1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Lubbock is the 11th-most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the county seat of Lubbock County. With a population of 256,042 in 2015, the city is the 83rd-most populous in the United States; the city is located in northwestern part of the state, a region known and geographically as the Llano Estacado, ecologically is part of the southern end of the High Plains, lying at the economic center of the Lubbock metropolitan area, which has a projected 2020 population of 327,424. Lubbock's nickname, "Hub City", derives from it being the economic and health-care hub of the multicounty region, north of the Permian Basin and south of the Texas Panhandle called the South Plains; the area is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world and is dependent on water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer for irrigation. Lubbock was selected as the 12th-best place to start a small business by CNNMoney.com. CNN mentioned the city's traditional business atmosphere: low rent for commercial space, central location, cooperative city government.
Lubbock is home to the sixth-largest college by enrollment in the state. Lubbock High School has been recognized for three consecutive years by Newsweek as one of the top high schools in the United States, based in part on its international baccalaureate program; as of 1867, the land that would become Lubbock was the heart of Comancheria, the shifting domain controlled by the Comanche. Lubbock County was founded in 1876, it was named after Thomas Saltus Lubbock, former Texas Ranger and brother of Francis Lubbock, governor of Texas during the Civil War. As early as 1884, a U. S. post office existed in Yellow House Canyon. A small town, known as Old Lubbock, Lubbock, or North Town, was established about three miles to the east. In 1890, the original Lubbock merged with another small town south of the canyon; the new town adopted the Lubbock name. The merger included moving the original Lubbock's Nicolett Hotel across the canyon on rollers to the new townsite. Lubbock became the county seat in 1891, was incorporated on March 16, 1909.
In the same year, the first railroad train arrived. Texas Technological College was founded in Lubbock in 1923. A separate university, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, opened as Texas Tech University School of Medicine in 1969. Both universities are now overseen by the Texas Tech University System, after it was established in 1996 and based in Lubbock. Lubbock Christian University, founded in 1957, Sunset International Bible Institute, both affiliated with the Churches of Christ, have their main campuses in the city. South Plains College and Wayland Baptist University operate branch campuses in Lubbock. At one time, Lubbock was home to Reese Air Force Base located 6 mi west of the city, it was established in August 1941, during the defense build-up prior to World War II, by the United States Department of War and the U. S. Army as Lubbock Army Airfield, it served the old U. S. Army Air Forces, the U. S. Air Force, after reorganization and establishment in 1947; the USAF base's primary mission throughout its existence was pilot training.
The base was closed 30 September 1997, after being selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission in 1995, is now a research and business park called Reese Technology Center. The city is home to the Lubbock Lake Landmark, part of the Museum of Texas Tech University; the landmark is an natural-history preserve at the northern edge of the city. It shows evidence of 12,000 years of human occupation in the region; the National Ranching Heritage Center part of the Museum of Texas Tech University, houses historic ranch-related structures from the region. During World War II, airmen cadets from the Royal Air Force, flying from their training base at Terrell, Texas flew to Lubbock on training flights; the town served as a stand-in for the British for Cork, the same distance from London, England, as Lubbock is from Terrell. In August 1951, a V-shaped formation of lights was seen over the city; the "Lubbock Lights" series of sightings received national publicity and is regarded as one of the first great "UFO" cases.
The sightings were considered credible because they were witnessed by several respected science professors at Texas Technological College and were photographed by a Texas Tech student. The photographs were reprinted nationwide in Life. Project Blue Book, the USAF's official investigation of the UFO mystery, concluded the photographs were not a hoax and showed genuine objects, but dismissed the UFOs as being either "night-flying moths" or a type of bird called a plover reflected in the nighttime glow of Lubbock's new street lights. However, other researchers have disputed these explanations, for many, the "Lubbock Lights" remain a mystery. In 1960, the U. S. Census Bureau reported Lubbock's population as area as 75.0 sq mi. On May 11, 1970, the Lubbock Tornado struck the city. Twenty-six people died, damage was estimated at $125 million; the Metro Tower known as the Great Plains Life Building, at 274 ft in height, is believed to have been the tallest building to survive a direct hit from an F5 tornado.
Then-mayor Jim Granberry and the Lubbock City Council, which included Granberry's successor as mayor, Morris W. Turner, were charged with directing the rebuilding of downtown Lubbock in the aftermath of the storm. In August, 1988, tens of thousands of people came to Lubbock, drawn by an apparition of Mary. In 2009, Lubbock celebrated its centennial; the historians Paul H. Carlson, Donald R. Abbe, David J. Murrah co-authored Lubbock and the South
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Texas State Highway 114
State Highway 114 is a state highway that runs from the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex westward across Texas to the state border with New Mexico, where it becomes New Mexico State Road 114, which ends at Elida, New Mexico at US 70 / NM 330. The route was designated on April 14, 1926 as connector between Dallas and Rhome. In June 1932, SH 114 extended to Bridgeport. On February 12, 1935, an extension northward from Chico to Sunset was added. On July 15, 1935, the section from Chico to Sunset was cancelled; this section was restored on August 1, 1938. On October 6, 1943, the section of SH 114 from US 77 in Dallas to US 67 was cancelled. On January 7, 1971, SH 114 was relocated in Bridgeport; this route remained little changed until November 3, 1972, when it was extended northward from Sunset to Bowie. Major rerouting was made on November 24, 1975, when the route was redirected west over U. S. Highway 380, U. S. Highway 281, former SH 199, U. S. Highway 82 from Bridgeport to Lubbock, with the stretch from Bridgeport to Bowie renumbered as SH 101.
On December 14, 1977, the route was extended to the New Mexico border, replacing SH 116. The connecting NM 116 was renumbered to NM 114. On August 2, 1985, Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crossed this route shortly before crashing on approach to Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. One of the aircraft's engines struck a car on the roadway killing its occupant. Highway 114 starts at the New Mexico border about 17 miles west of Texas; the route passes through Whiteface and Smyer as Levelland Highway before joining 19th Street in Lubbock. SH 114 crosses over Loop 289 and while crossing over US 82 joins with US 62, forming the southern edge of the Texas Tech University campus. After crossing US 84, the highway veers northeast, joining US 82 before crossing over Loop 289 and leaving Lubbock as Idalou Road. Past Lubbock, SH 114 passes through the rural towns of Idalou, Ralls, Dickens, Benjamin, Red Springs, Seymour, where US 82 splits north off of SH 114. From there, the highway passes through Megargal, Olney and Jermyn before entering Jacksboro with US 281.
In Jacksboro, SH 114 joins US US 281 splits off to the south as SH 114 continues east. Past Jacksboro, SH 114 passes through Runaway Bay, where SH 114 splits off of US 380, Boyd, Rhome running concurrent with US 81 and US 287 before entering Fort Worth and passing the Texas Motor Speedway and crossing I-35W. In the DFW Metroplex, SH 114 goes through Roanoke, crossing US 377 and becoming a freeway, the Northwest Parkway; the highway passes through Westlake and Grapevine. There, SH 114 forms the northern edge of the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport with SH 121; the highway becomes the John W. Carpenter Highway as it travels southeast to its eastern terminus at SH 183. A road was designated on February 21, 1938, from SH 114 to SH 121; this was renumbered as Loop 10 on September 26, 1939. SH 114 has four current business routes. Business State Highway 114-B is a Business Loop that runs from SH 114 on the west side of Levelland south along West Street east through the downtown area on Houston Street to an intersection with US 385.
The road turns left, concurrent with US 385, until intersecting once again at SH 114. The road was designated as Loop 44 on September 26, 1939 as a renumbering of SH 24 Spur, but was changed to Business SH 114-B on January 26, 1993, is 1.594 miles long. Business State Highway 114-J is a Business Spur that goes east into Rhome from the intersection of US 81/US 287 and SH 114 west; the route runs along Rhome Avenue to an intersection with Business US 81-E. It is part of a previous route of SH 114; the Business route was designated on May 31, 1972 as Texas State Highway Spur 440, but was changed to its current designation on June 21, 1990 and is 0.329 miles long. Note that an earlier Spur 440 was designated on October 3, 1966 as a spur of SH 34 in Ennis; this was cancelled on or before the day the Spur 440 was designated. Business State Highway 114-K is a business loop; this route runs on Byron Nelson Boulevard, along a previous route of SH 114. The business route was created in 2001 when SH 114 was rerouted further east around town.
The route is 1.787 miles long. Business State Highway 114-L is a business loop; this route runs east on Northwest Highway to an intersection with Texan Trail turns right to go southbound there. The road continues until it reaches SH 114/SH 121; the portion of the business route along Texan Trail is concurrent with SH 26. The route was designate on April 18, 1963, as Texas State Highway Loop 382, until June 21, 1990, when the road's designation as Loop 382 was discontinued; the route is 2.074 miles long. There is one former Business Route along SH 114. Business State Highway 114-H was located in Bridgeport between June 21, 1990 and March 29, 2007 and was 1.3 miles long. The route went east along Halsell Avenue from an intersection with SH 114, to an intersection with 13th Street turned right until another intersection with SH 114; this route had been designated Loop 373 on November 1, 1962.
Terry County, Texas
Terry County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 12,651, its county seat is Brownfield. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1904, it is named for a colonel in the Confederate Army. Terry County is now a moist county. In 1877, the ill-fated Nolan Expedition crossed the county in search of livestock stolen by Comanche renegades; the various Indian tribes had moved on by the time of white settlement, due to the depletion of the buffalo herds by hunters. Terry County was formed from Bexar County in 1876 and named for Col. Benjamin Franklin Terry, who commanded the Terry's Texas Rangers in the Civil War. Terry County was organized in 1904. Brownfield as became the county seat; the county was settled by ranchers such as Ira J. Coulver, J. R. Quinn, Englishman Q. Bone and Marion V. Brownfield. By 1910 Terry County had 235 farms and 23,000 acres of improved land, with corn being the most important crop. Oil was discovered in the county in 1940 Terry County lies in the oil-rich north Permian Basin, the discovery of oil led to production.
By 1991 363,143,000 barrels of crude had been extracted from Terry County lands since 1940. In 1991 Terry County was among the leading cotton counties in Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 891 square miles, of which 889 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 62 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 380 U. S. Highway 385 State Highway 137 Hockley County Lynn County Dawson County Gaines County Yoakum County Cochran County Lubbock County As of the census of 2000, there were 12,761 people, 4,278 households, 3,247 families residing in the county; the population density was 14 people per square mile. There were 5,087 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.55% White, 5.00% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 14.28% from other races, 3.40% from two or more races. 44.09% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,278 households out of which 35.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.70% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.10% were non-families.
22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.40% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 108.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,090, the median income for a family was $33,339. Males had a median income of $24,321 versus $20,131 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,860. About 19.20% of families and 23.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.50% of those under age 18 and 13.90% of those age 65 or over. The county is served by a weekly newspaper, nearby stations KBXJ and KPET, the various Lubbock radio and TV stations.
KKUB and KTTU-FM are licensed to Brownfield but operate from offices and studios in Lubbock. Brownfield Wellman Meadow Needmore Tokio Dry counties Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Terry County Terry's Texas Rangers Terry County government’s website Terry County from the Handbook of Texas Online Terry County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may