Paranthropus aethiopicus or Australopithecus aethiopicus is an extinct species of hominin, one of the robust australopithecines. The first specimen of Australopithecus aethiopicus that was discovered is known as Omo 18, Omo 18, known as Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus was discovered in southern Ethiopia by French archeologists Camille Arambourg and Yves Coppens in 1967. Omo 18 serves as a predecessor to KNM-WT17000, which was discovered by Alan Walker, the finding discovered in 1985 by Alan Walker in West Turkana, Kenya, KNM WT17000, is one of the earliest examples of robust pliocene hominids. A key feature of Omo 18 is that it has a v-shaped jaw unlike the other Australopithecus species found, although Omo 18 was the first skull discovered of these species, many paleoanthropologists ignored the finding on the basis that it was similar to the other species of australopithecines. Once KNM-WT17000 was discovered, interest renewed in Omo 18, Australopithecus aethiopicus is categorized into a group known as the robust australopithecines.
The robust australopithecines are split into three species, Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus robustus, and Australopithecus boisei, there has been an ongoing debate over the exact phyletic origins of each of these species. The robust australopithecines share many characteristics of the cranium and mandible, Australopithecus aethiopicus has notable features that differ from the other robust australopithecines, including a larger zygomatic arch, extended ramus of the mandible, and a more prognathic face. These differences may have developed during the evolution of aethiopicus. The skull is dated to 2.5 million years ago, anthropologists suggest that P. aethiopicus lived between 2.7 and 2.5 million years ago. The features are primitive and share many traits with Australopithecus afarensis. Lower jaw and teeth fragments have been uncovered, P. aethiopicus had a large sagittal crest and zygomatic arch adapted for heavy chewing. Not much is known about this species since the best evidence comes from the Black Skull, there is not enough material to make an assessment of how tall they were, but they may have been as tall as Australopithecus afarensis.
Paranthropus aethiopicus is considered a megadont archaic hominin, the term megadont referring to the size of the postcanine tooth crowns. The initial discovery was an adult mandible in the Shungura formation of the Omo region of Ethiopia in 1967. The ash layers above and below the fossils give a date of 2. 3-2.5 mya. There is only one complete skull for this hominin, so it’s hard to make proper inferences about physical characteristics. However, it can be said that the skull is similar to P. boisei, although the incisors are larger, the face more prognathic. Not all anthropologists agree that P. aethiopicus evolved into both Paranthropus boisei and Paranthropus robustus, since the more closely resembles that of A. afarensis
Bandung Institute of Technology
The Bandung Institute of Technology or Institute of Technology, Bandung is a state, coeducational research university located in Bandung, Indonesia. Established in 1920, ITB is the oldest technology-oriented university in Indonesia, the first president of the Republic of Indonesia, earned his engineering degree in civil engineering from ITB. Furthermore, B. J. Habibie, the president of Indonesia. The university cultivates professional and social activities by supporting its students unions, each students union has its own distinctly designed jacket that, among other traditions, serves as part of its member identity. There are a number of student activity units/clubs supporting ITB student interests in rounding out their educational experience and it is not uncommon that the students and alumni are identified by the clubs to which they belong at ITB, in addition to their class year and major. The university is a member of LAOTSE, a network of leading universities in Europe and Asia exchanging students.
ITB traces its origin to de Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng which was established by the Dutch colonial administration to meet the needs of technical resources in Dutch East Indies and it was opened as a branch of Delft Institute of Technology. The school building was designed in 1918 by a Dutch architect named Henri Maclaine Pont, during the Japanese occupation in 1942-1945, the institute was renamed Kōgyō Daigaku. When Indonesia declared its independence the campus was renamed Sekolah Tinggi Teknik in 1945, however a year the Netherlands returned to Indonesia and took directorship of the campus, it was used as Nood-Universiteit van Nederlandsch Indië. Later in 1947 the campus housed the Faculteit van Technische Wetenschap, in 1950 after the Netherlands left Indonesia, the university became faculty of engineering and faculty of natural sciences, under University of Indonesia. On March 2,1959, the 2 faculty of University of Indonesia in Bandung was declared a separate academic entity, 155/2000, ITB was declared a Legal Enterprise.
Bandung Institute of Technology was founded for higher learning in natural sciences, the ITB main campus, to the north of the downtown Bandung, and its other campuses, cover a total area of 770,000 square metres. Students and faculty housing, and administrative headquarters are not on the main campus, facilities on the campus include book shops, a post office, student cafeteria and medical clinic. In addition to rooms, laboratories and studios, ITB has an art gallery, sports facilities. Also near the campus is the Salman Mosque for worship and religious activities of the ITB Muslim community, admission to ITB is conducted through nationwide entrance examination. Historically ITB has been the most selective University in the nation, in 2000, the last Asiaweek survey available, ITB ranked first in Asia in student selectivity. In the 2007 and 2008 national entrance examination, ITB has the highest average score as well as the highest passing grade in the nation, ITB is among the first choices of college applicants to enter higher education.
In a 1991 survey, the top 200 high school students in the entrance examination indicated ITB as their first choice
Australopithecus sediba is a species of Australopithecus of the early Pleistocene, identified based on fossil remains dated to about 2 million years ago. The fossils were found together at the bottom of the Malapa Cave, where they fell to their death. Over 220 fragments from the species have recovered to date. MH1 is disarticulated and 34% complete if skeletal elements known to be in a block are included while MH2 is 45. 6% complete. Australopithecus sediba may have lived in savannas but ate fruit and other foods from the similar to modern-day savanna chimpanzees. The conditions in which the individuals were buried and fossilized were extraordinary, the first specimen of A. sediba was found by paleoanthropologist Lee Bergers nine-year-old son, Matthew, on August 15,2008. While exploring near his fathers dig site in the hills north of Johannesburg, on the Malapa Nature Reserve. The boy alerted his father to the find, who could not believe what he saw — a hominid clavicle, upon turning the block over, sticking out of the back of the rock was a mandible with a tooth, a canine, sticking out.
And I almost died, he recalled, the fossil turned out to belong to a 4 ft 2 in juvenile male, whose skull was discovered in March 2009 by Bergers team. The find was announced to the public on April 8,2010, found at the Malapa archeological site were a variety of animal fossils, including saber-toothed cats and antelopes. Berger and geologist Paul Dirks speculated that the animals might have fallen into a deep 100–150-foot death-trap, the bodies may have been swept into a pool of water with a sandy bottom and rich with lime, allowing the remains to become fossilized. The fossil was dated using a combination of palaeomagnetism and uranium-lead dating which showed that the fossils are no older than ~2.0 Ma, the presence of animal species which became extinct at ~1.5 Ma indicates the deposit is no younger than 1.5 Ma. The sediments have a normal polarity and the only major period between 2.0 and 1.5 Ma when this occurred is the Olduvai sub-Chron between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma. Accordingly, the fossils were dated to ~1.95 Ma.
Recent dating of a capping flowstone demonstrated this was not possible, the cusp spacing is more like Australopithecus. The femur and tibia are fragmentary, but the foot combines an advanced anklebone combined with a primitive heel and its cranial capacity is estimated at around 420–450 cm3, about one-third that of modern humans. A. sediba had a modern hand, whose precision grip suggests it might have been another tool-making Australopithecus. Evidence of the precision gripping and stone tool production can be seen from Homo-like features such as having a long thumb, the nearly complete wrist and hand of an adult female from Malapa, South Africa presents Australopithecus-like features, such as a strong flexor apparatus associated with arboreal locomotion
At this point ancient art begins, for the older literate cultures. The end-date for what is covered by the term thus varies greatly between different parts of the world, from the Upper Palaeolithic through the Mesolithic, cave paintings and portable art such as figurines and beads predominated, with decorative figured workings seen on some utilitarian objects. In the Neolithic evidence of early pottery appeared, as did sculpture, Early rock art first appeared in the Neolithic. It saw the development in areas of artisans, a class of people specializing in the production of art. By the Iron Age, civilizations with writing had arisen from Ancient Egypt to Ancient China, some cultures, notably the Maya civilization, independently developed writing during the time they flourished, which was later lost. These cultures may be classified as prehistoric, especially if their writing systems have not been deciphered, the earliest undisputed art originated with the Aurignacian archaeological culture in the Upper Paleolithic.
However, there is evidence that the preference for the aesthetic emerged in the Middle Paleolithic. Some archaeologists have interpreted certain Middle Paleolithic artifacts as early examples of artistic expression, there are other claims of Middle Paleolithic sculpture, dubbed the Venus of Tan-Tan and the Venus of Berekhat Ram. In 2002 in Blombos cave, situated in South Africa, stones were discovered engraved with grid or cross-hatch patterns and this suggested to some researchers that early Homo sapiens were capable of abstraction and production of abstract art or symbolic art. Several archaeologists including Richard Klein are hesitant to accept the Blombos caves as the first example of actual art, the oldest undisputed works of figurative art were found in the Schwäbische Alb, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The earliest of these, the Venus figurine known as the Venus of Hohle Fels, monumental open-air art in Europe from this period includes the rock-art at Côa Valley and Mazouco in Portugal, Domingo García and Siega Verde in Spain, and Rocher gravé de Fornols in France.
A cave at Turobong in South Korea containing human remains has found to contain carved deer bones. Petroglyphs of deer or reindeer found at Sokchang-ri may date to the Upper Paleolithic, potsherds in a style reminiscent of early Japanese work have been found at Kosan-ri on Jeju island, due to lower sea levels at the time, would have been accessible from Japan. The oldest petroglyphs are dated to approximately the Mesolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, the earliest undisputed African rock art dates back about 10,000 years. The first naturalistic paintings of humans found in Africa date back about 8,000 years apparently originating in the Nile River valley, noted sites containing early art include Tassili nAjjer in southern Algeria, Tadrart Acacus in Libya, and the Tibesti Mountains in northern Chad. Rock carvings at the Wonderwerk Cave in South Africa have been dated to this age, contentious dates as far back as 29,000 years have been obtained at a site in Tanzania. A site at the Apollo 11 Cave complex in Namibia has been dated to 27,000 years, göbekli Tepe in Turkey has circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars dating back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE, the worlds oldest known megaliths.
Many of the pillars are decorated with abstract, enigmatic pictograms, Asia was the cradle for several significant civilizations, most notably those of China and South Asia
Australopithecus africanus is an extinct species of the australopithecines, the first of an early -form species to be classified as hominin. Recently it was dated as living between 3.3 and 2.1 million years ago, or in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene times, it is debated as being a direct ancestor of modern humans. A. africanus was of slender, or gracile and has found only in southern Africa at four sites, Sterkfontein, Makapansgat. Dart assigned the specimen the name Australopithecus africanus, it was dubbed the Taung child. This was the first time the word ape was formally assigned to any hominin, Dart theorized the Taung child skull must represent an intermediate species between apes and humans. And the rejection was buttressed by the widespread belief then, especially in British academia and he dismissed Darts claim, suggesting instead that the Taung child skull belonged to a young ape, most likely an infant gorilla or chimpanzee. Keith immersed himself in defending the Piltdown man and his reputation suffered greatly after the hoax was exposed in 1953, phillip Tobias, in a lengthy essay published in Current Anthropology in 1992, detailed the history of the investigation of the hoax.
As part of the essay Tobias debated the inconsistencies in Keiths statements, Darts theory—that the skull known as the Taung child was a human ancestor—was supported by Robert Broom, a paleontologist with the Transvaal Museum of natural history in Pretoria. In 1936, the Sterkfontein caves yielded the first adult australopithecine, Broom classified an adult endocranial cast having a brain capacity of 485 cc as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. In April 1947, while blasting at Sterkfontein, he and John T. Robinson discovered a skull belonging to a female which he classified as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. Both fossils were classified as Australopithecus africanus. Mrs. Ples, whose capacity is only about 485 cubic centimetres, was one of the first fossils to reveal that upright walking had evolved well before any significant growth in brain size. And, in comparison to modern apes, Dart noted as with the Taung child the lack of facial projection and it has slightly human-like, advanced cranial features, but presents primitive features including ape-like curved fingers adapted to tree climbing.
Both P. robustus and A. africanus crania seem very alike despite the heavily built features of P. robustus. A. africanus had a pelvis that would enable more efficient bipedalism than that of A. afarensis, such a morphology would support an earlier time for making and using tools than previously had been thought likely. Evidence of human-like sexual dimorphism in the spine has recently been described in the primate A. africanus. Recent analysis of the Little Foot specimen dated it to about 3, the Makapansgat fossils have been dated to between 3.0 and 2.6 mya. Those at Sterkfontein currently are dated to between 2.6 and 2.0 mya with the Mrs Ples fossil dating to around 2.0 million years, and Gladysvale fossils were dated between about 2.4 and 2.0 mya
Timeline of human evolution
The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the development of the human species, Homo sapiens, and the evolution of our ancestors. It includes brief explanations of some of the species and this timeline is based on studies from anthropology, developmental biology and from anatomical and genetic data. It does not address the origin of life, which discussion is provided by abiogenesis, a caution, Other than Mr Haeckels historic and emblematic tree, this article provides no phylogenetics analysis to help portray the complex, nonlinear facts of human evolution. One of several lines of descent, or taxonomic ranking
Australopithecus is an extinct genus of hominins. During that time, a number of australopithecine species emerged, including Australopithecus afarensis, A. africanus, A. anamensis, A. bahrelghazali, A. deyiremeda, A. garhi, and A. sediba. For some hominid species of time, such as A. robustus and A. boisei. If so, they would be considered robust australopiths, while the others would be gracile australopiths, however, if these species do constitute their own genus, they may be given their own name, Paranthropus. Australopithecus species played a significant part in human evolution, the genus Homo being derived from Australopithecus at some time after three years ago. Among other things, they were the first hominids to show the presence of a gene that causes increased length and ability of neurons in the brain, the duplicated SRGAP2 gene. One of the species eventually became the Homo genus in Africa around two million years ago, and eventually modern humans, H. sapiens sapiens. Gracile australopiths shared several traits with modern apes and humans, and were widespread throughout Eastern and Northern Africa around 3.5 million years ago, the earliest evidence of fundamentally bipedal hominids can be observed at the site of Laetoli in Tanzania.
This site contains hominid footprints that are similar to those of modern humans and have been dated to as old as 3.6 million years. The footprints have generally classified as australopith because that is the only form of prehuman known to have existed in that region at that time. Australopithecus anamensis, A. afarensis, and A. africanus are among the most famous of the extinct hominins, a. africanus was once considered to be ancestral to the genus Homo. However, fossils assigned to the genus Homo have been found that are older than A. africanus, the genus Homo either split off from the genus Australopithecus at an earlier date, or both developed from a yet possibly unknown common ancestor independently. According to the Chimpanzee Genome Project, the human and chimpanzee lineages diverged from a common ancestor about five to six years ago. Sahelanthropus tchadensis, commonly called Toumai, is seven million years old. One theory suggests that the human and chimpanzee lineages diverged somewhat at first, the brains of most species of Australopithecus were roughly 35% of the size of a modern human brain.
Most species of Australopithecus were diminutive and gracile, usually standing 1.2 to 1.4 m tall, in several variations is a considerable degree of sexual dimorphism, males being larger than females. According to one scholar, A. Furthermore, thermoregulatory models suggest that Australopithecus species were fully covered, more like chimpanzees and bonobos. Modern humans do not appear to display the same degree of sexual dimorphism as Australopithecus did, in modern populations, males are on average a mere 15% larger than females, while in Australopithecus, males could be up to 50% larger than females
Ochre (/ˈoʊkər/ OH-kər, from Greek, ὠχρός, ōkhrós, or ocher, is a natural earth pigment containing hydrated iron oxide, which ranges in color from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is the name of the produced by this pigment. A variant of ochre containing an amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as red ochre. Ochre is a family of pigments, which includes yellow ochre, red ochre, purple ochre, sienna. The major ingredient of all the ochres is iron oxide-hydroxide, known as limonite, which gives them a yellow color. Yellow ochre, FeO·nH 2O, is a hydrated iron hydroxide called gold ochre Red ochre, Fe 2O3, takes its color from the mineral hematite. Purple ochre, is identical to red ochre chemically but of a different hue caused by different light diffraction properties associated with an average particle size. Brown ochre, FeO, is a hydrated iron oxide. Sienna contains both limonite and an amount of manganese oxide, which makes it darker than ochre. Umber pigments contain a proportion of manganese which make them a dark brown.
When natural sienna and umber pigments are heated, they are dehydrated and some of the limonite is transformed into hematite, giving them more reddish colors, called burnt sienna and burnt umber. Ochres are non-toxic, and can be used to make an oil paint that dries quickly, modern ochre pigments often are made using synthetic iron oxide. Pigments which use natural ochre pigments indicate it with the name PY-43 on the label, pieces of ochre engraved with abstract designs have been found at the site of the Blombos Cave in South Africa, dated to around 75,000 years ago. In Wales, the paleolithic burial called the Red Lady of Paviland from its coating of red ochre has been dated to around 33,000 years before present. Paintings of animals made with red and yellow ochre pigments have been found in sites at Pech Merle in France. The cave of Lascaux has an image of a horse colored with yellow estimated to be 17,300 years old. In Ancient Egypt, yellow was associated with gold, which was considered to be eternal, the skin and bones of the gods were believed to be made of gold.
The Egyptians used yellow extensively in tomb painting, though occasionally they used orpiment
National Museum of Natural History
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an area of 1,500,000 square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space. The museums collections contain over 126 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, the United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum was housed in the Smithsonian Institution Building, which is better known today as the Smithsonian Castle. A formal exhibit hall opened in 1858, the growing collection led to the construction of a new building, the National Museum Building. Covering a then-enormous 2.25 acres, it was built in just 15 months at a cost of $310,000, congress authorized construction of a new building on June 28,1902.
The regents began considering sites for the new building in March, the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall was chosen to design the structure. Testing of the soil for the foundations was set for July 1903, the Natural History Building opened its doors to the public on March 17,1910, in order to provide the Smithsonian Institution with more space for collections and research. The building was not fully completed until June 1911, the structure cost $3.5 million dollars. The Neoclassical style building was the first structure constructed on the side of the National Mall as part of the 1901 McMillan Commission plan. In addition to the Smithsonians natural history collection, it housed the American history, art. Between 1981 and 2003, the National Museum of Natural History had 11 permanent, there were six directors alone between 1990 and 2002. Turnover was high as the directors were disenchanted by low levels of funding. Robert W. Fri was named the director in 1996. One of the largest donations in Smithsonian history was made during Fris tenure, kenneth E.
Behring donated $20 million in 1997 to modernize the museum. Fri resigned in 2001 after disagreeing with Smithsonian leadership over the reorganization of the scientific research programs. J. Dennis OConnor, Provost of the Smithsonian Institution was named acting director of the museum on July 25,2001, eight months later, OConner resigned to become the vice president of research and dean of the graduate school at the University of Maryland
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with seismic and volcanic activity. Southeast Asia consists of two regions, Mainland Southeast Asia, known historically as Indochina, comprising Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar. Maritime Southeast Asia, comprising Indonesia, East Malaysia, Philippines, East Timor, Cocos Islands, definitions of Southeast Asia vary, but most definitions include the area represented by the countries listed below. All of the states are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the area, together with part of South Asia, was widely known as the East Indies or simply the Indies until the 20th century. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea, Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, and is currently an observer. Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia and Maritime Southeast Asia, Mainland Southeast Asia includes, Maritime Southeast Asia includes, The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are geographically considered part of Southeast Asia.
Eastern Bangladesh and the Seven Sister States of India are culturally part of Southeast Asia, the eastern half of Indonesia and East Timor are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago, homo floresiensis lived in the area up until 12,000 years ago, when they became extinct. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the population in Indonesia, Brunei, East Timor. Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BC to 1 AD. The peoples of Southeast Asia, especially those of Austronesian descent, have been seafarers for thousands of years and their vessels, such as the vinta, were ocean-worthy. Magellans voyage records how much more manoeuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships, Passage through the Indian Ocean aided the colonisation of Madagascar by the Austronesian people, as well as commerce between West Asia and Southeast Asia.
Gold from Sumatra is thought to have reached as far west as Rome and this was replaced by Hinduism. Theravada Buddhism soon followed in 525, in the 15th century, Islamic influences began to enter. This forced the last Hindu court in Indonesia to retreat to Bali, in Mainland Southeast Asia, Burma and Thailand retained the Theravada form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture, very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the 2nd century BCE onwards. Prior to the 13th century CE, Hinduism and Buddhism were the religions in Southeast Asia
Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominin that lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago. A. afarensis was slenderly built, like the younger Australopithecus africanus, a. afarensis is thought to be more closely related to the genus Homo, whether as a direct ancestor or a close relative of an unknown ancestor, than any other known primate from the same time. Some researchers include A. afarensis in the genus Praeanthropus, the most famous fossil is the partial skeleton named Lucy found by Donald Johanson and colleagues, who, in celebration of their find, repeatedly played the Beatles song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds. Australopithecus afarensis fossils have only been discovered within Eastern Africa, despite Laetoli being the type locality for A. Other localities bearing A. afarensis remains include Omo, Maka and Belohdelie in Ethiopia, compared to the modern and extinct great apes, A. afarensis has reduced canines and molars, although they are still relatively larger than in modern humans. A. afarensis has a small brain size and a prognathic face.
Considerable debate surrounds the locomotor behaviour of A. afarensis, some studies suggest that A. afarensis was almost exclusively bipedal, while others propose that the creatures were partly arboreal. The anatomy of the hands and shoulder joints in many ways favour the latter interpretation, in particular, the morphology of the scapula appears to be ape-like and very different from modern humans. The curvature of the finger and toe bones approaches that of modern-day apes, the loss of an abductable great toe and therefore the ability to grasp with the foot suggests A. afarensis was no longer adapted to climbing. A number of traits in the A. afarensis skeleton strongly reflect bipedalism, in overall anatomy, the pelvis is far more human-like than ape-like. The iliac blades are short and wide, the sacrum is wide and positioned directly behind the hip joint, the femur angles in toward the knee from the hip. This trait would have allowed the foot to have closer to the midline of the body. The feet feature adducted big toes, making it difficult if not impossible to grasp branches with the hindlimbs.
The loss of a grasping hindlimb increases the risk of an infant being dropped or falling, without the second set of grasping limbs, the infant cannot maintain as strong a grip, and likely had to be held with help from the mother. The problem of holding the infant would be multiplied if the mother had to climb trees, bones of the foot indicate bipedality. The upright gait would have much more efficient than the bent knee and hip walking. Yet, this can be questioned, as finds of Australopithecus foot bones indicate the Laetoli footprints may not have made by Australopithecus. Many scientists doubt the suggestion of bipedalism, and argue that even if Australopithecus really did walk on two legs, it did not walk in the way as humans
Carl Zimmer is a popular science writer and blogger who has specialized in the topics of evolution and parasites. He has authored books and contributes science essays to publications such as The New York Times, Discover. He is a fellow at Yale Universitys Morse College, Zimmer describes his journalistic beat as life or what it means to be alive. He is the science writer to have a species of tapeworm named for him. Besides his popular writing, Zimmer gives frequent lectures. In 2009 and 2010 he was host of the audio podcast Meet the Scientist of the American Society for Microbiology. Zimmer received his B. A. in English from Yale University in 1987, in 1989, Zimmer started at Discover magazine, first as a copy editor and fact checker, eventually becoming a contributing editor. At the waters edge and the transformation of life, the mystery of the second skeleton