A skateboard is a type of sports equipment used for the sport of skateboarding. It consists of a specially designed maplewood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability. Most skateboards are made with 7 plies of this wood. A skateboard is moved by pushing with one foot while the other remains on the board, or by pumping one's legs in structures such as a bowl or half pipe. A skateboard can be used by standing on the deck while on a downward slope and allowing gravity to propel the board and rider. If the rider's leading foot is their right foot, they are said to ride "goofy. If the rider is regular but chooses to ride goofy, they are said to be riding in "switch," and vice versa. A skater is more comfortable pushing with their back foot. Electric skateboards have appeared; these no longer require the propelling of the skateboard by means of the feet. There is no governing body that declares any regulations on what constitutes a skateboard or the parts from which it is assembled.
The skateboard has conformed both to contemporary trends and to the ever-evolving array of stunts performed by riders/users, who require a certain functionality from the board. The board shape depends upon its desired function. Longboards are a type of skateboard with larger, softer wheels; the two main types of skateboards are the shortboard. The shape of the board is important: the skateboard must be concaved to perform tricks. Longboards are faster and are used for cruising and racing, while shortboards are used for doing tricks and riding in skateparks. Main: SkateboardingSkateboarding started in California in the 1950s; the first skateboards were made from roller skates. Skateboarding gained in popularity because of surfing. Skateboards were handmade from wooden boxes and planks by individuals. Companies started manufacturing skateboards in 1959. During this time, postwar America, was carefree with children playing in the streets. Boards are continuing to evolve as companies try to make them lighter and stronger or improve their performance.
Skateboarding is a individual activity. There is no wrong way to skate. Skateboarding still hasn't stopped evolving, skaters are coming up with new tricks all the time. Skateboarding has gone through its downs over the years. However, since 2000, due to attention in the media and products like skateboarding video games, children's skateboards and commercialization, skateboarding has been pulled into the mainstream; as more interest and money has been invested into skateboarding, more skate parks, better skateboards have become available. In addition, the continuing interest has motivated skateboarding companies have to keep innovating and inventing new things. In 2020 Skateboarding will appear for the first-time in the Olympics in Japan; the following descriptions cover skateboard parts that are most prevalent in popular and modern forms of skateboarding. Many parts exist with alternative constructions. A traditional complete skateboard consists of the deck, wheels, bushings and bolts to fasten the truck and wheel assembly to the bottom of the deck.
Older decks included plastic parts such as side and nose guards. Modern decks vary in size. Wider decks can be used for greater stability. Standard skateboard decks are between 28 and 33 inches long; the underside of the deck can be printed with a design by the manufacturer, blank, or decorated by any other means. "Long" boards are over 36 inches long. Plastic "penny" boards are about 22 inches long; some larger penny boards over 27 inches long are called "nickel" boards. The longboard, a common variant of the skateboard, is used for higher speed and rough surface boarding, they are much more expensive. "Old school" boards are wider and have only one kicktail. Variants of the 1970s have little or no concavity, whereas 1980s models have deeper concavities and steeper kicktails. Grip tape is a sheet of paper or fabric with adhesive on one side and a surface similar to fine sandpaper on the other. Grip tape is applied to the top surface of a board to allow the rider's feet to grip the surface and help the skater stay on the board while doing tricks.
Grip tape is black, but is available in many different colors such as pink, yellow, checkered and clear. They have designs die-cut to show the color of the board, or to display the board's company logo. Grip tape accumulates dirt and other substances that will inhibit grip, so use of a grip eraser or rubber eraser is necessary after riding through mud or with dirty shoes. Attached to the deck are two metal trucks, which connect the wheels and bearings to the deck; the trucks are further composed of two parts. The top part of the truck is screwed to the deck and is called the baseplate, beneath it is the hanger; the axle runs through the hange
Anthony Frank Hawk is an American professional skateboarder and owner of the skateboard company Birdhouse. Hawk is well known for completing the first documented 900 and for his licensed video game titles, published by Activision, he is considered to be one of the most successful and influential pioneers of modern vertical skateboarding. In 2002, he created the "Boom Boom HuckJam", an extreme sports exhibition and tour, launched in Las Vegas. Throughout his career, Hawk has made numerous appearances in films, other media, his own series of video games, he has been involved in various philanthropic activities, including his own Tony Hawk Foundation that helps to build skateparks in underprivileged areas. In 2014, Hawk was named one of the most influential skateboarders of all time by FoxWeekly. Tony Hawk was born on May 12, 1968 in San Diego, California to Nancy and Frank Peter Rupert Hawk, was raised in San Diego; when Hawk was young, he was described as being "hyperactive", his mother says that he was "so hard on himself and expected himself to do so many things."
One time, Hawk struck out in baseball and was so distraught that he hid in a ravine and had to be "physically coaxed out" by his father. His frustration with himself was so harsh that his parents had him psychologically evaluated at school; the results were that Tony was "gifted", he tested with an intelligence quotient of 144, school advisers recommended placing him in advanced classes. Hawk attended Jean Farb Middle School from 1980 to 1981, returned for the show, Homecoming with Rick Reilly, where he set up a ramp and did a demonstration, his parents supported his skateboarding because it served as an outlet for his excessive energy, as Hawk's skills developed, he became a professional skateboarder at age fourteen. Hawk was the National Skateboard Association world champion for twelve consecutive years. On June 27, 1999, Hawk was the first skater to land a "900", a trick involving the completion of two-and-a-half mid-air revolutions on a skateboard. After completing the trick, Hawk commented, "This is the best day of my life."
In 2011, Hawk was still able to land the trick and posted a video on his Twitter account stating, "I'm 43 and I did a 900 today." On June 27, 2016, at age 48, Hawk performed what he claimed will be his final 900. In a video posted on the YouTube channel RIDE Channel, Hawk says "Spencer was there on my first one, now he was there on my last. Bye." after landing a 900. Hawk was invited to President Barack Obama's June 2009 Father's Day celebration and skated in the hallways of the nearby Old Executive Office Building, on the White House grounds; this marked the first time someone skateboarded on the White House grounds with permission from officials. In 2009, Hawk was inducted into the Skateboarding Hall of Fame at its inaugural ceremony; as of January 2012, Hawk is sponsored by Birdhouse, Lakai Footwear, Independent and Nixon. Hawk was sponsored by Theeve. Following an invitation from his former sponsor, Hawk assembled a group of vert skateboarders to perform, in 2012, the first-ever vert demonstration to have occurred in India.
While in India, the group visited Mahatma Gandhi's house, the skateboarders were greeted by a excited young audience and the 540-degree maneuver was executed during the skateboarding demonstration—the Indian trip was published on Hawk's RIDE YouTube channel on February 4, 2013. All contest results are covered in Thrasher Magazine and can be checked at the Thrasher Magazine Archives. Only first places were counted. Boom Boom HuckJamIn 2002, Hawk started a show tour, featuring freestyle motocross, BMX, it started in Las Vegas and on to 31 cities around the U. S. and to Six Flags amusement parks. Video game series A video game series based on his skateboarding, with the title Tony Hawk's Pro Skater, debuted in 1999. Since the series has spawned 18 titles so far, including ten main series titles, four spin-offs, four repackages. Hawk's role in the series was usurped by customizable player characters in installments, but he has remained a prominent character. In the fifth game in the series, Underground, he is a minor non-player character whom the player meets in Tampa and skates against.
Impressed with the player's skills, Hawk grants them entry into a skate competition. He appears in Moscow to teach them the "360 Varial Heelflip Lien" move. Hawk and other skaters are playable near the end of the game when they skate in a promotional video for the player's skate team, in all gameplay modes except the story mode, he appeared as a kid in the Backyard Sports series Backyard Skateboarding. Amusement park ridesA series of amusement park rides known as Tony Hawk's Big Spin were built in three Six Flags parks in 2007 and 2008; the ride was billed as the "Tony Hawk experience" and was designed to have the look and feel of a giant red-and-black skatepark. It offered a full "extreme sports" experience, with monitors in the queue lines displaying highlights of the history of action sports and a large spinning Tony Hawk figure crowning the ride. In 2010 Six Flags cancelled its license and the rides were renamed to Pandemonium; the ride at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom was moved to Six Flags Mexico in 2012 to make way for a new ride known as Superman: Ultimate Flight.
Additionally, a water park ride called Tony Hawk's Halfpipe was opened at Six Flags America in Bowie, Maryland. RIDE ChannelIn January 2012, Hawk launched RIDE Channel. In the welcome video, Hawk explained:... I'm proud to announce the launch of our new YouTube channel—it's called "RIDE." I've teamed up wi
Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard, as well as a recreational activity, an art form, an entertainment industry job, a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2009 report found that the skateboarding market is worth an estimated $4.8 billion in annual revenue with 11.08 million active skateboarders in the world. In 2016, it was announced that skateboarding will be represented at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. Since the 1970s, skateparks have been constructed for use by skateboarders, Freestyle BMXers, aggressive skaters, recently, scooters. However, skateboarding has become controversial in areas in which the activity, although illegal, has damaged curbs, steps, benches and parks; the first skateboards started with wooden boxes, or boards, with roller skate wheels attached to the bottom. Crate scooters preceded skateboards, having a wooden crate attached to the nose, which formed rudimentary handlebars.
The boxes turned into planks, similar to the skateboard decks of today. Skateboarding, as we know it, was born sometime in the late 1940s, or early 1950s, when surfers in California wanted something to do when the waves were flat; this was called "sidewalk surfing" – a new wave of surfing on the sidewalk as the sport of surfing became popular. No one knows; the first manufactured skateboards were ordered by a Los Angeles, California surf shop, meant to be used by surfers in their downtime. The shop owner, Bill Richard, made a deal with the Chicago Roller Skate Company to produce sets of skate wheels, which they attached to square wooden boards. Accordingly, skateboarding was denoted "sidewalk surfing" and early skaters emulated surfing style and maneuvers, performed barefoot. By the 1960s a small number of surfing manufacturers in Southern California such as Jack's, Kips', Bing's and Makaha started building skateboards that resembled small surfboards, assembled teams to promote their products.
One of the earliest Skateboard exhibitions was sponsored by Makaha's founder, Larry Stevenson, in 1963 and held at the Pier Avenue Junior High School in Hermosa Beach, California. Some of these same teams of skateboarders were featured on a television show called "Surf's Up" in 1964, hosted by Stan Richards, that helped promote skateboarding as something new and fun to do; as the popularity of skateboarding began expanding, the first skateboarding magazine, The Quarterly Skateboarder was published in 1964. John Severson, who published the magazine, wrote in his first editorial: Today's skateboarders are founders in this sport—they're pioneers—they are the first. There is no history in Skateboarding—its being made now—by you; the sport is being molded and we believe that doing the right thing now will lead to a bright future for the sport. There are storm clouds on the horizon with opponents of the sport talking about ban and restriction; the magazine only lasted four issues, but resumed publication as Skateboarder in 1975.
The first broadcast of an actual skateboarding competition was the 1965 National Skateboarding Championships, which were held in Anaheim and aired on ABC's Wide World of Sports. Because skateboarding was a new sport during this time, there were only two original disciplines during competitions: flatland freestyle and slalom downhill racing. One of the earliest sponsored skateboarders, Patti McGee, was paid by Hobie and Vita Pak to travel around the country to do skateboarding exhibitions and to demonstrate skateboarding safety tips. McGee made the cover of Life magazine in 1965 and was featured on several popular television programs—The Mike Douglas Show, What's My Line? and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson—which helped make skateboarding more popular at the time. Some other well known surfer-style skateboarders of the time were Danny Bearer, Torger Johnson, Bruce Logan and Mark Richards, Woody Woodward, & Jim Fitzpatrick; the growth of the sport during this period can be seen in sales figures for Makaha, which quoted $10 million worth of board sales between 1963 and 1965.
By 1966 a variety of sources began to claim that skateboarding was dangerous, resulting in shops being reluctant to sell them, parents being reluctant to buy them. In 1966 sales had dropped and Skateboarder Magazine had stopped publication; the popularity of skateboarding remained low until the early 1970s. In the early 1970s, Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of polyurethane, calling his company Cadillac Wheels. Prior to this new material, skateboards wheels were "clay" wheels; the improvement in traction and performance was so immense that from the wheel's release in 1972 the popularity of skateboarding started to rise again, causing companies to invest more in product development. Nasworthy commissioned artist Jim Evans to do a series of paintings promoting Cadillac Wheels, they were featured as ads and posters in the resurrected Skateboarder magazine, proved immensely popular in promoting the new style of skateboarding. In the early 1970s skateparks hadn't been invented yet, so skateboarders would flock and skateboard in such urban places as The Escondido reservoir in San Diego, California.
Skateboarding magazine would publish the location and Skateboarders made up nicknames for each location such as the Tea Bowl, the Fruit Bowl, the Rabbit Hole, Bird Bath, the Egg Bowl, Upland Pool and the Sewer Slide. Some of the development concepts in the terrain of skateparks were taken from the Escondido re
A half-pipe is a structure used in gravity extreme sports such as snowboarding, skiing, freestyle BMX, skating and scooter riding. The structure resembles a cross-section of a swimming pool two concave ramps, topped by copings and decks, facing each other across a flat transition known as a tranny. Half-pipes were half sections of a large diameter pipe. Since the 1980s, half-pipes contain an extended flat bottom between the quarter-pipes. Flat ground provides time to regain balance after landing and more time to prepare for the next trick. Half-pipe applications include leisure recreation, skills development, competitive training and professional competition, as an adjunct to other types of skills training. A skilled athlete can perform in a half-pipe for an extended period of time by pumping to attain extreme speeds with little effort. Large half-pipes make possible many of the aerial tricks in skating and skateboarding. For winter sports such as freestyle skiing and snowboarding, a half-pipe can be dug out of the ground or snow combined with snow buildup.
The plane of the transition is oriented downhill at a slight grade to allow riders to use gravity to develop speed and facilitate drainage of melt. In the absence of snow, dug out half-pipes can be used by dirtboarders and mountain bikers. Performance in a half-pipe has been increasing over recent years; the current limit performed by a top-level athlete for a rotational trick in a half-pipe is 1440 degrees. In top level competitions, rotation is limited to emphasize style and flow. In the early 1970s, swimming pools were used by skateboarders in a manner similar to surfing ocean waves. In 1975, some teenagers from Encinitas and other northern San Diego County communities began using 7.3-metre-diameter water pipes in the central Arizona desert associated with the Central Arizona Project, a federal public works project to divert water from the Colorado River to the city of Phoenix. Tom Stewart, one of these young California skateboarders, looked for a more convenient location to have a similar skateboarding experience.
Stewart consulted with his brother Mike, an architect, on how to build a ramp that resembled the Arizona pipes. With his brother's plans in hand, Tom built a wood frame half-pipe in the front yard of his house in Encinitas. In a few days, the press had contacted him directly. Tom went on to create Rampage, Inc. and began selling blueprints for his half-pipe design. About five months Skateboarder magazine featured both Tom Stewart and Rampage. Little did Tom know that his design would go on to inspire countless others to follow in his foot steps; the character of a half-pipe depends on the relationship between four attributes: most the transition radius and the height, less so, the degree of flat bottom and width. Extra width grinds; the flat bottom, while valued for recovery time, serves no purpose if it is longer than it needs to be. Thus, it is the ratio between height and transition radius that determines the personality of a given ramp, because the ratio determines the angle of the lip. On half-pipes which are less than vertical, the height between 50% and 75% of the radius, profoundly affects the ride up to and from the lip, the speed at which tricks must be executed.
Ramps near or below 0.91 m of height sometimes fall below 50% of the height of their radius. Technical skaters spin maneuvers. Smaller transitions that maintain the steepness of their larger counterparts are found in pools made for skating and in custom mini ramps; the difficulty of technical tricks is increased with the steepness, but the feeling of dropping in from the coping is preserved. Common mistake in the construction of ramps is constant radius in transitions: Most of the ramps are built with a quarter circle of constant radius for easy construction, but the best ramps are not constant radius but a parabola with little final vert; the parabola allows for easy big air with return still on the curve and not on the flat. A cycloid profile will theoretically give the fastest half-pipe, it is called a brachistochrone curve. Such a curve in its pure form is π times as wide as it is high. Frame and support for skateboard, BMX, inline skating half-pipes consist of a 2x6x8 lumber framework sheathed in plywood finished with sheets of masonite or Skatelite.
A metal frame finished in wood or metal is sometimes used. Most commercial and contest ramps are surfaced by attaching sheets of some form of masonite to a frame. Many private ramps are surfaced in the same manner but may use plywood instead of masonite as surface material; some ramps are constructed by spot-welding sheet metal to the frame, resulting in a fastener-free surface. Recent developments in technology have produced various versions of improved masonite substances such as Skatelite, RampArmor, HARD-Nox; these ramp surfaces are far more expensive than traditional materials. Channels and roll-ins are the basic ways to customize a ramp. Sometimes a section of the platform is cut away to form a roll-in and a channel to allow skaters to commence a ride without dropping in and perform tricks over the gap. Extensions are permanent or temporary additions to the height of one section of the ramp that can make riding more challenging. Creating a spine ramp is another variation of the half-pipe.
A spine ramp is two quarter pipes adjoined at the vertical ed
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection