Lu was a vassal state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China located around modern Shandong province. Founded in the 11th century BC, its rulers were from a cadet branch of the House of Ji that ruled the Zhou dynasty; the first duke was Boqin, a son of the Duke of Zhou, brother of King Wu of Zhou and regent to King Cheng of Zhou. Lu was the home state of Confucius as well as Mozi, as such has an outsized cultural influence among the states of the Eastern Zhou and in history; the Annals of Spring and Autumn, for instance, was written with the Lu rulers' years as their basis. Another great work of Chinese history, the Zuo Zhuan or Commentary of Zuo, was written in Lu by Zuo Qiuming; the state's capital was in Qufu and its territory covered the central and southwest regions of what is now Shandong Province. It was bordered to the north by the powerful state of Qi and to the south by the powerful state of Chu; the position of Lu on the eastern frontiers of the Western Zhou state, facing the non-Zhou peoples in states such as Lai and Xu, was an important consideration in its foundation.
Lu was one of several states founded in eastern China at the beginning of the Zhou dynasty, in order to extend Zhou rule far from its capital at Zongzhou and power base in the Guanzhong region. Throughout Western Zhou times, it played an important role in stabilising Zhou control in modern-day Shandong. During the early Spring and Autumn period, Lu was one of the strongest states and a rival of Qi to its north. Under Duke Yin and Duke Huan of Lu, Lu defeated both Song on several occasions. At the same time, it undertook expeditions against other minor states; this changed by the middle of the period, as Lu's main rival, Qi, grew dominant. Although a Qi invasion was defeated in the Battle of Changshao in 684 BC, Lu would never regain the upper hand against its neighbour. Meanwhile, the power of the dukes of Lu was undermined by the powerful feudal clans of Jisun 季孫, Mengsun 孟孫, Shusun 叔孫; the domination of the Three Huan was such that Duke Zhao of Lu, in attempting to regain power, was exiled by them and never returned.
It would not be until Duke Mu of Lu's reign, in the early Warring States period, that power returned to the dukes again. In 249 BC King Kaolie of the state of Chu annexed Lu. Duke Qing, the last ruler of Lu, became a commoner; the main line of the Duke of Zhou's descendants came from his firstborn son, the State of Lu ruler Bo Qin's third son Yu whose descendants adopted the surname Dongye. The Duke of Zhou's offspring held the title of Wujing Boshi.東野家族大宗世系 Family Tree of the descendants of the Duke of Zhou in Chinese Duke Huan of Lu's son through Qingfu was the ancestor of Mencius. The genealogy is found in the Mencius family tree. List of Lu rulers based on the Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian: Lu Commandery Media related to Lu at Wikimedia Commons
George Anthony Morgan Taylor GC, known as Tony Taylor, was an Australian vulcanologist awarded the George Cross in 1952 for "conspicuous courage in the face of great danger" during the eruption of Mount Lamington in Papua from January to March 1951. Taylor was one of only five Australian civilians directly awarded the George Cross between its institution in 1941 and 1972 when it was replaced in the Australian honours system by the Cross of Valour. Taylor was born in Moree, New South Wales, the son of George Taylor, a businessman, Eileen May Taylor, he was educated at Sydney Boys High School. He began his career. On 29 April 1942 he enlisted in Australian Imperial Force, his service number was NX95673. Taylor was based in North Queensland until May 1945 when his company was deployed to New Britain to Jacquinot Bay and after the Japanese surrender, to Rabaul until October 1946. Taylor was demobbed on 8 January 1947 finishing his military service as a WO1, he enrolled at the University of Sydney in March 1947 graduating with a BSc in 1950.
After graduation Taylor joined the Bureau of Mineral Resources as a Geologist Grade I on 20 March 1950. His first posting was in April 1950 as a vulcanologist, based at Rabaul, overseeing all volcanoes in Papua New Guinea. Mount Lamington, south-west of Popondetta is in the Oro Province, north of the Owen Stanley Range in eastern New Guinea. Five thousand feet high, it was not recognised as a volcano until it began erupting on 18 January 1951; the main and catastrophic eruption took place on 21 January 1951. Over the next three months Taylor visited the volcano daily, sometimes staying overnight, collecting vital data to aid the rescue efforts; the full citation was published on 22 April 1952 in a supplement to The London Gazette of 18 April 1952: St. James's Palace, S. W.1, 22nd April, 1952. The QUEEN has been graciously pleased, on the advice of Her Majesty's Australian Ministers, to make the undermentioned award of the GEORGE CROSS: — George Anthony TAYLOR, Commonwealth Bureau of Mineral Resources, Territory of Papua and New Guinea.
Mount Lamington, in Papua, began to erupt on the night of 18th January, 1951. Three days there was a violent eruption when a large part of the northern side of the mountain was blown away and steam and smoke poured from the gap for a considerable time afterwards; the area of extreme damage extended over a radius of about eight miles, while people near Higaturu, nine miles from the volcano, were killed by the blast or burned to death. This and subsequent eruptions caused the death of some 4,000 persons, considerable damage. Dust and ash filled every stream and tank for some miles around, there was urgent need of food and medical supplies. Rescue parties were hampered by suffocating pumice dust and sulphurous fumes, hot ashes on the ground, the advance post of relief workers at Popondetta was threatened with destruction by other eruptions during the several days following. Further tremors and explosions occurred during February; as late as March 5th a major eruption occurred which threw as far as two miles pieces of volcanic dome, 15 ft. by 12 ft. by 10 ft. and caused a flow of pumice and rocks for a distance of nine miles, the whole being so hot as to set fire to every tree in its path.
For a prolonged period Mr. Taylor showed conspicuous courage in the face of great danger, he arrived at Mount Lamington on the day following the main eruption and from that day onwards, over a period of several months, he visited the crater by aircraft daily, on many other occasions, on foot. On some occasions he stayed at the foot of the volcano throughout the night. During the whole of this period the volcano was never quiet. Several eruptions took place without any warning or any indication from the seismographical data which he had collected. Without regard for his personal safety he entered the danger area again and again, each time at great risk, both in order to ensure the safety of the rescue and working parties and in order to obtain scientific information relating to this type of volcano, about which little was known, his work saved many lives for as a result of his investigations in the danger zone he was able, when necessary, to warn rehabilitation parties and ensure that they were prevented from entering an area which he so fearlessly entered himself.
Taylor's investiture was performed by Donald Cleland, Acting Administrator of Papua and New Guinea, on 24 November 1952 in the Memorial Cemetery in Popondetta. After the eruption, Taylor returned to Canberra to study the seismographical data, he married Lindsay Grace Barrow on 4 April 1956. They had a daughter. In 1957 he was awarded a MSc from the University of Sydney. In February 1961 Taylor was appointed Senior Resident Geologist in Port Moresby. Taylor died on the island of Manam in Papua New Guinea on 19 August 1972 at the age of 54, he was acting head of the Australian Geological Survey Division at the time of his death. His ashes were buried at a suburb of Canberra. A plaque in his honour appears on the George Cross Memorial in George Cross Park in Canberra
The Wright R-2600 Cyclone 14 was an American radial engine developed by Curtiss-Wright and used in aircraft in the 1930s and 1940s. In 1935, Curtiss-Wright began work on a more powerful version of their successful R-1820 Cyclone 9; the result was the R-2600 Twin Cyclone, with 14 cylinders arranged in two rows. The 1,600 hp R-2600-3 was intended for the C-46 Commando, it was the original engine choice for the F6F Hellcat. The Twin Cyclone went on to power several important American World War II aircraft, including the A-20 Havoc, B-25 Mitchell, TBF Avenger, SB2C Helldiver, the PBM Mariner. Over 50,000 R-2600s were built at plants in Paterson, New Jersey, Cincinnati, Ohio. R-2600-1 - 1,600 hp R-2600-3 - 1,600 hp R-2600-6 - 1,600 hp R-2600-8 - 1,700 hp R-2600-9 - 1,700 hp R-2600-12 - 1,700 hp R-2600-13 - 1,700 hp R-2600-19 - 1,600 hp, 1,660 hp R-2600-20 - 1,700 hp, 1,900 hp R-2600-22 - 1,900 hp R-2600-23 - 1,600 hp R-2600-29 - 1,700 hp, 1,850 hp GR-2600-A5B - 1,500 hp, 1,600 hp, 1,700 hp GR-2600-A71 - 1,300 hp GR-2600-C14 - 1,750 hp Boeing 314 Clipper Brewster SB2A Buccaneer Curtiss SB2C Helldiver Douglas A-20 Havoc Douglas B-23 Dragon Grumman F6F Hellcat Grumman TBF Avenger Lioré et Olivier LeO 451 Martin Baltimore Martin PBM Mariner Miles Monitor North American B-25 Mitchell Vultee A-31 Vengeance Data from Jane's.
Type: 14-cylinder supercharged air-cooled two-row radial engine Bore: 6 1⁄8 in Stroke: 6 5⁄16 in Displacement: 2,604 in3 Length: 62.06 in Diameter: 55 in Dry weight: 2,045 lb Valvetrain: Two pushrod-actuated valves per cylinder with sodium-cooled exhaust valve Supercharger: Single-stage two-speed centrifugal type supercharger, impeller diameter 11 in, blower ratio 7.06:1 at slow speed and 10.06:1 at high speed Fuel system: Stromberg PR48A downdraft carburetor with automatic mixture control Oil system: Dry sump with one pressure pump and two scavenge pumps Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 1,750 hp at 2,600 rpm at 3,200 ft military power 1,450 hp at 2,600 rpm at 15,000 ft military power Specific power: 0.67 hp/in³ Compression ratio: 6.9:1 Power-to-weight ratio: 0.86 hp/lb Gunderson Do-All Machine - incorporates an R-2600 into an educational network of machines, kinetic art. Related development Wright Cyclone family Wright R-1300 Cyclone 7 Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone Hispano-Suiza 14Aa Comparable engines BMW 801 Bristol Hercules Fiat A.74 Gnome-Rhône 14N Mitsubishi Kinsei Nakajima Sakae Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Shvetsov ASh-82 - derived from Wright Aeronautical radial engine designsRelated lists List of aircraft engines Gunston, Bill.
World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines: From the Pioneers to the Present Day. 5th edition, Stroud, UK: Sutton, 2006. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X White, Graham. Allied Aircraft Piston Engines of World War II: History and Development of Frontline Aircraft Piston Engines Produced by Great Britain and the United States During World War II. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: SAE International, 1995. ISBN 1-56091-655-9 Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London. Studio Editions Ltd, 1998. ISBN 0-517-67964-7
A lattice tower or truss tower is a freestanding framework tower. They can be used as electricity transmission towers for voltages above 100 kilovolts, as a radio tower or as an observation tower. Before 1940, they were used as radio transmission towers for short and medium wave lattice towers consisting of wood were utilized; the tallest wooden lattice tower was at Germany. It had a height of 190 metres and was built in 1934 and demolished in 1945. Most wood lattice towers were demolished before 1960. In Germany the last big radio towers consisting of wood were the transmission towers of the Golm transmitter and the transmitter Ismaning, they were demolished in 1983 respectively. The tallest lattice tower is the Tokyo Skytree, with a height of 634 metres. Lattice towers are designed as either a space frame or a hyperboloid structure. Architectural structure List of towers Hyperboloid structure Partially guyed tower Additionally guyed tower
Sigma Lambda Gamma National Sorority, Inc. is a multicultural sorority. It was founded on April 9, 1990, at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa by five collegiate women who wanted an organization to empower Latina women; the sorority focuses on five principles: academics, community service, cultural awareness, social interaction, morals and ethics. National programmings includes the Young Women's Leadership Program, Emotional Intelligence, their philanthropic "Drive to 25." They have partnered up with other organizations to raise awareness about different issues, such as the American Heart Association for heart disease and Voto Latino to encourage youth of color to vote. With over 10,000 members, the sorority has a diverse membership, claiming to represent over 110 nationalities. Having expanded to more than 100 universities in less than 20 years, membership in the organization is open to any woman who meets the membership requirements, regardless of religion, race, or nationality. Women may join through undergraduate chapters at a college or university, or after acquiring a college degree through an alumnae association.
In fall of 1989, a group of women met to form an organization that would provide empowerment to Latina women. By April 9, 1990, the University of Iowa Panhellenic Council recognized the organization as a sorority, which Sigma Lambda Gamma celebrates as their founding date; the five women who were instrumental in establishing the organization–Gloria Cuevas, Julieta Maria Miller, Maria Ester Pineda, Danell Marie Riojas, Guadalupe Temiquel–are collectively referred to as the Five Founding Mothers. A national headquarters was established at 900 West Penn Street, North Liberty, Iowa, they moved to their current address at 1295 Jordan St. Suite 3, P. O. Box 395, North Liberty, IA 52317. Along with housing national records and staff, it was once home to the sorority's national biannual publication, La Mensajera; the Omega Chapter was established to recognize and pay respect to deceased sisters. As the sorority grew, Sigma Lambda Gamma's membership became more multicultural. In acknowledging this, the organization, a part of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations from January 2001 to May 2010, left due to a desire for autonomy and due to their increasing multicultural membership.
The sorority celebrated their 100th and 101st chapters with the addition of the Theta Delta chapter at Columbia University and the Iota Delta chapter at Millikin University in 2010, having expanding to more than 100 chapters in 20 years. While chapters have always organized local programmings on their respective campuses, Sigma Lambda Gamma created the Education Foundation, where national programs were birthed; the Young Women’s Leadership program was designed to promote confidence and leadership skills for middle-school aged girls. An Emotional Intelligence education program was started up. Scholarships were added to support members in higher education. In 2012, the Panther Dash For Education was developed to generate funds that will support scholastic achievement and leadership training. A virtual race, sisters are encouraged to participate in any run/walk event of their choice and later upload it to media sites; the sorority has been active in bringing about social changes in the community as well.
In hopes of encouraging their members and youth of color to promote positive change in their community, they began a partnership with Voto Latino in 2012, a nonpartisan organization that empowers Latino Millennials to claim a better future for themselves and their community by voting and learning how to make a difference. In the 2014 Voto Latino's RepUrLetters Challenge, in which Latino Greek-lettered organizations competed to register voters on their campuses and in their communities, Sigma Lambda Gamma's voter registration efforts accounted for 36% of the total number of voters registered, with the highest number of voters registered. For their 2013 National Sisterhood Retreat, Sigma Lambda Gamma was honored by the Diosa Nail & Polish company with their colors to commemorate the Educate. Engage. Empower. Theme. Sisters voted on it; the two colors are: “Women of Dis-PINK-tion” to reflect their color shocking pink and “On the Prowl” to reflect their color majestic purple as well as their stone, amethyst.
It was made available to sisters only and has since been sold out. To commemorate their 25th anniversary, the sorority launched their philanthropic campaign, “Drive to 25,” focusing on empowering women and spreading cultural awareness. Sisters across the nation took part in hosting and participating in community-based events, whether it is coordinating a book drive or volunteering in a local women's shelter; the five Founding Mothers of Sigma Lambda Gamma are: Gloria Cuevas Julieta Maria Miller Maria Ester Pineda Danell Marie Riojas Guadalupe Cruz Temiquel The sorority supports a variety of charitable organizations. Sorority entities conduct and participate in programming events that are designed to raise awareness and educate the public on these topics. Additionally, chapters organize local philanthropic projects, such as the raising funds for the 2013 Oklahoma tornado disaster, adopting a highway, animal shelters, male sexual assault. In 2014, they launched their "Gammas Go Red" campaign in partnership with the American Heart Association on social media in an effort to raise awareness about heart disease in women.
Julian George Wyatt is a former cricketer who played first-class and List A cricket for Somerset from 1983 to 1989. Wyatt was born on 19 June 1963 at Somerset. Wyatt was a right-handed batsman used as opening batsman, his upright and technically correct batting style meant that he was used more in first-class cricket than in shorter forms of the game, though he played for Somerset in his seven seasons, he was never assured of his place in the side in all forms of the game. Wyatt made his first-class debut in a mid-season match in 1983 against the New Zealanders, returned as an opener in the final five games of the season. In these matches he scored three half-centuries, including 69 and an unbeaten 82 in the final game of the season against Warwickshire. Wisden in its review of Somerset's season wrote that Wyatt "displayed a splendid temperament and a sound technique". In 1984, Wyatt started in good form, scoring 87 in the first innings of the first game of the season against Yorkshire and putting on 246 for the first wicket with Peter Roebuck.
In the next match, against Oxford University, he pair put on 181 and Wyatt went on to a first century, scoring 103. In the fourth match of the season, against the West Indians, he made 45 out of Somerset's 116 in the first innings and 69 of the total of 125 in the second, but his form declined and he was left out of the team for several matches from mid-season onwards. Wisden noted that he "rather faded as off-side technical defects were discovered". In terms of figures, the 1985 season was Wyatt's best: he scored 816 runs at an average of 31.38. Again, he started the season with a big innings against Oxford University: he made 145 out of a first-wicket partnership of 245 with Roebuck, this would be the highest first-class score of his career, he missed a month of cricket with a hand injury, but regained his place mid-season and in the match against Hampshire, batting at No 4, he made his first and only County Championship century, an innings of 100 that occupied six hours and 22 minutes but helped Somerset to save the match.
He played regularly in Somerset's List A side in 1985, but was notably unsuccessful, recording only 61 runs in nine completed innings. The 1986 and 1987 seasons were poor ones for Wyatt, but he returned to more regular first-team cricket in 1988 and had his most successful season in List A matches, scoring 368 runs at an average of 30.66. These runs included four scores of 50 or more, including 89, his highest one-day innings, made in a high-scoring Sunday League matchy against Yorkshire at Scarborough; that was higher than he achieved in 15 first-class matches, where there was a return of 578 runs and an average of 23.13. After an unproductive 1989 season with few matches in either format of the game, Wyatt left the Somerset staff. Wyatt played Minor Counties cricket for three seasons for Devon from 1993 to 1995, appearing in each season in a first-round match in the NatWest Trophy against first-class opposition, But neither he nor his team was successful in these matches, he went back to Somerset as the county club's schools coach