Belweder is a palace in Warsaw, near the Łazienki Park. It was used as an official residence by the Polish presidents; the present building is the latest of several that stood on the site since 1660. Belweder once belonged to Poland's last king, Stanisław August Poniatowski, who used it as a porcelain-manufacturing plant. From 1818 it was the residence of Russian Grand Duke Constantine, who fled it at the beginning of the November 1830 Uprising. After the re-establishment of Poland's independence following World War I, it was the residence of Marshal Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State and Minister of Military Affairs of Poland, who died there in 1935. During World War II, the building was extensively remodeled for Hans Frank, Governor of the "General Government" of Poland, it remains one of the few original structures in Warsaw to survive World War II. In 1945-1952 it was the residence of Bolesław Bierut, of the president of the Council of State. From 1989 to July 1994, it was the official residence of Poland's presidents, but proved too small for that purpose.
On president Bronisław Komorowski used it as his private residence. Belweder is used by the President and the government for ceremonial purposes, while the President resides at the "Presidential Palace" in the city center, it serves as an official residence for heads of state on official visits to Poland and other important guests. There have been plans to turn the Belweder Palace into a museum dedicated to Józef Piłsudski, it houses a small exhibition devoted to the Marshal. Royal Route Presidential Palace Polish classicism Belvedere Vodka - a brand named after the palace, depicted on its label Belweder, or the Polish road to independence
Royal Castle, Poznań
The Royal Castle in Poznań dates from 1249 and the reign of Przemysł I. Located in the Polish city of Poznań, it was destroyed during the Second World War but has since been rebuilt. Construction of the castle was started by Przemysł I in 1249 on hill called Góra Zamkowa, now better known as Góra Przemysława; the first building was a habitable tower made of bricks with a well inside, the rest of the hill was surrounded by a rampart with a palisade. A small ducal residence was incorporated into the system of city walls in the late 13th century; the son of Przemysł I, Przemysł II, hoping for reunification of Poland under his rule decided to build a larger castle, more proper for a king. In 1295 Przemysł became king of Poland; the castle wasn't finished. Work started by Przemysł was continued by a branch of the Piasts from Głogów ruling in Greater Poland, finished before 1337; the castle served as the residence of then-governor of Greater Poland. In 1337, the Royal Castle in Poznań was the largest castle in the Polish Kingdom, modelled after the palatium of Henry I the Bearded in Legnica.
The castle consisted of a tower built by Przemysł I and a huge building with three levels and a basement. It is uncertain whether the castle's characteristic roof, consisting of four parts, existed at that time. Basements served as prisons and for storage of wines, on the ground floor there were charring rooms; those two floors were covered by vaults. Two higher floors had wooden ceilings. On the edges of first floor were representative chambers, between them were habitual rooms; the whole second floor was occupied by a chamber for 2000 guests. On the south end of the large building was a defense tower. Since the reign of Władysław I the Elbow-high the castle served as the residence of starosta generalny of Greater Poland. Only one king, Władysław II Jagiełło, ordered some minor work in castle. During the fire of Poznań in 1536 the castle burned, it was rebuilt in the renaissance style by the governor of Andrzej II Górka. In the next years the oldest part of castle was transformed into a kitchen; the castle was destroyed during the Swedish invasion, sacked in 1704 by the armies of Russia and Saxony during Great Northern War, in 1716 during Confederation of Tarnogród by the confederates.
The castle was renovated in 1721, but it didn't stop the devastation. The last starosta generalny, Kazimierz Raczyński, rebuilt the remains of the medieval buildings into an archive. In 1804, after The Second partition of Poland, Prussians demolished the southern part of the castle, replacing it by buildings which, together with Raczyński's archive served as the office of the local Regierungsbezirk. On the castle was as a seat of the Court of Appeals and the State Archive. During the battle for the Poznań Citadel, in February 1945, Przemysł Hill was in line of artillery fire, the remaining part of the castle was demolished. In the years 1959–1964 Raczyński's archive and part of Prussian building were rebuilt, on base of the oldest tower stands a small pavilion called the Royal Kitchen. Today the Castle holds a Museum of Utilitary Art. On 22 April 2002, a committee for rebuilding of the castle was founded. Still extant from previous construction are two-meter-wide supports from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the inner walls of the basement and the western wall from the same period, a newer eastern wall, now integrated into Raczyński's Building.
On the surviving part of the castle are three plaques: the foundation plaque of Kazimierz Raczyński from 1783, one from 1993 marking the five-hundredth anniversary of homage of Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Johann von Tiefen, another plaque commemorating the seven-hundredth anniversary of the coronation of Przemysł II. On 20 December 2010, work began on the total reconstruction of the demolished parts of the castle, meticulous restoration of the surviving buildings. 1249 – wedding of Salomea, sister of Przemysł I and Conrad II of Głogów 1 July 1250 – on document for Cistercian Monastery in Obra as place of signing is noticed castro posnaniensi 1251 – wedding of Eufemia, the youngest sister of Przemysł I, Władysław of Opole, duke of Opole and Racibórz 14 October 1257 – Przemysł II was born in the castle 1 September 1288 – Elisabeth Richeza of Poland was born in the castle 1309 – Henry III of Głogów, pretender for Polish crown, stayed in the castle 1329–1331 – castle serves as residence of Władysław I Łokietek 1337 – in the castle the peace treaty between Casimir III of Poland and John I of Bohemia was signed 1341 – wedding of Casimir III of Poland and Adelajda, daughter of Henry, Landgraf of Hesse 1343 – wedding of Bogislaw V, duke of Pomerania and Elizabeth of Silesia, daughter of Casimir III of Poland 1372 and 1373 – visits of Elisabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary 1381 – visit of Louis I of Hungary 1386 – visit of Jadwiga of Poland and Władysław II Jagiełło 1424 – visit of Eric of Pomerania 1433 – wedding of Bogislaw IV, duke of Pomerania-Stolp and Mary, daughter of Siemowit IV of Płock, duke of Masovia few visits of Casimir IV Jagiellon 29 May 1493 – homage of Johann von Tiefen to John I of Poland few visits of Sigismund I the Old 1574 – visit of Henry de Valois few visits of Sigismund III Vasa few visits of Władysław IV Vasa 1657–1658 – John II Casimir of Poland stays in Castle for wi
Chęciny Royal Castle was built in the late 13th century in Chęciny, Poland. It remains in that state to this day; the construction of the fortress began in the late 13th century. It is certain that the castle existed in 1306, when king Władysław I the Elbow-high gave it to the Archbishop of Kraków, Jan Muskata. A year under the pretext of detection of a plot against the royal power, the castle returned to the king, it played a significant role as a place of concentration of troops departing for war with the Teutonic Knights. After the death of Władysław the Elbow-high the stronghold was enlarged by Casimir III the Great. At that time Chęciny become a residence of the king's second wife Adelaide of Hesse. In following years it was a residence of Elisabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary, Sophia of Halshany and her son Władysław III of Varna and Bona Sforza, it was used for many years as a state prison. Among imprisoned here were Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg future Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Andrzej Wingold, Jogaila's half-brother and Warcisław of Gotartowice.
In the second half of the 16th century, the castle began to decline. In 1588 the parliament ordered to transfer the castle's inventories to the Chęciny Church and in 1607, during the Zebrzydowski Rebellion the fortifications and buildings were destroyed and burned; the castle regained its former glory due to reconstruction initiated by Stanisław Branicki, starost of Chęciny, but in 1655-1657 it was completely destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian and Transylvanian troops. The destruction was completed in 1707 during another Swedish occupation; the last residents left the castle. Over the next century the medieval walls become a source of building material for local villagers. Castles in Poland Zamek Chęciny
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
The Copper-Roof Palace is an 18th-century palace in Warsaw, Poland. It takes its unusual name from its copper roof — a rarity in the first half of the 18th century; the palace since 1989 is a branch of the Royal Castle Museum. The palace is contiguous with Warsaw's Royal Castle, down a slope from the Castle Square and Old Town. Beneath the palace, a 17th-century lodge still exists. A patrician house of Wawrzyniec Reffus, it was built 1651-1656. After 1657 destruction by the army of George II Rákóczi, it was remodeled in 1698-1701 for Jerzy Dominik Lubomirski. Lubomirski expanded the palace by building a southern wing, perpendicular to the rest of structure, expanded the western elevation. Shortly after its construction the palace became known as Palais Martin, after Lubomirski's grandson. In 1720 the palace was rebuilt with an addition of a second northern wing. Additionally the interior was decorated with rococo paintings. After 1777 the palace passed into ownership of Poland's last king, Stanisław August Poniatowski, who hired the architect Domenico Merlini to once again redesign the inside rooms of the palace and join the library wing of the Royal Castle to it.
The king made a present of the redecorated place to his nephew Prince Józef Poniatowski The younger Poniatowski was a successful commander in the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising, one of Napoleon Bonaparte's marshals. Under his ownership the palace became a center of Warsaw's high class social scene; when Warsaw became part of Kingdom of Prussia after the Third Partition of Poland the buildings became the headquarters for the Prussian Ministry of War. The Copper-Roof Palace was burned in 1944 and reconstructed, based on paintings of Bernardo Bellotto, between 1948-1949; the palace is a museum, part of Royal Castle in Warsaw, inter alia, a permanent exhibition of oriental rugs. History of the Royal Castle in Warsaw Library at the Royal Castle, Warsaw Pałac pod Blachą http://www.zamek-krolewski.pl/?page=1212
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish theatres of the Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars. In a stricter sense, the term refers to the Swedish invasion and occupation of the Commonwealth as a theatre of the Second Northern War only. During the wars the Commonwealth lost one third of its population as well as its status as a great power due to invasions by Sweden and Russia. According to Professor Andrzej Rottermund, manager of the Royal Castle in Warsaw, the destruction of Poland in the deluge was more extensive than the destruction of the country in World War II. Rottermund claims that Swedish invaders robbed the Commonwealth of its most important riches, most of the stolen items never returned to Poland. Warsaw, the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, was destroyed by the Russians and Swedes, out of a pre-war population of 20,000, only 2,000 remained in the city after the war.
According to the 2012 Polish estimates, financial losses of Poland are estimated at four billion złotys. Swedish and Russian invaders destroyed 188 cities and towns, 81 castles, 136 churches in Poland. In 1648 Bohdan Khmelnytsky led a popular uprising of Zaporozhian Cossacks and Ukrainian peasants discontented with the rule of Polish and Lithuanian magnates. Although the initial phase of the rebellion ended at the Battle of Berestechko, it brought into focus the rivalry between Russia and the Commonwealth for hegemony over Ukraine and over the eastern Slavic lands in general. Thus, in October 1653, the Russian Zemsky Sobor declared war on the Commonwealth, in June 1654 the forces of Tsar Alexis of Russia invaded the eastern half of Poland-Lithuania, starting the Russo-Polish War of 1654–67. In the summer of 1654, the Russians managed to capture most important cities and strongholds of today's Belarus. Smolensk was captured after a siege on October 3, 1654; the Swedish Empire, which technically was at war with the Commonwealth, invaded in July 1655 and occupied the remaining half of the country.
Following the Thirty Years' War, the Swedish Empire emerged as one of the strongest nations on the continent. It had a large army but little money to pay its soldiers; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, weakened by wars with the Cossacks and Tsardom of Russia, seemed like easy prey because its best soldiers had been massacred in the 1652 Battle of Batih. Furthermore, Swedes remembered claims to their throne by Polish kings Sigismund III Vasa and his sons Władysław IV Vasa and John II Casimir, who themselves belonged to the House of Vasa. An earlier conflict, the Polish–Swedish War had ended with the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf; the Polish–Lithuanian King John II Casimir lacked support among the Commonwealth nobility due to his sympathies with absolutist Austria and his open contempt for the "Sarmatist" culture of the nobility. Earlier, in 1643, John Casimir had become a member of the Jesuits and had received the title of Cardinal. In December 1646, he returned to Poland and, in October 1647, resigned his position as Cardinal to stand for election to the Polish throne, after the death of his brother Władysław IV Vasa.
He became King in 1648. However, some of the nobility supported Charles Gustav for the Polish–Lithuanian throne. Many members of the Polish nobility regarded John Casimir as a weak king or a "Jesuit-King". Two Lithuanian noble princes, Janusz Radziwiłł and Bogusław Radziwiłł, subsequently introduced dissension into the Commonwealth and began negotiations with the Swedish king Charles X Gustav of Sweden aimed at breaking up the Commonwealth and the Polish–Lithuanian union, they signed the Treaty of Kėdainiai, which envisaged the Radziwiłł princes ruling over two duchies carved out from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania under Swedish protection. In July 1655 two Swedish armies, operating from Swedish Pomerania and the Province of Pomerania, entered Greater Poland, one of the richest and most developed provinces of the Commonwealth, which had for centuries been unaffected by any military conflicts, whose Levée en masse had not been used to fighting; the Greater Poland's nobility camp, located in the valley of the Noteć river, near the town of Ujście, looked more like a large party, as the szlachta, gathered there to face the Swedish Army, was more interested in drinking.
To make matters worse, two powerful magnates, the Voivode of Poznań Krzysztof Opaliński, the Voivode of Kalisz Andrzej Karol Grudziński, argued with each other whether to fight or to give up to the enemy. Polish troops lacked gunpowder and food, stolen at local villages by the hungry soldiers. After an easy Swedish victory at the Battle of Ujście, Krzysztof Opaliński surrendered Greater Poland to Charles Gustav. On July 31, 1655, the army commande