15th century and early 16th century led by the Portuguese explorers. The Portuguese described the entire region; the region would be broken up into a series of Indies: The East Indies, called "Old Indies" or "Great Indies", consisting of India, the West Indies called "New Indies" or "Little Indies", consisting of the Americas. These regions were important sources of trading goods cotton and spices after the establishment of European trading companies: the British East India Company and Dutch East India Company, among others, in the 17th century; the New World was thought to be the easternmost part of the Indies by explorer Christopher Columbus, who had grossly underestimated the westerly distance from Europe to Asia. To avoid confusion, the New World came to be called the "West Indies", while the original Indies came to be called the "East Indies"; the designation East Indian was once used to describe people of all of the East Indies, in order to avoid the potential confusion from the term American Indian who were once referred to as Indians.
Insulindia List of Governor-General of the Philippines List of Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies List of governors of the Straits Settlements Malayness Bumiputera Pribumi Malay world Malay Archipelago Malay race Maphilindo Maritime Southeast Asia Nusantara Greater Indonesia Greater India History of the Americas Indian West Indies
Portuguese Malacca was the territory of Malacca that, for 130 years, was a Portuguese colony. According to the 16th-century Portuguese historian Emanuel Godinho de Erédia, the site of the old city of Malacca was named after the Phyllanthus emblica, fruit-bearing trees along the banks of a river called Airlele; the Airlele river was said to originate from Buquet China. Eredia cited that the city was founded by Permicuri the first King of Malacca in 1411; the news of Malacca's wealth attracted the attention of Manuel I, King of Portugal and he sent Admiral Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, to make a trade compact with its ruler as Portugal's representative east of India. The first European to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509. Although he was well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah, trouble however ensued; the general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the sultan's court after the Portuguese had captured Goa.
The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud. Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped; as the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the only way they could establish themselves in Malacca. In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships; the Viceroy made a number of demands—one of, for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city. The Sultan refused all the demands. Conflict was unavoidable, after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on 24 August. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad weighed down the Malaccan side. Following the defeat of the Malacca Sultanate on 15 August 1511 in the capture of Malacca, Afonso de Albuquerque sought to erect a permanent form of fortification in anticipation of the counterattacks by Sultan Mahmud.
A fortress was designed and constructed encompassing a hill, lining the edge of the sea shore, on the south east of the river mouth, on the former site of the Sultan's palace. Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack. Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca; as the first base of European Christian trading kingdom in Southeast Asia, it was surrounded by numerous emerging native Muslim states. With hostile initial contact with the local Malay policy, Portuguese Malacca faced severe hostility, they endured years of battles started by Malay sultans who wanted to get rid of the Portuguese and reclaim their land. The Sultan made several attempts to retake the capital, he rallied the support from his ally the Sultanate of Demak in Java who, in 1511, agreed to send naval forces to assist. Led by Pati Unus, the Sultan of Demak, the combined Malay–Java efforts failed and were fruitless; the Portuguese forced the sultan to flee to Pahang.
The sultan sailed to Bintan Island and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. In 1521 the second Demak campaign to assist the Malay Sultan to retake Malacca was launched, however once again failed with the cost of the Demak Sultan's life, he was remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed to North. The raids helped convince the Portuguese. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese razed Bintan to the ground; the sultan retreated to Kampar in Riau, Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II. Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin made a new capital in the south.
His realm was the successor of Malacca. Several attempts to remove Malacca from Portuguese rule were made by the Sultan of Johor. A request sent to Java in 1550 resulted in Queen Kalinyamat, the regent of Jepara, sending 4,000 soldiers aboard 40 ships to meet the Johor sultan's request to take Malacca; the Jepara troops joined forces with the Malay alliance and managed to assemble around 200 warships for the upcoming assault. The combined forces attacked from the north and captured most of Malacca, but the Portuguese managed to retaliate and force back the invading forces; the Malay alliance troops were thrown back to the sea. Only after their leaders were slain did the Jepara troops withdraw; the battle continued on the beach and in the sea resulting in more than 2,000 Jepara soldiers being killed. A storm stranded two Jepara ships on the shore of Malacca, they fell prey to the Portuguese. Fewer than half of the Jepara soldiers managed to leave Malacca. In 1567, Prince Husain Ali I Riayat Syah from the Sultanate of Aceh launched a naval attack to oust the Portuguese from Malacca, but this once again ended in failure.
In 1574 a combined attack from Aceh Sultanate and Javanese Jepara tried again to capture Malacca from the Portuguese, but ended in failure due to poor coordination. Competition from other ports such as Johor saw Asian traders bypass Malacca and the city began to decline as a trading port. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese h