His signature on all euro coins is visible as two L letters connected together (LL), on the 2-euro coin, this is visible under the O of the word EURO on the common side.
His signature on all euro coins is visible as two L letters connected together (LL), on the 2-euro coin, this is visible under the O of the word EURO on the common side.
1. Aalst, Belgium – Aalst is a city and municipality on the Dender River,31 kilometres northwest from Brussels. It is located in the Flemish province of East Flanders in the Denderstreek, the municipality comprises the city of Aalst itself and the villages of Baardegem, Erembodegem, Gijzegem, Herdersem, Hofstade, Meldert, Moorsel and Nieuwerkerken. Aalst is crossed by the Molenbeek-Ter Erpenbeek in Aalst and Hofstade, the current mayor of Aalst is Christoph DHaese, from the New-Flemish Alliance party. The town has a feud with Dendermonde, which dates back from the Middle Ages. The first historical records on Aalst date from the 9th century, when it was described as the villa Alost, during the Middle Ages, a town and port grew at this strategic point, where the road from Bruges to Cologne crossed the Dender. While it was within the Holy Roman Empire it was considered the capital of the province of Flanders. In 1046, Aalst was transferred to the Countship of Imperial Flanders, and absorbed a portion of Brabant and its frontier position on the border of the Holy Roman Empire allowed the town to keep a certain degree of independence. Its relation with Brabant has been preserved in the white and red coat of arms. Construction of the hall began in the middle of the 12th century. Several manuscripts from this period survive in the town archives. During the Hundred Years War the town of Aalst allied themselves with Louis de Male against Philip van Artevelde, the town hall, and the city itself, were almost entirely destroyed by fire in 1360. The town was rebuilt and a new belfry in gothic style was built in the 15th century. This was a time of prosperity for the city, dominated by the powerful weavers guild. Aalst suffered considerably under the Eighty Years War, the textile-based economy flourished under the French. In the 18th century, the Austrians controlled the region,1830 saw Belgium gain independence and Aalst became part of the country, this ended a long period, starting in 1056, of foreign control, by such as the Spanish, German, French, and the Dutch. The 19th century was marked by social crises engendered by the Industrial Revolution, with Father Adolf Daens and this was in response to Rerum novarum, which established worker rights. However Daens felt this did not do enough, eventually, he was made to pay for his splinter movement. In the Pre-World War II years, the fascist movement in the Low Countries gained momentum, Aalst, along with Brussels and Antwerp were the strongest subscribers to this line of thought
2. Belgium – Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, today, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is also a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, Brussels, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is also a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands. The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
3. Euro coins – There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros. The coins first came into use in 2002, four European microstates which use the euro as their currency also have the right to mint coins with their own designs on the obverse side. The coins, and various coins, are minted at numerous national mints across the European Union to strict national quotas. Obverse designs are chosen nationally, while the reverse and the currency as a whole is managed by the European Central Bank, the euro came into existence on 1 January 1999. It had been a goal of the European Union and its predecessors since the 1960s, the Maastricht Treaty entered into force in 1993 with the goal of creating economic and monetary union by 1999 for all EU states except the UK and Denmark. In 1999 the currency was born virtually and in 2002 notes and it rapidly replaced the former national currencies and the eurozone has since expanded further to some newer EU states. In 2009 the Lisbon Treaty formalised its political authority, the Eurogroup, in 2004 €2 commemorative coins were allowed to be minted in six states. By 2007, all states but France, Ireland and the Netherlands had minted a commemorative issue, in 2009, the second eurozone-wide issue of a 2-euro commemorative coin was issued, celebrating ten years of the Economic and Monetary Union. In 2012, the third issue of a 2-euro commemorative coin was issued, celebrating 10 years of euro coins. To date, only Cyprus has not independently issued a €2 commemorative coin, slovenia joined the eurozone in 2007, Cyprus and Malta joined in 2008, Slovakia in 2009, Estonia in 2011, Latvia in 2014 and Lithuania in 2015, introducing seven more national-side designs. There are eight different denominations of coins, €0.01, €0.02, €0.05, €0.10, €0.20, €0.50, €1. The €0.01, €0.02 and €0.05 coins show Europe in relation to Asia and Africa in the world. The €0.10 to €2 coins show the EU before its enlargement in May 2004 if minted before 1 January 2007, coins from Italy, San Marino, the Vatican City, Austria and Portugal show the geographical map if minted in 2008 or later. The common side was designed by Luc Luycx of the Royal Belgian Mint and they symbolise the unity of the EU. The national sides were designed by the NCBs of the eurozone in separate competitions, there are specifications which apply to all coins such as the requirement of including twelve stars. National designs were not allowed to change until the end of 2008, national designs have seen some changes due to a new rule stating that national designs should include the name of the issuing country. The common side of the €0.01, €0.02 and €0.05 coins depict the denomination, the words EURO CENT beside it, twelve stars and Europe highlighted on a globe in relation to Asia and Africa in the world. The common side of the €0.10, €0.20 and €0.50 coins currently depict the denomination on the right, the words EURO CENT underneath it, with twelve stars and the European continent on the left
4. Computer engineering – Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer hardware and software. Computer engineers usually have training in engineering, software design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work, Computer engineers are also suited for robotics research, which relies heavily on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors, communications, and sensors. Other institutions may require engineering students to one or two years of General Engineering before declaring computer engineering as their primary focus. The first computer engineering program in the United States was established at Case Western Reserve University in 1972. As of 2015, there were 238 ABET-accredited computer engineering programs in the US, in Europe, accreditation of computer engineering schools is done by a variety of agencies part of the EQANIE network. Both computer engineering and electronic engineering programs include analog and digital circuit design in their curriculum, as with most engineering disciplines, having a sound knowledge of mathematics and science is necessary for computer engineers. There are two major specialties in computer engineering, software and hardware, Computer software engineers develop, design, and test software. They construct, and maintain computer programs, as well as set up such as intranets for companies. Software engineers can design or code new applications to meet the needs of a business or individual. Some software engineers work independently as freelancers and sell their software products/applications to an enterprise or individual, most computer hardware engineers research, develop, design, and test various computer equipment. This can range from circuit boards and microprocessors to routers, some update existing computer equipment to be more efficient and work with newer software. Most computer hardware engineers work in laboratories and high-tech manufacturing firms. Some also work for the federal government, according to BLS, 95% of computer hardware engineers work in metropolitan areas. Approximately 33% of their work more than 40 hours a week. The median salary for employed qualified computer hardware engineers was $100,920 per year or $48.52 per hour, Computer hardware engineers held 83,300 jobs in 2012 in the USA. There are many specialty areas in the field of computer engineering, examples include work on wireless communications, multi-antenna systems, optical transmission, and digital watermarking. Those focusing on communications and wireless networks, work advancements in telecommunications systems and networks, modulation and error-control coding, high-speed network design, interference suppression and modulation, design and analysis of fault-tolerant system, and storage and transmission schemes are all a part of this specialty
5. Medallist – A medalist or medallist is an artist who designs medals, plaquettes, badges, coins and similar small works in relief in metal. Somewhat confusingly, medalist/medallist is also used in sport and other areas for the winner of a medal as an award, historically medalists were typically also involved in producing their designs, and were usually either sculptors or goldsmiths by background. From the 19th century the education of a medalist often began with as an engraver, or an education in an academy, particularly modeling. On coins a mark or symbol signifying the medalist as the designer was often included in a hidden location on the coin and is not to be mistaken for the symbol of the mint master. Artistic medals and plaquettes are often signed prominently by the artist and he cast them like bronze sculptures, rather than minting them like coins. Artistic medals and plaquettes have mostly been produced by lost wax casting, the design for the coin faces were originally engraved into the coin dies. It was necessary to use a burin to engrave the designs directly into the die inverted and this resulted in the early medalists being called steel-chiselers. Medalists who were contracted by the state to produce the coins and medallions for the mint were given official state titles. In addition to their contracts, medalists were also allowed to earn income through private commissions for medals. List of medallists How are Coins Made, the United States Mint The Art of Minting. The Royal Mint The History of Minting, the Royal Mint Museum How a Coin Comes into Being Austrian Mint
6. Dendermonde – Dendermonde is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province of East Flanders in the Denderstreek. The municipality comprises the city of Dendermonde proper and the towns of Appels, Baasrode, Grembergen, Mespelare, Oudegem, Schoonaarde, Dendermonde is located at the mouth of the river Dender, where it flows into the Scheldt. The town has a feud with Aalst, which dates back from the Middle Ages. The city is an administrative, commercial, educational, and medical centre for the surrounding region, the current Mayor of Dendermonde is Piet Buyse. Some interesting La-Tène artifacts were found in Appels, proof that this region of the Scheldt was inhabited in prehistory, grave sites from the 2nd and 6th century also attest to dense settlement in Gallo-Roman and Merovingian times. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun placed Dendermonde in Lotharingia, after the Norman invasions of 883, however, Baldwin II took over the region and incorporated it into the German part of the newly founded County of Flanders. Otto II built a fort here in the 10th century, encouraging further settlements in the area, the town received its city charter in 1233 and grew quickly after that thanks to a thriving cloth industry. Several cloisters, chapels and churches, and a defensive wall were built as well. A cloth hall and belfry were erected on the square in the mid 14th century. The town’s prosperity, however, gave rise to competition with cities such as Ghent and to occasional attacks. In 1384, the area came under the control of the Valois dukes of Burgundy. The 16th century saw a decline in Dendermonde’s fortunes, in 1572 Dendermonde was conquered by William the Silent. The same year however Spanish troops under Duke Alexander Farnese of Parma, took over the city, looted, a decade later, the Spaniards built their own fortress between the Dender and the Scheldt. In 1667, it was France’s turn to advance on the city, the city was then fortified by the Austrians against further French ambitions. After a last siege by Louis XV, the city could finally breathe to the point that the fortifications were dismantled a few decades later, the second half of the 18th century was generally prosperous, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and a local cotton industry. After 1800, the facilities were modernized and the first railways were laid down. The onset of World War I in September 1914 was disastrous for the city as more than half of its housing, on August 19,2006,28 prisoners managed to escape Dendermonde prison. Seven of them were captured within hours, a few have been found in Italy and Russia
7. L – L is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less. Lamedh may have come from a pictogram of an ox goad or cattle prod, some have suggested a shepherds staff. In English orthography, ⟨l⟩ usually represents the phoneme /l/, which can have several sound values, the alveolar lateral approximant occurs before a vowel, as in lip or blend, while the velarized alveolar lateral approximant occurs in bell and milk. A medical condition or speech impediment restricting the pronunciation of ⟨l⟩ is known as lambdacism. In English orthography, ⟨l⟩ is often silent in such words as walk or could, ⟨l⟩ usually represents the sound or some other lateral consonant. Common digraphs include ⟨ll⟩, which has an identical to ⟨l⟩ in English, but has the separate value voiceless alveolar lateral fricative in Welsh. In Spanish, ⟨ll⟩ represents, or, depending on dialect, a palatal lateral approximant or palatal ⟨l⟩ occurs in many languages, and is represented by ⟨gli⟩ in Italian, ⟨ll⟩ in Spanish and Catalan, ⟨lh⟩ in Portuguese, and ⟨ļ⟩ in Latvian. In phonetic and phonemic transcription, the International Phonetic Alphabet uses ⟨l⟩ to represent the alveolar approximant. The capital letter L is used as the sign for the Albanian lek. It was often used, especially in handwriting, as the sign for the Italian lira. It is also used as a substitute for the pound sign. The Roman numeral Ⅼ represents the number 50, in some fonts, the lowercase letter ⟨l⟩ may be difficult to distinguish from the digit one, ⟨1⟩, or an uppercase letter ⟨I⟩. In recent times, many new fonts have curved the lowercase form to the right, a more modern version based on the handwritten letter-like ⟨ℓ⟩ is sometimes used in mathematics and elsewhere. In Japan, for example, this is the symbol for the liter and its LaTeX command is \ell, its codepoint is U+2113, and its numeric character reference is ℓ. The dictionary definition of L at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of l at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of ℓ at Wiktionary
8. Euro – Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members also use the euro as their currency. Additionally,210 million people worldwide as of 2013 use currencies pegged to the euro, the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid. The euro was introduced to world markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.8252 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.6038 on 18 July 2008. In July 2012, the euro fell below US$1.21 for the first time in two years, following concerns raised over Greek debt and Spains troubled banking sector, as of 26 March 2017, the euro–dollar exchange rate stands at ~ US$1.07. The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank, as an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of notes and coins in all states. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, all nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 5 January 2002, the central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show which central bank issued them, Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated. The ECB issues 8% of the value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECBs banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs and these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB. The euro is divided into 100 cents, in Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a side showing the denomination or value. Due to the plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe also showing countries outside the Union like Norway
9. Virtual International Authority File – The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see also records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are also being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
10. Integrated Authority File – The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format