Gherardo Cibo known by the alias of Ulisse Severini da Cingoli was an artist and a herbalist from Italy. The herbarium that he began in 1532 is the oldest surviving example of the method invented in Italy by his contemporaries and is preserved in Rome, his illustrations of plants show plants in the foreground with landscapes and details of people and places in the background. Cibo was born in Genoa in 1512 to Aranino and Bianca Vigeri Della Rovere in a wealthy family related to the Duke of Urbino, his paternal great grandfather was Giovanni Battista Cibo better known as Pope Innocent VIII. After some early years in Genoa he moved to Rome where he stayed with his aunt, the Duchess of Camerino, Caterina Cibo da Varano and sought to join the clergy but war led to his movement to Bologna where he studied botany under Luca Ghini, his studies during this period ending in 1532 included the collection of plants and the creation of a herbarium. In 1534 he stayed with Lorenzo Cibo where he made trips around Pisa.
In 1539 he visited Germany and travelled to Marches and moved to Rome in 1553. He spent the largest part of his life in Arcevia. Cibo left diaries of illustrations of the landscapes, he studied the works of Leonhart Fuchs and Pierandrea Mattioli. He corresponded with Andrea Bacci, he maintained his herbarium in alphabetical order. The letters and collections are scattered across archives. Books in his library that have survived at the Biblioteca Angelica include Historia Stirpium by Leonhart Fuchs, a copy of the Historia dei semplici by Garcia da Orta as well as 1548, 1558 and 1573 editions of Discorsi by Mattioli with illustrations added by Cibo. Sample Herbarium sheet British Library images Contribuzioni alla storia della botanica by Otto Penzig - an index to the herbaria of Cibo
Casalfiumanese is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Bologna in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 30 kilometres southeast of Bologna. Casalfiumanese borders the following municipalities: Borgo Tossignano, Castel del Rio, Castel San Pietro Terme, Fontanelice, Monterenzio. San Martino di Pedriolo, Casalfiumanese Luca Ghini Pope Honorius II Rotondella, Italy
Pietro Andrea Mattioli
Pietro Andrea Gregorio Mattioli was a doctor and naturalist born in Siena. He received his MD at the University of Padua in 1523, subsequently practiced the profession in Siena, Rome and Gorizia, becoming personal physician of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria in Prague and Ambras Castle, of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor in Vienna. Mattioli described the first case of cat allergy, his patient was so sensitive to cats that if he was sent into a room with a cat he reacted with agitation and pallor. A careful student of botany, he described 100 new plants and coordinated the medical botany of his time in his Discorsi on the Materia Medica of Dioscorides; the first edition of Mattioli's work appeared in 1544 in Italian. There were several editions in Italian and translations into Latin, French and German. In addition to identifying the plants described by Dioscorides, Mattioli added descriptions of some plants not in Dioscorides and not of any known medical use, thus marking a transition from the study of plants as a field of medicine to a study of interest in its own right.
In addition, the woodcuts in Mattioli's work were of a high standard, allowing recognition of the plant when the text was obscure. A noteworthy inclusion is an early variety of tomato,the first documented example of the vegetable being grown and eaten in Europe; the plant genus. Mattioli argued against Fracastoro's theory of fossils, as well as against his own conclusions, as described as follows in Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology: The system of scholastic disputations encouraged in the Universities of the middle ages had trained men to habits of indefinite argumentation, they preferred absurd and extravagant propositions, because greater skill was required to maintain them. Andrea Mattioli, for instance, an eminent botanist, the illustrator of Dioscorides, embraced the notion of Agricola, a German miner, that a certain'materia pinguis' or'fatty matter,' set into fermentation by heat, gave birth to fossil organic shapes, yet Mattioli had come to the conclusion, from his own observations, that porous bodies, such as bones and shells, might be converted into stone, as being permeable to what he termed the'lapidifying juice.
Pietro Andrea Mattioli was a renowned botanist and physician, this is attested to by his published works. As Mattioli held a post in the Imperial Court as physician to Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria, the Emperor Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, this granted him immense influence, but some of his practice included the frequent testing of the effects of poisonous plants on prisoners in order to popularize his works--no doubt a common practice at the time. And Mattioli did not tolerate either corrections; the naturalists and physicians who dared to disagree or correct him did so at their peril. The list of some of the most important men of the day that were admonished, rebuked, or pursued by the Inquisition contains Wieland, Gesner and others; this caused the longterm domination of Mattioli's version of De Materia Medica throughout the continent in northern Europe. 1533, Morbi Gallici Novum ac Utilissimum Opusculum 1535, Liber de Morbo Gallico, dedicated to Bernardo Clesio 1536, De Morbi Gallici Curandi Ratione 1539, Il Magno Palazzo del Cardinale di Trento 1544, Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo Libri cinque Della historia, et materia medicinale tradotti in lingua volgare italiana da M. Pietro Andrea Matthiolo Sanese Medico, con amplissimi discorsi, et comenti, et dottissime annotationi, et censure del medesimo interprete known as Discorsi 1548, Italian translation of Geografia di Tolomeo 1554, Petri Andreae Matthioli Medici Senensis Commentarii, in Libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de Materia Medica, Adjectis quàm plurimis plantarum & animalium imaginibus, eodem authore known as Commentarii.
This Materia Medica work had anonymous commentaries by Michael Servetus, it is known as "Lyon printers tribute to Michael de Villanueva." 1558, Petri Andreae Matthioli senensis, serenissimi Principis Ferdinandi Auchiducis Austriae &c. Medici, commentarii secundo aucti, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medica materia: adjectis quam plurimis Plantarum, & Animalium Imaginibus quae in priore Editione non-habentur, eodem Authore Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf 1558, Apologia Adversus Amatum Lusitanum 1561, Epistolarum Medicinalium Libri Quinque 1569, Opusculum de Simplicium Medicamentorum Facultatibus 1571, Compendium de Plantis Omnibus una cum Earum Iconibus 1586, De plantis epitome. Francofurti ad Moenum Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf 1590, Kreutterbuch deß hochgelehrten unnd weitberühmten Herrn D. Petri Andreae Matthioli: jetzt widerumb mit viel schönen neuwen Figuren, auch nützlichen Artzeneyen, und andern guten Stücken, zum andern mal auß sonderm Fleiß gemehret und verfertigt.
Franckfort am Mayn:. Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf 1598, Medici Caesarei et Ferdinandi Archiducis Austriae opera quae extant omnia. Frankfurt a. M. Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf 1627, Les commentaires de P. André Matthiolus sur les six livres de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen, de la matiere medecinale: traduits de latin en françois, par M. Antoine du Pinet.
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
West Lafayette, Indiana
West Lafayette is a city in Wabash Township, Tippecanoe County, United States, about 65 miles northwest of the state capital of Indianapolis and 103 miles southeast of Chicago. West Lafayette is directly across the Wabash River from Lafayette; as of the 2016 census estimate, its population was 45,872. It is home to Purdue University. Augustus Wylie laid out a town in 1836 in the Wabash River floodplain south of the present Levee. Due to regular flooding of the site, Wylie's town was never built; the present city was formed in 1888 by the merger of the adjacent suburban towns of Chauncey and Kingston, located on a bluff across the Wabash River from Lafayette, Indiana. The three towns had been small suburban villages. Kingston was laid out in 1855 by Jesse B. Lutz. Chauncey was platted in 1860 by the Chauncey family of wealthy land speculators. Chauncey and Kingston formed a municipal government in 1866 which selected the name "Chauncey"; the new town of Chauncey remained a small suburban village until Purdue University opened in 1869.
In 1871 Chauncey voted to be annexed by Lafayette because it was unable to provide the infrastructure. Lafayette voted against annexing Chauncey because of the high cost of the many improvements that the village lacked. In May 1888, the town of Chauncey voted to change its name to West Lafayette after a petition signed by 152 electors. By that time, the growth of the university was fueling the growth of the little town; the address of Purdue University was given as "Lafayette, Indiana" until well into the twentieth century. West Lafayette never gained a railroad depot and lagged several years behind Lafayette in the establishment of municipal infrastructure and services. Today, West Lafayette has established itself as a separate city, with independent services and unique neighborhoods distinct from those of its sister city, Lafayette. In November 2013, the City of West Lafayette approved an annexation that placed much of the Purdue University academic campus and residence hall system within the official boundaries of the municipality for the first time.
This expansion included a large section of the US Highway 231 corridor, part of unincorporated Tippecanoe County. Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity House, Jesse Andrew House, Chauncey-Stadium Avenues Historic District, John E. and Catherine E. Christian House, Curtis-Grace House, Happy Hollow Heights Historic District and Dales Historic District, Morton School, The Varsity are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the city of West Lafayette has its fair share of non-profits, many of whom are committed to preserving the arts. Organizations like the Tippecanoe Arts Federation has a mission to "grow the arts"; the International Center of West Lafayette helps them to achieve this goal by being a member organization of TAF. West Lafayette lies in central Tippecanoe County and overlooks the Wabash River, which borders the city on the east and south. Most of the city lies in eastern Wabash Township, though a small portion on the northeast side extends into Tippecanoe Township. Elevations range from over 500 feet near the river to more than 720 feet in northern parts of the city near U.
S. Route 52. According to the 2010 census, West Lafayette has a total area of 7.63 square miles, of which 7.62 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 29,796 people, 11,945 households, 4,072 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,884.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,591 housing units at an average density of 1,652.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 65.2% White, 6.8% African American, 0.1% Native American, 17.3% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.6% of the population. There were 11,945 households of which 16.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.2% were married couples living together, 4.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 65.9% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.92. The median age in the city was 22.8 years. 11.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 54.2% male and 45.8% female. Following the 2010 census, West Lafayette annexed additional territory including the Purdue University main campus; the census bureau released an updated report to reflect the boundary updates. The census now reports 14,053 households and a population of 42,010; as of the census of 2000, there were 28,778 people, 10,462 households, 3,588 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,219.6 people per square mile. There were 10,819 housing units at an average density of 1,962.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.3% White, 11.3% Asian, 5.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.2% of the population. There were 10,462 households out of which 14.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.6% were married couples living together, 4.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 65.7% were n