Dendermonde is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province of East Flanders in the Denderstreek. The municipality comprises the city of Dendermonde proper and the towns of Appels, Grembergen, Oudegem and Sint-Gillis-bij-Dendermonde. Dendermonde is located at the mouth of the river Dender; the town has a long-standing feud with Aalst. The city is an administrative, commercial and medical centre for the surrounding region; the current Mayor of Dendermonde is Piet Buyse. Some interesting La-Tène artifacts were found in Appels, proof that this region of the Scheldt was inhabited in prehistory. Grave sites from the 2nd and 6th century attest to dense settlement in Gallo-Roman and Merovingian times. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun placed Dendermonde in Lotharingia. After the Norman invasions of 883, Baldwin II took over the region and incorporated it into the German part of the newly founded County of Flanders. Otto II built a fort here in the 10th century; the town received its city charter in 1233 and grew after that thanks to a thriving cloth industry.
Several cloisters and churches, a fortified defensive wall were built as well. A cloth hall and belfry were erected on the market square in the mid 14th century; the town’s prosperity, gave rise to severe competition with cities such as Ghent and to occasional attacks and plunders by neighbours. In 1384, the whole area came under the control of the Valois dukes of Burgundy; the 16th century saw a decline in Dendermonde’s fortunes. In 1572 Dendermonde was conquered by William the Silent; the same year however Spanish troops under Duke Alexander Farnese of Parma, took over the city and destroyed it. A decade the Spaniards built their own fortress between the Dender and the Scheldt. In 1667, it was France’s turn to advance on the city, but the allied troops of the Netherlands and England, under the Duke of Marlborough, caused the heaviest damage in 1706; the city was fortified by the Austrians against further French ambitions. After a last siege by Louis XV, the city could breathe to the point that the fortifications were dismantled a few decades later.
The second half of the 18th century was prosperous, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and a local cotton industry. After 1800, the port facilities were modernized and the first railways were laid down, allowing other industries to move in; the onset of World War I in September 1914 was disastrous for the city as more than half of its housing and the city archives were either bombed or burned down. On August 19, 2006, 28 prisoners managed to escape Dendermonde prison. Seven of them were captured within hours. A few have been found in Russia, they managed to escape because the lock was rusty. They walked away, tied all their sheets together, climbed over the wall, jumped on a phone booth and ran away. On 23 January 2009, a 20-year-old Flemish man named Kim De Gelder attacked a children's daycare centre in the village of Sint-Gillis-bij-Dendermonde, stabbing three people to death and wounding as many as twenty. One of the school teachers and two babies, aged 8 and 9 months, died in the attack.
Italian singer Luciano Ligabue dedicated a song to the victims: Quando mi vieni a prendere?, inserted in his 2010 album, Mostro!. The central market square The Town Hall which houses an exceptional art collection The Butcher's Hall, a museum with an archeological and historical collection. From the prehistory of the region to the 21st century The Church of Our Lady with two paintings of Anthony Van Dyck The béguinage is a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1998; the city hall and belfry have been designated a World Heritage Site since 1999. The belfry houses a carillon and was part of the Cloth Hall. Dendermonde has a Benedictine abbey, famous for its library containing an original manuscript of Hildegard of Bingen, called the'Dendermonde Codex'; the Dendermonde-Puurs Steam Railway is a heritage railway, running 14 kilometres from Dendermonde to Puurs. Jazz Center Flanders, documentation center and museum Dendermonde likes to be known for its decennial procession, featuring the heroic horse, Ros Beiaard.
Legend has this horse saving his three brothers from capture by Charlemagne. Dendermonde is home to Rugby Union club Dendermondse RC, champions of the Belgian Elite League in the 2011/12 season. Clément Loret and composer, naturalized French Polydore de Keyser, Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London in 1887 Alwin de Prins, competitive swimmer Pierre-Jean De Smet, missionary among Native Americans James Oliver Van de Velde, bishop of Chicago and of Mississippi Geert De Vlieger, Belgian international soccer player Jan De Vos, mayor of Antwerp Emmanuel Hiel and prose writer Fernand Khnopff, painter Kim Kay is a Belgian singer Caroline Maes, tennis player Johannes Ockeghem, was said to be born in Dendermonde Ivo Van Damme, middle distance runner Pat Van Den Hauwe, Welsh international soccer player, former Belgian Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt was born and raised in Dendermonde, as was his younger brother the political scientist Dirk Verhofstadt (b. 19
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros. The coins first came into use in 2002, they have a common reverse, portraying a map of Europe, but each country in the eurozone has its own design on the obverse, which means that each coin has a variety of different designs in circulation at once. Four European microstates which use the euro as their currency have the right to mint coins with their own designs on the obverse side; the coins, various commemorative coins, are minted at numerous national mints across the European Union to strict national quotas. Obverse designs are chosen nationally, while the reverse and the currency as a whole is managed by the European Central Bank; the euro came into existence on 1 January 1999. It had been a goal of its predecessors since the 1960s; the Maastricht Treaty entered into force in 1993 with the goal of creating economic and monetary union by 1999 for all EU states except the UK and Denmark. In 1999 the currency was born and in 2002 notes and coins began to circulate.
It replaced the former national currencies and the eurozone has since expanded further to some newer EU states. In 2009 the Lisbon Treaty formalised its political authority, the Eurogroup, alongside the European Central Bank. In 2004 €2 commemorative coins were allowed to be minted in six states. By 2007, all states but France and the Netherlands had minted a commemorative issue and the first eurozone-wide commemorative coin was issued to celebrate 50 years of the Treaty of Rome. In 2009, the second eurozone-wide issue of a 2-euro commemorative coin was issued, celebrating ten years of the Economic and Monetary Union. In 2012, the third eurozone-wide issue of a 2-euro commemorative coin was issued, celebrating 10 years of euro coins and notes. To date, only Cyprus has not independently issued a €2 commemorative coin; as the EU's membership has since expanded in 2004, 2007 and 2013, with further expansions envisaged, the common face of all euro coins from the value of 10c and above were redesigned in 2007 to show a new map.
Slovenia joined the eurozone in 2007, Cyprus and Malta joined in 2008, Slovakia in 2009, Estonia in 2011, Latvia in 2014 and Lithuania in 2015, introducing seven more national-side designs. Andorra started minting coins in 2014, so from 2015 there are 23 countries with their own national sides. There are eight different denominations of euro coins: 1c, 2c, 5c, 10c, 20c, 50c, €1 and €2; the 1c, 2c and 5c coins show Europe in relation to Africa in the world. The remaining coins show the EU before its enlargement in May 2004 if minted before 1 January 2007, or a geographical map of Europe if minted after. Coins from Italy, San Marino, the Vatican City and Portugal show the geographical map if minted in 2008 or later; the common side was designed by Luc Luycx of the Royal Belgian Mint. They symbolise the unity of the EU; the national sides were designed by the NCBs of the eurozone in separate competitions. There are specifications. National designs were not allowed to change until the end of 2008, unless a monarch dies or abdicates.
National designs have seen some changes due to a new rule stating that national designs should include the name of the issuing country. The common side of the 1c, 2c and 5c coins depict the denomination, the words'EURO CENT' beside it, twelve stars and Europe highlighted on a globe in relation to Asia and Africa in the world; the common side of the 10c, 20c and 50c coins depict the denomination on the right, the words'EURO CENT' underneath it, with twelve stars and the European continent on the left. Coins minted from 1999 to 2006 depicted only the EU15, rather than the entire European continent, on coins minted after 2007; the common side of the €1 and €2 coins depict the denomination on the left, the currency, map of Europe and twelve stars on the right. Coins minted from 1999 to 2006 depicted the EU15, rather than the whole European continent, on coins minted from 2007. All coins have a common reverse side showing how much the coin is worth, with a design by Belgian designer Luc Luycx; the design of the 1c, 2c and 5c coins shows Europe's place in the world as a whole.
The 10c coins and above show either the 15 countries that were the European Union in 2002, or, if minted after 2007, the whole European continent. Coins from Italy, San Marino, the Vatican and Portugal show the new design if minted 2008 or later; the coins symbolise the unity of the EU. On 7 June 2005, the European Council decided that the common side of the 10c to €2 coins should be brought up to date to reflect the enlargement of the EU in 2004; the 1c, 2c and 5c coins show Europe in relation to the rest of the world, therefore they remained unchanged. In 2007, the new design was introduced; the design still retains all elements of the original designs, including the twelve stars, but the map of the fifteen states is replaced by one showing the whole of Europe as a continent, without borders, to stress unity. These coins were not mandatory for existing eurozone members when introduced in 2007, but became so for every member in 2008. Cyprus is shown several hundred kilometres north west of its real position in order to include it on the map.
On the €1 and €2 coins, the island is shown to be directly east of mainland Greece. The original proposal from the European Commission was to include Turkey on the map, but this design was rejected by the Council; the original designs of the 10c, 20c and 50c coins showed the ou
Computer engineering is a branch of engineering that integrates several fields of computer science and electronic engineering required to develop computer hardware and software. Computer engineers have training in electronic engineering, software design, hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microcontrollers, personal computers, supercomputers, to circuit design; this field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work but how they integrate into the larger picture. Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, designing operating systems. Computer engineers are suited for robotics research, which relies on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors and sensors.
In many institutions of higher learning, computer engineering students are allowed to choose areas of in-depth study in their junior and senior year because the full breadth of knowledge used in the design and application of computers is beyond the scope of an undergraduate degree. Other institutions may require engineering students to complete one or two years of general engineering before declaring computer engineering as their primary focus. Computer engineering began in 1939 when John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry began developing the world's first electronic digital computer through physics and electrical engineering. John Vincent Atanasoff was once a physics and mathematics teacher for Iowa State University and Clifford Berry a former graduate under electrical engineering and physics. Together, they created the Atanasoff-Berry computer known as the ABC which took 5 years to complete. While the original ABC was dismantled and discarded in the 1940s a tribute was made to the late inventors, a replica of the ABC was made in 1997 where it took a team of researchers and engineers four years and $350,000 to build.
The first computer engineering degree program in the United States was established in 1971 at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. As of 2015, there were 250 ABET-accredited computer engineering programs in the U. S. In Europe, accreditation of computer engineering schools is done by a variety of agencies part of the EQANIE network. Due to increasing job requirements for engineers who can concurrently design hardware, software and manage all forms of computer systems used in industry, some tertiary institutions around the world offer a bachelor's degree called computer engineering. Both computer engineering and electronic engineering programs include analog and digital circuit design in their curriculum; as with most engineering disciplines, having a sound knowledge of mathematics and science is necessary for computer engineers. Computer engineering is referred to as computer engineering at some universities. Most entry-level computer engineering jobs require at least a bachelor's degree in computer engineering.
One must learn an array of mathematics such as calculus and trigonometry and some computer science classes. Sometimes a degree in electronic engineering is accepted, due to the similarity of the two fields; because hardware engineers work with computer software systems, a strong background in computer programming is necessary. According to BLS, "a computer engineering major is similar to electrical engineering but with some computer science courses added to the curriculum"; some large firms or specialized jobs require a master's degree. It is important for computer engineers to keep up with rapid advances in technology. Therefore, many continue learning throughout their careers; this can be helpful when it comes to learning new skills or improving existing ones. For example, as the relative cost of fixing a bug increases the further along it is in the software development cycle, there can be greater cost savings attributed to developing and testing for quality code as soon as possible in the process, before release.
There are two major specialties in computer engineering: software. According to the BLS, Job Outlook employment for computer hardware engineers, the expected ten-year growth from 2014 to 2024 for computer hardware engineering was an estimated 3% and there was a total of 77,700 jobs that same year." And is down from 7% for the 2012 to 2022 BLS estimate and is further down from 9% in the BLS 2010 to 2020 estimate." Today, computer hardware is somehow equal to electronic and computer engineering and has divided into many subcategories, the most significant of them is Embedded system design. According to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, "computer applications software engineers and computer systems software engineers are projected to be among the faster than average growing occupations" The expected ten-year growth as of 2014 for computer software engineering was an estimated seventeen percent and there was a total of 1,114,000 jobs that same year; this is down from the 2012 to 2022 BLS estimate of 22% for software developers.
And, further down from the 30% 2010 to 2020 BLS estimate. In addition, growing concerns over cybersecurity add up to put computer software engineering high above the average rate of increase for all fields. However, some of the work will be outsourced in foreign countries. Due to this, job growth will not be as fast as during the last
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Aalst is a city and municipality on the Dender River, 31 kilometres northwest from Brussels in the Flemish province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Aalst itself and the villages of Baardegem, Gijzegem, Hofstade, Meldert and Nieuwerkerken. Aalst is crossed by the Molenbeek-Ter Erpenbeek in Hofstade; the current mayor of Aalst is Christoph D'Haese, from the New-Flemish Alliance party. The town has a long-standing feud with Dendermonde; the first historical records on Aalst date from the 9th century, when it was described as the villa Alost, a dependency of the Abbey of Lobbes. The development of a pre-urban village, grown around a Carolingian curtis on the westbank of the Dender, into a small urban centre must have taken place in the 11th or 12th century. During the Middle Ages, a town and port grew at this strategic point, where the road from Bruges to Cologne crossed the Dender. While it was within the Holy Roman Empire it was considered the capital of the province of Flanders.
In 1046, Aalst was transferred to the Countship of Imperial Flanders, absorbed a portion of Brabant, in 1173 it was united with the remainder of the Flanders province. Its frontier position on the border of the Holy Roman Empire allowed the town to keep a certain degree of independence, its relation with Brabant has been preserved in the city's white and red coat of arms, the colours of Lotharingia. Construction of the town hall began in the middle of the 12th century, making it the oldest surviving town hall in Belgium. Several manuscripts from this period still survive in the town archives. During the Hundred Years War the town of Aalst allied themselves with Louis de Male against Philip van Artevelde and sent troops in the victorious Battle of Roosebeke; the town hall, the city itself, were entirely destroyed by fire in 1360. The town was soon rebuilt and a new belfry in gothic style was built in the 15th century; this was a time of great prosperity for the city, dominated by the powerful weavers' guild.
It is at that time that Dirk Martens, a local citizen, became the Southern Netherlands’ first printer, founding a printing shop in 1473 that published books by various authors including Christopher Columbus. Aalst suffered under the Eighty Years' War, it was taken by the French Marshal Turenne in the War of Devolution of 1667 occupied by France until 1706, when it became independent once more following the Battle of Ramillies, along with Southern Flanders in general. The textile-based economy flourished under the French. In the 18th century, the Austrians controlled the region. 1830 saw Belgium gain independence and Aalst became part of the country, this ended a long period, starting in 1056, of foreign control, by such as the Spanish, German and the Dutch. The 19th century was marked by social crises engendered by the Industrial Revolution, with Father Adolf Daens and his Christene Volkspartij emerging as the local defender of workers' rights; this was in response to Rerum novarum. However Daens felt.
He was made to pay for his "splinter movement". In the Pre-World War II years, the fascist movement in the Low Countries gained momentum, with the Vlaamsch Nationaal Verbond becoming established in the region. Aalst, along with Antwerp were the strongest subscribers to this line of thought; the 20th century was marked by occupation by the Germans during both world wars. The textile industry is still vibrant in part because of the French occupation. Aalst produces not only the textiles themselves and footwear, but manufactures many of the needed machines; the more rural regions are noted for their production of hops, which are sold to the old breweries there. They have a large active cut flower business in the region. Aalst is famous for its carnival festivities, celebrated every year before Lent. During this celebration, the former town hall belfry is the site of the traditional "throwing of the onions". A Prince Carnival is elected, allowed to "rule" the city for three days. A big parade crosses the city on Sunday, with about 70 groups of costumed volunteers and parade cars.
Carnival Tuesday or Shrove Tuesday, is known as the day of the'Voil Jeannetten', i.e. men dressed as women. The festivities traditionally end with the "Burning of the Doll". In 2019, the city was involved in controversy. A float depicted two huge, snarling Orthodox Jews with huge hook noses and beards, wearing shtreimels, standing amid gold coins and bags of money, One of the Jews has a rat on his shoulder. In the back is a synagogue with a mezuzah on the doorway; the title of the float was “Sabbath Year.”. The 15th-century belfry next to the town hall contains the oldest in Belgium. Together with the adjacent Aldermen's House, it was classified by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1999; the famous "unfinished" St. Martin's Collegiate Church, in Gothic style, dates back to 1480, it contains a painting by Rubens, "Saint Roch beseeching Christ to terminate the Plague at Aalst", it has a tabernacle, which features sculptures made by Hiëronymus Duquesnoy the Elder, whose most famous creation is Manneken Pis.
This church was damaged in 1914. The statue of Dirk M