Camino de Santiago
The Camino de Santiago, known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways or pilgrimages leading to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried. Many follow its routes as a form of spiritual retreat for their spiritual growth, it is popular with hiking and cycling enthusiasts and organized tour groups. The French Way and the Routes of Northern Spain are the courses listed in the World Heritage List by UNESCO; the Way of St. James was one of the most important Christian pilgrimages during the Middle Ages, together with those to Rome and Jerusalem, a pilgrimage route on which a plenary indulgence could be earned. Legend holds that St. James's remains were carried by boat from Jerusalem to northern Spain, where he was buried in what is now the city of Santiago de Compostela; the Way can take one of dozens of pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela.
Traditionally, as with most pilgrimages, the Way of Saint James began at one's home and ended at the pilgrimage site. However, a few of the routes are considered main ones. During the Middle Ages, the route was travelled. However, the Black Death, the Protestant Reformation, political unrest in 16th century Europe led to its decline. By the 1980s, only a few hundred pilgrims per year registered in the pilgrim's office in Santiago. In October 1987, the route was declared the first European Cultural Route by the Council of Europe. Since the 1980s the route has attracted a growing number of modern-day international pilgrims. Whenever St. James's Day falls on a Sunday, the cathedral declares a Jubilee Year. Depending on leap years, Holy Years occur in 5-, 6-, 11-year intervals; the most recent were 1982, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2010. The next will be 2021, 2027, 2032; the pilgrimage to Santiago has never ceased from the time of the discovery of St. James's remains in 812 AD, though there have been years of fewer pilgrims during European wars.
The main pilgrimage route to Santiago follows an earlier Roman trade route, which continues to the Atlantic coast of Galicia, ending at Cape Finisterre. Although it is known today that Cape Finisterre, Spain's westernmost point, is not the westernmost point of Europe, the fact that the Romans called it Finisterrae indicates that they viewed it as such. At night, the Milky Way overhead seems to point the way, so the route acquired the nickname "Voie lactée" – the Milky Way in French; the scallop shell found on the shores in Galicia, has long been the symbol of the Camino de Santiago. Over the centuries the scallop shell has taken on a variety of meanings, metaphorical and mythical if its relevance may have derived from the desire of pilgrims to take home a souvenir. Two versions of the most common myth about the origin of the symbol concern the death of Saint James, martyred by beheading in Jerusalem in 44 AD. According to Spanish legends, he had spent time preaching the gospel in Spain, but returned to Judaea upon seeing a vision of the Virgin Mary on the bank of the Ebro River.
Version 1: After James's death, his disciples shipped his body to the Iberian Peninsula to be buried in what is now Santiago. Off the coast of Spain, a heavy storm hit the ship, the body was lost to the ocean. After some time, however, it washed covered in scallops. Version 2: After James's death his body was transported by a ship piloted by an angel, back to the Iberian Peninsula to be buried in what is now Santiago; as the ship approached land, a wedding was taking place on shore. The young groom was on horseback, on seeing the ship approaching, his horse got spooked, horse and rider plunged into the sea. Through miraculous intervention, the horse and rider emerged from the water alive, covered in seashells. From its connection to the Camino, the scallop shell came to represent pilgrimage, both to a specific shrine as well as heaven, recalling Hebrews 11:13, identifying that Christians "are pilgrims and strangers on the earth"; as the symbol of the Camino de Santiago, the shell is seen frequently along the trails.
The shell is seen on signs along the Camino in order to guide pilgrims along the way. The shell is more seen on the pilgrims themselves. Wearing a shell denotes that one is a traveler on the Camino de Santiago. Most pilgrims receive a shell at the beginning of their journey and either attach it to them by sewing it onto their clothes or wearing it around their neck or by keeping it in their backpack; the scallop shell served practical purposes for pilgrims on the Camino de Santiago. The shell was the right size for eating out of as a makeshift bowl. During the medieval period, the shell was proof of completion rather than a symbol worn during the pilgrimage; the pilgrim's staff is a walking stick used by pilgrims to the shrine of Santiago de Compostela in Spain. The stick has a hook on it so that something may be hung from it, may have a crosspiece on it; the earliest records of visits paid to the shrine dedicated to St. James at Santiago de Compostela date from the 9th century, in the time of the Kingdom of Asturias and Galicia.
The pilgrimage to the shrine bec
Valdés is a Spanish municipality in the province of Asturias. Its capital is Luarca, it borders the Bay of Biscay on the north, the municipalities of Navia and Villayón on the west, Tineo on the south, Salas on the southeast, Cudillero on the east. The rivers Esva and Barayo flow through the area; the national road N-634 is the main road serving the municipality. The surname " Valdés", widespread throughout Spain and Hispanic America, is believed to have originated from the town of Valdés. Álvaro de Albornoz y Liminiana, politician Severo Ochoa de Albornoz, Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1959. Gil Parrondo y Rico, set decorator Margarita Salas Folgueras, scientist Townhall website Federación Asturiana de Concejos Vivasturias Images of Valdés
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
A fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish, determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features"; the definition includes a combination of fish and fishers in a region, the latter fishing for similar species with similar gear types. A fishery may involve the capture of wild fish or raising fish through fish aquaculture. Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture. Overfishing, including the taking of fish beyond sustainable levels, is reducing fish stocks and employment in many world regions. A report by Prince Charles' International Sustainability Unit, the New York-based Environmental Defence Fund and 50in10 published in July 2014 estimated global fisheries were adding $270 billion a year to global GDP, but by full implementation of sustainable fishing, that figure could rise by as much as $50 billion.
In biology – the term fish is most used to describe any animal with a backbone that has gills throughout life and has limbs, if any, in the shape of fins. Many types of aquatic animals referred to as fish are not fish in this strict sense. In earlier times biologists did not make a distinction—sixteenth century natural historians classified seals, amphibians, crocodiles hippopotamuses, as well as a host of marine invertebrates, as fish. In fisheries – the term fish is used as a collective term, includes mollusks and any aquatic animal, harvested. True fish – The strict biological definition of a fish, above, is sometimes called a true fish. True fish are referred to as finfish or fin fish to distinguish them from other aquatic life harvested in fisheries or aquaculture. Fisheries are harvested for their value, they can be freshwater, wild or farmed. Examples are the salmon fishery of Alaska, the cod fishery off the Lofoten islands, the tuna fishery of the Eastern Pacific, or the shrimp farm fisheries in China.
Capture fisheries can be broadly classified as industrial scale, small-scale or artisanal, recreational. Close to 90 % of the world's fishery catches come from seas, as opposed to inland waters; these marine catches have remained stable since the mid-nineties. Most marine fisheries are based near the coast; this is not only because harvesting from shallow waters is easier than in the open ocean, but because fish are much more abundant near the coastal shelf, due to the abundance of nutrients available there from coastal upwelling and land runoff. However, productive wild fisheries exist in open oceans by seamounts, inland in lakes and rivers. Most fisheries are wild fisheries. Farming can occur in coastal areas, such as with oyster farms, but more occur inland, in lakes, ponds and other enclosures. There are species fisheries worldwide for finfish, mollusks and echinoderms, by extension, aquatic plants such as kelp. However, a small number of species support the majority of the world's fisheries.
Some of these species are herring, anchovy, flounder, squid, salmon, lobster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over a million tonnes in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a harvest of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species are harvested in smaller numbers. Cullis-Suzuki S and Pauly D "Failing the high seas: A global evaluation of regional fisheries management organizations" Marine Policy, 34 pp 1036–1042. FAO: Types of fisheries Hart PJB and Reynolds JD Handbook of fish biology and fisheries Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-632-05412-1 Fisheries at Curlie FAO Fisheries Department and its SOFIA report The Fishery Resources Monitoring System The International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems: Fishing, Food Webs, Future Options, U. S. National Academy of Sciences UNEP/GEF South China Sea Project and its Fisheries Refugia Portal and National Reports on Fish Stocks and Habitats in the South China Sea World Fisheries Day: Seafood for Thought and World Fisheries from Sea to Table slideshow on the Smithsonian Ocean Portal Hawes, J. W..
"Fisheries". The American Cyclopædia. "Fisheries". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Fisheries Wiki A detailed online encyclopaedia providing current and quantitative information on marine fisheries worldwide
A parroquia is a population entity or parish found in Galicia and Asturias in north-west Spain. The term may have its origins in Roman Catholic Church usage, similar to the British term parish; the concept forms a settled part of the popular consciousness, but it has never become an official political division. In Galicia there are each comprising between three and fifteen or more villages, they developed over time as de facto entities, although the Galician Statute of Autonomy of 1981 recognises them as territorial entities below the concello and above villages. In Asturias there are 857 parishes integrating the 78 concejos or conceyos in the region, they coincide with the ecclesiastic divisions. Parroquia
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
ALSA (bus company)
ALSA is a Spanish subsidiary of the UK company National Express, which operates bus and coach services in Spain and other countries across Europe, including Andorra, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia and Ukraine. It has operations in Morocco. ALSA had operations in China and Chile, but these were retained by the previous owners of the company and are not owned by National Express; when ALSA was incorporated in 1923, it was a regional operator based in Luarca and Oviedo, in the Spanish northern region of Asturias. In the 1920s and 1930s the Alsa flagship service was the 170 km Oviedo-Luarca-Ribadeo route, northwest from Oviedo, with thirteen fixed and thirty occasional stops, a 10-hour journey; this was extended to Coruña. In the 1940s and 1950s ALSA extended its network through western Asturias. In 1962 the company started a route from Oviedo to Madrid, in 1964 started its first international service from Oviedo to Paris and Brussels; the company expanded continually to become the leading Spanish road passenger transporter in the 1980s, by 2000 covered most of Spain and Western Europe.
Towards the end of the 20th century, Alsa took over several Spanish operators Empresa Fernandez, based in León, Enatcar and Continental Auto. In October 2005 National Express took a majority shareholding in ALSA. National Express acquired ALSA's main Spanish rival, Continental Auto, in 2007. ALSA has operated in Morocco since 1999. Other operations were subsequently added in Agadir in 2010, Tangier in 2013 and Khourigba in 2015. In June 2018, it was awarded a 15-year contract to operate services in Rabat, Salé and Temara in a joint venture with local company CityBus. In its early years the ALSA fleet was based on NAG and Saurer vehicles, with some additional GMCs, De Dion-Boutons, but in 1939/40 they bought around seven British ACLO normal control coaches, which in the early fifties were followed by eight forward control units of the Regal III model of the same make, with bodies by Seida of Bilbao. ALSA switched to an all-Pegaso buying policy still with Seida bodies, with Monotral, Setra-Seida and Irizar coachwork.
Mercedes-Benz is still the main ALSA chassis provider, but the top-of-the-range three-axled Setras are the current flagships of the ALSA fleet, many of them in the Clase Supra top-class specification. Most of the fleet is equipped with WIFI, onboard toilets, air conditioning and power outlets at every seat. Official website Beijing ALSA Page on ALSA's ACLO buses