The Sengoku period is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China, it was initiated by the Ōnin War, which collapsed the Japanese feudal system under the Ashikaga shogunate, came to an end when the system was re-established under the Tokugawa shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu. During this period, although the Emperor of Japan was the ruler of his nation and every lord swore loyalty to him, he was a marginalized and religious figure who delegated power to the shōgun, a noble, equivalent to a generalissimo. In the years preceding this era the Shogunate lost influence and control over the daimyōs. Although the Ashikaga shogunate had retained the structure of the Kamakura shogunate and instituted a warrior government based on the same social economic rights and obligations established by the Hōjō with the Jōei Code in 1232, it failed to win the loyalty of many daimyōs those whose domains were far from the capital, Kyoto.
Many of these Lords began to fight uncontrollably with each other for control over land and influence over the shogunate. As trade with Ming China grew, the economy developed, the use of money became widespread as markets and commercial cities appeared. This, combined with developments in agriculture and small-scale trading, led to the desire for greater local autonomy throughout all levels of the social hierarchy; as early as the beginning of the 15th century, the suffering caused by earthquakes and famines served to trigger armed uprisings by farmers weary of debt and taxes. The Ōnin War, a conflict rooted in economic distress and brought on by a dispute over shogunal succession, is regarded as the onset of the Sengoku period; the "eastern" army of the Hosokawa family and its allies clashed with the "western" army of the Yamana. Fighting in and around Kyoto lasted for nearly 11 years, leaving the city completely destroyed; the conflict in Kyoto spread to outlying provinces. The period culminated with a series of three warlords, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, who unified Japan.
After Tokugawa Ieyasu's final victory at the siege of Osaka in 1615, Japan settled down into several centuries of peace under the Tokugawa shogunate. The Ōnin War in 1467 is considered the starting point of the Sengoku period. There are several events which could be considered the end of it: Nobunaga's entry to Kyoto or abolition of the Muromachi shogunate, the Siege of Odawara, the Battle of Sekigahara, the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, or the Siege of Osaka; the upheaval resulted in the further weakening of central authority, throughout Japan regional lords, called daimyōs, rose to fill the vacuum. In the course of this power shift, well-established clans such as the Takeda and the Imagawa, who had ruled under the authority of both the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu, were able to expand their spheres of influence. There were many, whose positions eroded and were usurped by more capable underlings; this phenomenon of social meritocracy, in which capable subordinates rejected the status quo and forcefully overthrew an emancipated aristocracy, became known as gekokujō, which means "low conquers high".
One of the earliest instances of this was Hōjō Sōun, who rose from humble origins and seized power in Izu Province in 1493. Building on the accomplishments of Sōun, the Late Hōjō clan remained a major power in the Kantō region until its subjugation by Toyotomi Hideyoshi late in the Sengoku period. Other notable examples include the supplanting of the Hosokawa clan by the Miyoshi, the Toki by the Saitō, the Shiba clan by the Oda clan, in turn replaced by its underling, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a son of a peasant with no family name. Well-organized religious groups gained political power at this time by uniting farmers in resistance and rebellion against the rule of the daimyōs; the monks of the Buddhist True Pure Land sect formed numerous Ikkō-ikki, the most successful of which, in Kaga Province, remained independent for nearly 100 years. After nearly a century of political instability and warfare, Japan was on the verge of unification by Oda Nobunaga, who had emerged from obscurity in the province of Owari to dominate central Japan, when in 1582 Oda was assassinated by one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide.
This in turn provided Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who had risen through the ranks from ashigaru to become one of Oda's most trusted generals, with the opportunity to establish himself as Oda's successor. Toyotomi consolidated his control over the remaining daimyōs and, although he was ineligible for the title of Sei-i Taishōgun because of his common birth, ruled as Kampaku. During his short reign as Kampaku, Toyotomi attempted two invasions of Korea; the first spanning from 1592 to 1596 was successful but suffered setbacks to end in stalemate. When Toyotomi died in 1598 without leaving a capable successor, the country was once again thrust into political turmoil, this time Tokugawa Ieyasu took advantage of the opportunity. Toyotomi had on his deathbed appointed a group of the most powerful lords in Japan—Tokugawa, Maeda Toshiie, Ukita Hideie, Uesugi Kagekatsu, Mōri Terumoto—to govern as the Council of
Confucianism known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or a way of life. Confucianism developed from what was called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang and Zhou dynasties. In the Han dynasty, Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism. A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty. In the late Tang, Confucianism developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism; this reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty. The abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism; the intellectuals of the New Culture Movement of the early twentieth century blamed Confucianism for China's weaknesses.
They searched for new doctrines to replace Confucian teachings. In the late twentieth century Confucian work ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian economy. With particular emphasis on the importance of the family and social harmony, rather than on an otherworldly source of spiritual values, the core of Confucianism is humanistic. According to Herbert Fingarette's conceptualisation of Confucianism as a religion which regards "the secular as sacred", Confucianism transcends the dichotomy between religion and humanism, considering the ordinary activities of human life—and human relationships—as a manifestation of the sacred, because they are the expression of humanity's moral nature, which has a transcendent anchorage in Heaven and unfolds through an appropriate respect for the spirits or gods of the world. While Tiān has some characteristics that overlap the category of godhead, it is an impersonal absolute principle, like the Dào or the Brahman. Confucianism focuses on the practical order, given by a this-worldly awareness of the Tiān.
Confucian liturgy led by Confucian priests or "sages of rites" to worship the gods in public and ancestral Chinese temples is preferred on certain occasions, by Confucian religious groups and for civil religious rites, over Taoist or popular ritual. The worldly concern of Confucianism rests upon the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, teachable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue in a morally organised world; some of the basic Confucian ethical concepts and practices include rén, yì, lǐ, zhì. Rén is the essence of the human being, it is the virtue-form of Heaven. Yì is the upholding of the moral disposition to do good. Lǐ is a system of ritual norms and propriety that determines how a person should properly act in everyday life in harmony with the law of Heaven. Zhì is the ability to see what is right and fair, or the converse, in the behaviors exhibited by others. Confucianism holds one in contempt, either passively or for failure to uphold the cardinal moral values of rén and yì.
Traditionally and countries in the Chinese cultural sphere are influenced by Confucianism, including mainland China, Hong Kong, Korea and Vietnam, as well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore. Today, it has been credited for shaping East Asian societies and Chinese communities, to some extent, other parts of Asia. In the last decades there have been talks of a "Confucian Revival" in the academic and the scholarly community, there has been a grassroots proliferation of various types of Confucian churches. In late 2015 many Confucian personalities formally established a national Holy Confucian Church in China to unify the many Confucian congregations and civil society organisations. Speaking, there is no term in Chinese which directly corresponds to "Confucianism". In the Chinese language, the character rú 儒 meaning "scholar" or "learned" or "refined man" is used both in the past and the present to refer to things related to Confucianism; the character rú in ancient China had diverse meanings.
Some examples include "to tame", "to mould", "to educate", "to refine". Several different terms, some of which with modern origin, are used in different situations to express different facets of Confucianism, including: Chinese: 儒 家. Three of them use rú; these names do not use the name "Confucius" at all, but instead focus on the ideal of the Confucian man. The use of the term "Confucianism" has been avoided by some modern scholars, who favor "Ruism" and "Ruists" instead. Robert Eno argues that the term has been "burdened... with the ambiguities and irrelevant
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi. It evolved at about the same time as Confucianism and Legalism, was one of the four main philosophic schools from around 770–221 BC. During that time, Mohism was seen as a major rival to Confucianism. Although its influence endured, Mohism all but disappeared as an independent school of thought. Mohism is best known for the concepts of "impartial care"; this is translated and popularized as "Universal Love", misleading as Mozi believed that the essential problem of human ethics was an excess of partiality in compassion, not a deficit in compassion as such. His aim was to re-evaluate behaviour, not attitudes; the Mohists formed a structured political organization that tried to realize the ideas they preached, the writings of Mozi. Like Confucians, they hired out their services not only for gain, but in order to realize their own ethical ideals.
This political structure consisted of a network of local units in all the major kingdoms of China at the time, made up of elements from both the scholarly and working classes. Each unit was led by a juzi. Within the unit, a frugal and ascetic lifestyle was enforced; each juzi would appoint his own successor. Mohists developed the sciences of fortification and statecraft, wrote treatises on government, ranging in topic from efficient agricultural production to the laws of inheritance, they were hired by the many warring kingdoms as advisers to the state. In this way, they were similar to knights-errant of the period. Mohism promotes a philosophy of impartial caring; the expression of this indiscriminate caring is. This advocacy of impartiality was a target of attack by the other Chinese philosophical schools, most notably the Confucians, who believed that while love should be unconditional, it should not be indiscriminate. For example, children should hold a greater love for their parents than for random strangers.
Mozi is known for his insistence that all people are deserving of receiving material benefit and being protected from physical harm. In Mohism, morality is defined not by tradition and ritual, but rather by a constant moral guide that parallels utilitarianism. Tradition varies from culture to culture, human beings need an extra-traditional guide to identify which traditions are morally acceptable; the moral guide must promote and encourage social behaviours that maximize the general utility of all the people in that society. The concept of Ai was developed by the Chinese philosopher Mozi in the 4th century BC in reaction to Confucianism's benevolent love. Mozi tried to replace what he considered to be the long-entrenched Chinese over-attachment to family and clan structures with the concept of "universal love". In this, he argued directly against Confucians who believed that it was natural and correct for people to care about different people in different degrees. Mozi, by contrast, believed.
Mohism stressed that rather than adopting different attitudes towards different people, love should be unconditional and offered to everyone without regard to reciprocation, not just to friends and other Confucian relations. In Chinese Buddhism, the term Ai was adopted to refer to a passionate caring love and was considered a fundamental desire. In Buddhism, Ai was seen as capable of being either selfish or selfless, the latter being a key element towards enlightenment. Unlike hedonistic utilitarianism, which views pleasure as a moral good, "the basic goods in Mohist consequentialist thinking are... order, material wealth, increase in population". During Mozi's era and famines were common, population growth was seen as a moral necessity for a harmonious society; the "material wealth" of Mohist consequentialism refers to basic needs like clothing. Stanford sinologist David Shepherd Nivison, in The Cambridge History of Ancient China, writes that the moral goods of Mohism "are interrelated: more basic wealth more reproduction.
In contrast to Bentham's views, state consequentialism is not utilitarian because it is not hedonistic. The importance of outcomes that are good for the state outweigh the importance of individual pleasure and pain. Mozi posited that, when society functions as an organized organism, the wastes and inefficiencies found in the natural state are reduced, he believed that conflicts are born from the absence of moral uniformity found in human cultures in the natural state, i.e. the absence of the definition of what is right and what is wrong. According to Mozi, we must therefore choose leaders who will surround themselves with righteous followers, who will create the hierarchy that harmonizes Shi/Fei. In that sense, the government becomes an automated tool. Assuming that the leaders in the social hierarchy are conformed to the ruler, submissive to Heaven, conformity in speech and behaviour is expected of all people. There is no freedom of speech in
Ōshio Heihachirō was a former yoriki and a Neo-Confucianist scholar of the Wang Yangming school in Osaka. Despite working for the government, he was against the Tokugawa regime, he is known for his role as leader in the rebellion against the Tokugawa shogunate. Ōshio was born as the eldest son in a samurai family in 1793. At the age of 15 he discovered he had a shameful ancestor who spent his days writing documents in the company of prisoners and municipals; this finding was the immediate cause of his decision to become a disciple of Neo-confucianism. At the age of 24 he read a book about the morals and precepts of chinese philosopher Lü Kun and he became inspired by Lü Kun's master: Wang Yangming. From that moment on, Ōshio began his lifelong study aimed at the teachings of his students. From the age of 13, Ōshio was employed as a Yoriki. Additionally, he was a police inspector in Ōsaka, he proved his integrity by to oppose corruption. After 14 years he discovered that the new court official was a corrupt man which led to his resignation in 1830.
Henceforth he began a pilgrimage to a place called Ōmi. When he returned to Ōsaka, he began writing and teaching about the Yōmeigaku and founded his own private school called the Senshindō. Ōshio spent the rest of his retirement teaching his students. On he published a book called Senshindō Sakki, a compilation of scripts used in his lectures. Ōshio built upon the teachings of confucianism and the interpretation that learning innate knowledge could lead to inner peace and the transcendence of life and death. His metaphysics was based on Wang Yangming's theory about Makoto. Taikyō is the source of everything in the universe. One must turn to the absolute spirit if one wants to overcome the false, conventional categories of distinction; the re-identification with this absolute spirit makes life easier. One should adopt an attitude of true nature, sincere acts and an indifference to the concept of death. Sincerity is known in Buddhism for acting according to distinct standards. Ōshio adopted the idea of sincerity from Chinese philosopher Wang Yangming and gave the idea a unique Japanese interpretation.
One must act as a brave samurai. This inner quality is known as sincerity, it reflects the course of action Ōshio took during the rebellion. The shogunate of the Edo-period and influenced by the Tokugawa family since the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, next to climate, the biggest cause of suffering. Both the peasants and lower sub-caste samurai were affected by their actions. Agriculture and food production experienced a crisis due to a failed harvest in 1833 and 1836 and the government demanded high tax rates from ordinary citizens; this crisis was rare in the ever-prosperous Kansai and unrest spread into the big cities. The population protested against the high-rise rice prices and as an act of resistance began to ushi kowashi; this led to the destruction of a large part of Ōsaka. The unrest alarmed the Tokugawa shogunate and Ōshio, who at that moment was employed as a Yoriki. In 1837 Ōshio sought help from the administrators and wealthy merchants of Ōsaka, but his efforts were fruitless. There was no movement at the time for the rights of ordinary citizens, so Ōshio ensured that the anger of the population was channeled to an organized uprising.
Despite the fact that he had a lot of influence and was a member of the elite of Japan, he helped them fight the government's corruption. The failed harvest, which caused famine and high rice prices, together with exacerbating fiscal problems and problems with foreign countries, is called the Tenpō Crisis; this was the direct reason for the uprising led by Ōshio Heihachirō. Ōshio and his allies were forced to start the rebellion earlier than planned because a traitor informant had informed the authorities. On February 19, 1837, Ōshio set fire to his house in Ōsaka as a signal for his followers to start the rebellion before the Bakufu troops had the chance to suppress them, he ordered the farmers to burn tax archives and ordered the poor to rob the warehouses of the rich and redistribute the rice among the hungry population. Although planned in detail, the uprising was a fiasco; the insurgents were poorly trained in the use of weapons and combat techniques, but the bakufu troops were inadequate.
The government soldiers were able to suppress the uprising and Ōshio, together with his son, fled to the mountains. He lit his shelter on fire before the bakufu troops could arrest him, he burned himself and his son alive. One can conclude. More than 3,000 houses burned and 30,000 to 40,000 koku rice were destroyed; the majority of his followers committed suicide and from the 29 insurgents who were captured, only five survived the interrogations. The survivors were salted. Despite all the hype, it is still unclear what Ōshio's political strategy was. One suspects that he only wanted to help the population for confucian reasons. A positive outcome was that it sparked the country's interest in international politics and that social and economic problems were addressed. Cullen, L. M. A history of Japan, 1582–1941. Cambridge: Cambridge. Jansen, M. B; the making of modern Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge. Fred G. Notehelfer and Kokugaku, article by Encyclopædia Britannica Vincent Shen, Wisdom in China and the West, online reference work "Chinese Philosophical studies" Lou
Laozi rendered as Lao Tzu and Lao-Tze, was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer. He is the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching, the founder of philosophical Taoism, a deity in religious Taoism and traditional Chinese religions. A semi-legendary figure, Laozi was portrayed as a 6th-century BC contemporary of Confucius, but some modern historians consider him to have lived during the Warring States period of the 4th century BC. A central figure in Chinese culture, Laozi is claimed by both the emperors of the Tang dynasty and modern people of the Li surname as a founder of their lineage. Laozi's work has been embraced by Chinese Legalism. In traditional accounts, Laozi's personal name is given as Li Er and his courtesy name as Boyang. A prominent posthumous name was Li Dan. Laozi itself is a honorific title: 老 and 子, it has been romanized numerous ways. The most common present form is Laozi or Lǎozǐ, based on the Hanyu Pinyin system adopted by Mainland China in 1958 and by Taiwan in 2009. During the 20th century, Lao-tzu was more common, based on the prevalent Wade–Giles system.
In the 19th century, the title was romanized as Lao-tse. Other forms include the variants Lao-tsu; as a religious figure, he is worshipped under the name "Supreme Old Lord" and as one of the "Three Pure Ones." During the Tang dynasty, he was granted the title "Supremely Mysterious and Primordial Emperor". In the mid-twentieth century, a consensus emerged among scholars that the historicity of the person known as Laozi is doubtful and that the Tao Te Ching was "a compilation of Taoist sayings by many hands". Alan Watts urged more caution, holding that this view was part of an academic fashion for skepticism about historical spiritual and religious figures and stating that not enough would be known for years – or ever – to make a firm judgment; the earliest certain reference to the present figure of Laozi is found in the 1st‑century BC Records of the Grand Historian collected by the historian Sima Qian from earlier accounts. In one account, Laozi was said to be a contemporary of Confucius during the 6th or 5th century BC.
His surname was Li and his personal name was Er or Dan. He was an official in the imperial archives and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the west. In another, Laozi was a different contemporary of Confucius titled Lao Laizi and wrote a book in 15 parts. In a third, he was the court astrologer Lao Dan who lived during the 4th century BC reign of Duke Xian of the Qin Dynasty; the oldest text of the Tao Te Ching so far recovered was written on bamboo slips and dates to the late 4th century BC. According to traditional accounts, Laozi was a scholar who worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of Zhou; this allowed him broad access to the works of the Yellow Emperor and other classics of the time. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a formal school but nonetheless attracted a large number of students and loyal disciples. There are many variations of a story retelling his encounter with Confucius, most famously in the Zhuangzi, he was sometimes held to have come from the village of Chu Jen in Chu.
In accounts where Laozi married, he was said to have had a son named Zong who became a celebrated soldier. The story tells of Zong the Warrior who defeats the enemy and triumphs, abandons the corpses of the enemy soldiers to be eaten by vultures. By coincidence Laozi and teaching the way of the Tao, comes on the scene and is revealed to be the father of Zong, from whom he was separated in childhood. Laozi tells his son that it is better to treat respectfully a beaten enemy, that the disrespect to their dead would cause his foes to seek revenge. Convinced, Zong orders his soldiers to bury the enemy dead. Funeral mourning is held for the dead of both parties and a lasting peace is made. Many clans of the Li family trace their descent to Laozi, including the emperors of the Tang dynasty; this family was known as the Longxi Li lineage. According to the Simpkinses, while many of these lineages are questionable, they provide a testament to Laozi's impact on Chinese culture; the third story in Sima Qian states that Laozi grew weary of the moral decay of life in Chengzhou and noted the kingdom's decline.
He ventured west to live as a hermit in the unsettled frontier at the age of 80. At the western gate of the city, he was recognized by the guard Yinxi; the sentry asked the old master to record his wisdom for the good of the country before he would be permitted to pass. The text Laozi wrote was said to be the Tao Te Ching, although the present version of the text includes additions from periods. In some versions of the tale, the sentry was so touched by the work that he became a disciple and left with Laozi, never to be seen again. In others, the "Old Master" journeyed all the way to India and was the teacher of Siddartha Gautama, the Buddha. Others say. A seventh-century work, the Sandong Zhunang, embellished the relationship between Yinxi. Laozi pretended to be a farmer when reaching the western gate, but was recognized by Yinxi, who asked to be taught by the great master. Laozi was not satisfied by being noticed by the guard and demanded an explanation. Yinxi expressed his deep desire to find the Tao and explained that his long study of astrology allowed him to recognize Laozi's approach.
Yinxi was ac
Li Si was a Chinese politician of the Qin dynasty, well known Legalist writer and politician, notable calligrapher. He served as Chancellor from 246–208 BC under two rulers: Qin Shi Huang, the king of the Qin state and the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. Concerning administrative methods, Li Si "indicated that he admired and utilized the ideas of Shen Buhai" referring to the technique of Shen Buhai and Han Fei, but regarding law followed Shang Yang. Stanford University's John Knoblock considered Li Si "one of the two or three most important figures in Chinese history". Having a clear vision of universal empire and "one world comprising all Chinese, bringing with universal dominion universal peace", Li Si was "largely responsible for the creation of those institutions that made the Qin dynasty the first universal state in Chinese history". Li Si assisted the Emperor Shi Huangdi in unifying the laws, governmental ordinances and measures, standardized chariots and the characters used in writing... the cultural unification of China.
He "created a government based on merit, so that in the empire sons and younger brothers in the imperial clan were not ennobled, but meritorious ministers were", "pacified the frontier regions by subduing the barbarians to the north and south". He had the weapons of the feudal states melted and cast into musical bells and large human statues, relaxed taxes and the draconian punishments inherited from Shang Yang. Li Si was from Shang Cai in the State of Chu; as a young man he was a minor functionary in the local administration of Chu. According to the Records of the Great Historian, one day Li Si observed that rats in the outhouse were dirty and hungry but the rats in the barn house were well fed, he realized that "there is no set standard for honour since everyone's life is different. The values of people are determined by their social status, and like rats, people's social status depends purely on the random life events around them. And so instead of always being restricted by moral codes, people should do what they deemed best at the moment."
He made up his mind to take up politics as a career, a common choice for scholars not from a noble family during the Warring States period. Li Si was unable to advance his career in Chu, he believed that achieving nothing in life while being so intelligent and educated would bring shame to not just himself but to all scholars. After having finished his education with the famous Confucian thinker Xunzi, he moved to the State of Qin, the most powerful state at that time in an attempt to advance his political career. During his stay in Qin, Li Si became a guest of Prime Minister Lü Buwei and got the chance to talk to the ruler of Ying Zheng who would become the first emperor of a unified China, Qin Shi Huang. Li Si expressed that the Qin state was powerful, but uniting China was still impossible if all of the other six states united to fight against Qin. Qin Shi Huang was impressed by Li Si's view of. Having adopted Li Si's proposal, the ruler of Qin spent generously to lure intellectuals to the state of Qin and sent out assassins to kill important scholars in other states.
In 237 BC a clique at the Qin court urged King Zheng to expel all foreigners from the state to prevent espionage. As a native of Chu, Li Si would be a target of the policy so he memorialised the king explaining the many benefits of foreigners to Qin including "the sultry girls of Zhao." The king relented and, promoted him. The same year, Li Si is reported to have urged King Zheng to annex the neighbouring State of Han to order to intimidate the other five remaining states. Li Si wrote the "Petition against the Expulsion of Guest Officers” in 234 BC. Han Fei, a member of the aristocracy from the State of Han, was asked by the Han king to go to Qin and resolve the situation through diplomacy. Li Si, who envied Han Fei's intellect, persuaded the Qin king that he could neither send Han Fei back nor employ him; as a result, Han Fei was imprisoned, in 233 BC convinced by Li Si to commit suicide by taking poison. The State of Han was conquered in 230 BC. After Qin Shi Huang became. Li Si believed that books regarding things such as medicine and prophecy could be ignored but political books were dangerous in public hands.
It was hard to make progress and change the country with the opposition of so many "free thinking" scholars. As a result, only the state should keep political books, only the state run schools should be allowed to educate political scholars. Li Si himself penned the edict ordering the destruction of historical records and literature in 213 BC, including key Confucian texts, which he thought detrimental to the welfare of the state, it is thought that 460 Confucian scholars were buried alive, from the well-known historical event "Burning Books and Burying Confucianists". In reality, the 460 people who were buried alive by the Qin emperor, Shi Huang Di, were priests and shamans who were alleged to be depriving the emperor of resources and wealth while looking for medicines that would grant eternal life or apotheosis; when Qin Shi Huang died while away from the capital, Li Si and the chief eunuch Zhao Gao suppressed the late emperor's choice of successor, Fusu. At that time Fusu was close friends with Meng Tian.
If Fusu became the next empero
Liang Shuming, October 18, 1893 – June 23, 1988), born Liang Huanding, courtesy name Shouming, was a philosopher and leader in the Rural Reconstruction Movement in the late Qing dynasty and early Republican eras of Chinese history. Liang was born in Beijing, his family were ethnic Mongolians of Guangxi origin. He was the son of a famous intellectual who committed suicide in despair at the state of the Chinese nation, he had a modern exposure to Western writings. Liang was always fascinated by Buddhism, but never joined a monastery due to the opposition of his father. At the age of sixteen, he refused to allow his mother to discuss marriage on his behalf and at nineteen he became a vegetarian, remaining so for the rest of his life. In 1917 he was recruited by Cai Yuanpei to the philosophy department of Beijing University, where he produced an influential book based on his lectures entitled Eastern and Western Cultures and their Philosophies, which expounded some of the doctrines of a modern Confucianism.
He displayed the influence of Henri Bergson popular in China, as well as Buddhist Yogacara philosophy. Although Liang had abandoned his determination to become a monk in 1920 and his celibacy in 1921, Buddhism influenced him for the rest of his life. Regarding Western civilization as doomed to eventual failure, Liang did not advocate complete reform and adoption of Western institutions, he nonetheless believed. It was his view that the required prerequisites for these institutions did not exist in China, so they would not succeed if introduced. Instead, he pushed for change to socialism starting at the grassroots level. To this end, he founded the Shandong Rural Reconstruction Institute and helped to found the China Democratic League. Liang was famous for his critique of Marxist class theory, stating that, despite obvious disparities of wealth, Chinese rural society could not be unambiguously classified along class lines. One and the same family would have some members among the "haves" and others among the "have-nots".
The class struggle advocated by the Maoists would necessitate kinsmen attacking each other. After the Sino-Japanese War, he mediated disputes between the Nationalist parties. After the victory of the Communists in 1949, he was persecuted in ideological campaigns, but refused to admit any error, he died in Beijing. Released in 1921, "Eastern and Western Cultures and their Philosophies" put forth Liang's theory of three cultures; this was one of four main Neo-Confucian responses to Scientism. His theory stemmed from Yogacara Buddhism's three natures, his theory was based in his definition of the formation of distinct cultures. In Liang’s book he states: "What is culture? It is the life-style of a people. What is life? It is the expression of inexhaustible will—something quite close to the will in Schopenhauer—always being satisfied and yet not satisfied". According to Liang, will decides life and life decides culture, so cultures are different when the wills and desires of the people who populate them differ.
Liang saw three orientations of the will: the desire 1) to change and affect your surroundings to bend to your will 2) to change your will so you do not desire to change your surroundings 3) to eliminate will so one no longer desires anything because of his understanding that much of the world is an illusion. To Liang, the three orientations of will were not unconnected but a progression, he says that since knowledge starts with applying reason to your surroundings the first orientation is the most formative. This leads to an imbalance; as intuition develops, it leads to hardship instead of relieving it. This leads to direct perception, the third orientation. Liang maintained that the West held the first orientation, while China held the second and India held the third. In his book "The Substance of Chinese Culture", Liang contrasted Chinese culture with that of Western culture, he did this by exploring the relationship between the social structures in the two regions. Social structure, he asserted, created the cultural factors determining everything about the two cultures.
He said Social structure is influenced by cultural viewpoint, which in turn is defined by the social foundation of the society. Liang believed society had three forms: communities and individuals. A cultural viewpoint that emphasizes one combination of these will differ from a viewpoint that emphasizes different ones. Liang believed that while China had stressed the importance of family, the West focused on the relationship of the individual to the community, he said this led China down a path dedicated to an ethics-based society, while the West produced an individual-based society instead. China was led down its path because of feelings of kinship and emotional bonds, which dominated their society; the West, due to their emphasis on mutual rights, proceeded down a path revolving around class distinction, economic independence and laws. The Chinese, had a society of professional divisions due to greater social mobility, mutual responsibility and personal bonds to maintain order. Liang brings up his three cultures theory and China’s position in it.
He states that although China was in the second stage, it had skipped the first, lacked the development of profit and power. Rather than suggesting China go back to the first cultural stage, Liang suggests the introduction