A roadstead is a body of water sheltered from rip currents, spring tides or ocean swell where ships can lie reasonably safely at anchor without dragging or snatching. It can be open or natural estuary-based, or may be created artificially. In maritime law it is described as a "known general station for ships, notoriously used as such, distinguished by the name". A roadstead can be an area of safe anchorage for ships waiting to enter a port. In the days of sailing ships, some voyages could only be made with a change in wind direction, ships would wait for a change of wind in a safe anchorage, such as the Downs or Yarmouth Roads. Daniel Defoe has Robinson Crusoe recall an early journey in the coastal trade: "The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz. at southwest, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads..." Basque Roads, France Roadstead of Brest, France Carrick Roads, England Castle Roads, Bermuda Cherbourg Harbour, France The Downs, England Fayal Roads, Portugal Gage Roads, Western Australia Hampton Roads, Virginia, USA Kossol Roads, Micronesia Lahaina Roads, Hawaii, USA The Nore, England Royal Roads, Canada Schillig Roads, Germany Spithead, England Tail of the Bank, Scotland Toulon Roads, France Road Town, British Virgin Islands Rede van Texel, Netherlands Anchorage Harbor Types of the World's Large Sized Ports, Hofstra University site Ports and Ocean Distances, searoutes.comRoadsteads around the world
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney
George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney, KB, was a British naval officer. He is best known for his commands in the American War of Independence his victory over the French at the Battle of the Saintes in 1782, it is claimed that he was the commander to have pioneered the tactic of "breaking the line". Rodney came from a distinguished but poor background, went to sea at the age of fourteen, his first major action was the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1747. He made a large amount of prize money during the 1740s, allowing him to purchase a large country estate and a seat in the House of Commons of Great Britain. During the Seven Years' War, Rodney was involved in a number of amphibious operations such as the raids on Rochefort and Le Havre and the Siege of Louisbourg, he became well known for his role in the capture of Martinique in 1762. Following the Peace of Paris, Rodney's financial situation stagnated, he spent large sums of money pursuing his political ambitions. By 1774 he was forced to flee Britain to avoid his creditors.
He was in a French jail when war was declared in 1778. Thanks to a benefactor, Rodney was able to secure his release and return to Britain where he was appointed to a new command. Rodney relieved Gibraltar during the Great Siege and defeated a Spanish fleet during the 1780 Battle of Cape St. Vincent, known as the "Moonlight Battle" because it took place at night, he was posted to the Jamaica Station, where he became involved in the controversial 1781 capture of Sint Eustatius. That year he returned home suffering from ill health. During his absence the British lost the crucial Battle of the Chesapeake leading to the surrender at Yorktown. To some Rodney was a controversial figure, accused of an obsession with prize money and nepotism; this was brought to a head in the wake of his taking of Saint Eustatius for which he was criticised in Britain. Orders for his recall had been sent when Rodney won a decisive victory at the Battle of the Saintes in April 1782, ending the French threat to Jamaica.
On his return to Britain, Rodney was made a peer and was awarded an annual pension of £2,000. He lived in retirement until his death in 1792. George Brydges Rodney was born either in Walton-on-Thames or in London, though the family seat was Rodney Stoke, Somerset, he was most born sometime in January 1718. He was baptised in St Giles-in-the-Fields on 13 February 1718, he was the third of four surviving children of Henry Rodney and Mary Rodney, daughter of Sir Henry Newton. His father had served in Spain under the Earl of Peterborough during the War of the Spanish Succession, on leaving the army served as captain in a marine corps, disbanded in 1713. A major investment in the South Sea Company impoverished the family. In spite of their lack of money, the family was well-connected by marriage, it is sometimes claimed that Henry Rodney had served as commander of the Royal Yacht of George I and it was after him that George was named, but this had been discounted more recently. George was sent to Harrow School, being appointed, on leaving, by warrant dated 21 June 1732, a volunteer on board Sunderland.
After serving aboard Sunderland, Rodney switched to Dreadnought where he served from 1734 to 1737 under Captain Henry Medley who acted as a mentor to him. Around this time he spent eighteen months stationed in Lisbon, a city he would return to several times, he changed ships several times, taking part in the navy's annual trip to protect the British fishing fleet off Newfoundland in 1738. He rose swiftly through the ranks of the navy helped by a combination of his own talents and the patronage of the Duke of Chandos. While serving on the Mediterranean station he was made lieutenant in Dolphin, his promotion dating 15 February 1739, he served on Namur, the flagship of the Commander-in-Chief Sir Thomas Mathews. The War of the Austrian Succession had broken out by this point, in August 1742, Rodney had his first taste of action when he was ordered by Matthews to take a smaller vessel and launch a raid on Ventimiglia, where the Spanish army had stockpiled supplies and stores ready for a planned invasion of Britain's ally the Republic of Genoa, which he accomplished.
Shortly after this, he attained the rank of post-captain, having been appointed by Matthews to Plymouth on 9 November. He picked up several British merchantmen in Lisbon to escort them home, but lost contact with them in heavy storms. Once he reached Britain his promotion was confirmed, making him one of the youngest Captains in the navy. After serving in home waters learning about convoy protection he was appointed to the newly built Ludlow Castle which he used to blockade the Scottish coast during the Jacobite Rebellion in 1745. Two of Rodney's midshipman aboard Ludlow Castle were Samuel Hood to become a distinguished sailor, Rodney's younger brother James Rodney. In 1746 he obtained command of the 60-gun Eagle. After some time spent blockading French-occupied Ostend and cruising around the Western Approaches, where on 24 May he took his first prize a 16-gun Spanish privateer, Eagle was sent to join the Western Squadron; the Western Squadron was a new strategy by Britain's naval planners to operate a more effective blockade system of France by stationing the Home Fleet in the Western Approaches, where they could guard both the English channel and the French Atlantic coast.
Eagle continued to take prizes while stationed with the Squadron being involved directly, or indirectly, in the capture of sixteen enemy ships. After taking one of the captured prizes to Kinsale in Ireland, Eagle was not present at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre when the Western Squadron commanded by Lord Anson won a signif
Jean-Baptiste Paulin Guérin
Jean-Baptiste Paulin Guérin was a French portrait and history painter. He was born into a working-class family that moved to Marseille when his father acquired a locksmithing business there in 1794. During his apprenticeship in that trade, he studied drawing at a local school and displayed some talent for it. Soon, he was spending all of his free time painting. During this time he befriended another aspiring painter, Augustin Aubert, who he joined in Paris in 1802, financing the trip by selling works to a local Baron, an amateur art enthusiast. After that point, he devoted himself to painting. For a short time, he was employed as an assistant to François Gérard while serving as an unpaid apprentice in the studios of François-André Vincent. In Gérard's studio, he prepared the canvases by painting clothing and miscellaneous items. Most of his earnings were sent home to help support his family. After a time, he became bored with such tedious work and, in 1810, submitted some of his paintings to the Salon where they were well received.
Vivant Denon asked him to help decorate the ceiling at the Tuileries Palace, but the project was never finished due to the Bourbon Restoration. After that, he helped to restore the paintings there. In 1817, he won a gold medal for "Jésus mort et la Mère des douleurs", created for the Baltimore Basilica, the oldest major Catholic structure in the United States. In 1822 his tableau "Anchise et Vénus" attracted the attention of King Louis XVIII, which earned him the Légion d'honneur and, two years the honor of painting the King's portrait. In 1828, he was appointed the Director of drawing and painting at the Maison d'éducation de la Légion d'honneur, he gave private lessons. During the reign of King Louis Philippe, he continued to receive numerous public commissions. A few months after his death, a major exhibition of his paintings was given at the Exposition Universelle; some of his works have been mistakenly attributed to Pierre-Narcisse Guérin or Jean-Urbain Guérin, vice versa. Neither of them were related to him.
André Alauzen and Laurent Noet, Dictionnaire des peintres et sculpteurs de Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Jeanne Laffitte, Marseille ISBN 978-2-86276-441-2 Paulin Guérin @ the Base Joconde À propos du portrait de Chateaubriand @ La Tribune de l'Art
Pierre André de Suffren
Admiral comte Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez, bailli de Suffren, French admiral. He was most famous for his campaign in the Indian Ocean, in which he fought a series of intense and evenly matched battles for supremacy against the established British power there, led by Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes. Alfred T. Mahan praised Suffren as "a great man" and evaluated him in terms he reserved for praising decisively victorious admirals. Pierre André de Suffren was born on July 17, 1729 in the Château de Saint-Cannat in the present département of Bouches-du-Rhône, he was the third son of Paul de Suffren, the marquis de Saint Tropez, head of a family of nobles of Provence. He grew up at the Hôtel de Suffren, a hôtel particulier located at 40 on the Cours Mirabeau in Aix-en-Provence; the French navy and the Order of Malta offered the usual careers for the younger sons of noble families of the south of France who did not elect to go into the Church. The connection between the Order and the old French royal navy was close.
Pierre André de Suffren was destined by his parents to belong to both. He entered the close and aristocratic corps of French naval officers as a "garde de la marine"—cadet or midshipman, in October 1743, in Solide, one of the line of battleships which took part in the confused engagement off Toulon in 1744, he was in Pauline in the squadron of M. Macnémara on a cruise in the West Indies. In 1746 he went through the duc D'Anville's disastrous expedition to retake Cape Breton, ruined by shipwreck and plague; the following year, in 1747, he was taken prisoner by Hawke in the action with the French convoy in the Bay of Biscay. His biographer Charles Cunat reports; when peace was made in 1748 he went to Malta to perform the cruises with the galleys of the Order technically called "caravans," a reminiscence of the days when the knights protected the pilgrims going from Saint John d'Acre to Jerusalem. In Suffren's time this service went beyond a peaceful tour among the Greek islands, but it involved piracy suppression operations against the wily Barbary states of North Africa.
During the Seven Years' War he was present as lieutenant in Orphée in the action with Admiral Byng, which, if not speaking a victory, was at least not a defeat for the French, was followed by the surrender of the English garrison of Menorca. But in 1759 he was again taken prisoner, when Boscawen captured his ship, Océan, at the Battle of Lagos. On the return of peace in 1763 Suffren intended again to do the service in the caravans, required to qualify him to hold the high and lucrative posts of the Order, he was, named to the command of Caméléon, a xebec—a vessel of mixed square and lateen rig peculiar to the Mediterranean—in which he cruised against the Barbary pirates. Between 1767 and 1771 he performed his caravans, was promoted from knight to commander of the Order. From that time till the beginning of the War of American Independence he commanded vessels in the squadron of evolution which the French government had established for the purpose of giving practice to its officers, his nerve and skill in handling his ship were commended by his chiefs.
In 1778 and 1779, Suffren formed part of the squadron of Vice-Amiral ès Mers d'Asie et d'Amerique D'Estaing throughout its operations on the coast of North America and in the West Indies. He led the line in the action with Admiral John Byron off Grenada, his ship, lost 62 men, his letters to his admiral show that he disapproved of D'Estaing's half-hearted methods. In 1780, he was captain of Zélé, in the combined French and Spanish fleets which captured a great English convoy in the Atlantic, his candour towards his chief, Luis de Córdova y Córdova, had done him no harm in the opinion of D'Estaing. It is said to have been by the advice of this admiral that Suffren was chosen to command a squadron of five ships of the line sent out to help the Dutch who had joined France and Spain to defend the Cape against an expected English attack, to go on to the East Indies, he sailed from Brest on March 22. On April 16, 1781 he found the English expedition on its way to the Cape under the command of Commodore called Governor, George Johnstone, at anchor in Porto Praya, Cape Verde Islands.
Remembering how little respect Boscawen had shown for the neutrality of Portugal at Lagos, he attacked at once, in the Battle of Porto Praya. No serious losses were sustained by either side. Suffren pushed on to the Cape, which he saved from capture by Johnstone, made his way to the Isle de France held by the French. M. D'Orves, his superior officer, died as the united squadrons, now eleven sail of the line, were on their way to the Bay of Bengal; the campaign, which Suffren now conducted against the English admiral Sir Edward Hughes, is famous for the number and indecisiveness of the encounters between them. Four actions took place in 1782: the Battle of Sadras on February 1782, south of Madras. No ship was lost by either side in any of these battles, his activity encouraged Hyder Ali, at war with the British East India Company. He refused to return to the islands for the purpose of escorting the troops coming out under command of Bussy, maintaining that his proper purpose
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Ille-et-Vilaine is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country. Ille-et-Vilaine is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from part of the province of Brittany. Ille-et-Vilaine is a part of the current region of Brittany and is bordered by the departments of Manche to the north-east, Mayenne to the east, Maine-et-Loire to the south-east, Loire-Atlantique to the south, Morbihan to the south-west, Côtes-d'Armor to the west and north-west; the English Channel borders the department to the north. The department is named after its two main rivers, the Ille and the Vilaine, whose confluence is in Rennes, the capital of the department and of the region. Other important rivers include: the Rance, that borders the department in the north-west and flows to the north, creating a deep fjord before reaching the English Channel on the western part of the coast between the cities of Dinard and Saint-Malo).
The department is moderately elevated above the level of the sea, with many hills. The elevated hills bordering this basin are covered by several old forests now exploited by men for the production of wood; the basin itself is a rich agriculture area, as well as the north-west of the department near the Rance. In the extreme south of the department the Vilaine goes through a slower decrease in elevation in a small corridor in the area of the city of Redon. To avoid these hazards within inhabited cities, some natural fields bordering the Vilaine in the south of the department are now left floodable, works for regulating the level have been done including, small artificial lakes with derivation channels, replanting trees in the basin, better management of forests, regulating the artificial drains made for agriculture; the population has grown over the last few decades and was estimated at 1,019,923 in January 2013. Gallo is a historic minority language spoken in eastern Brittany. Gallo and Breton are both studied at the University of Rennes.
The Breton language was little spoken in the eastern part of Brittany, this was one of the first regions where the language disappeared such that Breton was not spoken for many centuries. Today, Breton is again spoken due to schools teaching Breton, due to a small immigration from Western Brittany to Eastern Brittany, where there are more cities with growing industries and external investment and therefore more work. A recent study shows that Breton speakers in this region represent 3.3% of the total number of Breton speakers. The Breton speakers aged 18–30 in this region represent 12.7% of the total number of Breton speakers of that age group. This is because there are few elder speakers but many people are learning the language; the study says. The President of the General Council is the Socialist Jean-Louis Tourenne since the French cantonal elections, 2004; the city of Rennes and its suburbs are the original base of the rapid Socialist growth in the department. The city has been governed by Socialist Mayors since 1977, notably by Edmond Hervé between 1977 and 2008.
Since the growth of middle-class suburbs have helped the Socialists, who have been gaining strength in those right-leaning areas. The right remains strong in a Catholic area from outside Redon to Vitré or Fougères. In addition, the right is strong in the wealthy coastal area of Dinard. Cantons of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Arrondissements of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Prefecture website General Council website Ille-et-Vilaine at Curlie Cultural Heritage City of Rennes website