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1. South Georgia Island – South Georgia is an island in the South Atlantic that is part of the British Overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. South Georgia is 167.4 kilometres long and 1.4 to 37 km wide. The Island of South Georgia is said to have been first sighted in 1675 by Anthony de la Roché, a London merchant and it was sighted by a commercial Spanish ship named León operating out of Saint-Malo on 28 June or 29 June 1756

2. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

3. Glacier – A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight, it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs and they also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice, between 35°N and 35°S, glaciers occur only in the Himalayas, Andes, Rocky Mountains, a few high mountains in East Africa, Mexico, New Guinea and on Zard Kuh in Iran. Glaciers cover about 10 percent of Earths land surface, continental glaciers cover nearly 13,000,000 km2 or about 98 percent of Antarcticas 13,200,000 km2, with an average thickness of 2,100 m. Greenland and Patagonia also have huge expanses of continental glaciers, Glacial ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth. Within high altitude and Antarctic environments, the temperature difference is often not sufficient to release meltwater. A large piece of compressed ice, or a glacier, appears blue as large quantities of water appear blue and this is because water molecules absorb other colors more efficiently than blue. The other reason for the color of glaciers is the lack of air bubbles. Air bubbles, which give a color to ice, are squeezed out by pressure increasing the density of the created ice. The word Glaceon is a loanword from French and goes back, via Franco-Provençal, to the Vulgar Latin glaciārium, derived from the Late Latin glacia, the processes and features caused by or related to glaciers are referred to as glacial. The process of establishment, growth and flow is called glaciation. The corresponding area of study is called glaciology, Glaciers are important components of the global cryosphere. Glaciers are categorized by their morphology, thermal characteristics, and behavior, cirque glaciers form on the crests and slopes of mountains. A glacier that fills a valley is called a valley glacier, a large body of glacial ice astride a mountain, mountain range, or volcano is termed an ice cap or ice field. Ice caps have a less than 50,000 km2 by definition. Glacial bodies larger than 50,000 km2 are called ice sheets or continental glaciers, several kilometers deep, they obscure the underlying topography. Only nunataks protrude from their surfaces, the only extant ice sheets are the two that cover most of Antarctica and Greenland. They contain vast quantities of water, enough that if both melted, global sea levels would rise by over 70 m

4. Frederic Augustus Lucas – Frederic Augustus Lucas, Sc. D. was an American museum director. Frederic A. Lucas was prominent in the Great American Museum movement and he eventually became Curator in Chief of the Brooklyn Museum, in Brooklyn, NY, and subsequently enjoyed an appointment as director at the American Museum of Natural History in Manhattan. The son of a merchant seaman who was captain of a sailing vessel and he became fascinated with sea life, especially the marine birds, many of which he was able to snare, skin and prepare as mounted specimens. From this he developed an ambition to become a taxidermist and entered Wards Natural Science Establishment at Rochester, perhaps because of the manner of his development he seems to have had little regard for investigative science per se. As a consequence, he had little opportunity for formal education, Lucas came to be recognized by his contemporaries as an authority on ancient animals. His description of himself was that of all round naturalist, a specimen he regarded regretfully as fast disappearing. He never regarded as himself as deficient in that respect, Frederic Lucas died on February 9,1929, at his home in Flushing, New York at the age of 76. He was buried at Plymouth, Massachusetts, much of the information given here can be found in an address given in his memory by his colleague Charles Haskins Townsend. Lucas, F. A.1897 The Florida monster, Lucas, Frederic A. Meteorites, Meteors and Shooting Stars, Guide Leaflet Series No. 4, The American Museum of Natural History, New York,1926, fifty Years of Museum Work, Autobiography, Unpublished Papers, and Bibliography. Palmer W. Smithsonian Memo to Dall 2/16/1897, duffield & Co New York, Verrill AH.1962 Reprint of the 1948 edition. The strange story of our earth

5. American Museum of Natural History – The American Museum of Natural History, located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world. The museum has a scientific staff of 225, sponsors over 120 special field expeditions each year. Before construction of the present complex, the museum was housed in the Arsenal building in Central Park. Sherman, A. G. Phelps Dodge, William A. Haines, Charles A. Dana, Joseph H. Choate, Henry G. Stebbins, Henry Parish, the founding of the museum realized the dream of naturalist Dr. Albert S. Bickmore. Bickmore, a student of Harvard zoologist Louis Agassiz, lobbied tirelessly for years for the establishment of a natural history museum in New York. In 1874, the cornerstone was laid for the museums first building, the original Victorian Gothic building, which was opened in 1877, was designed by J. Wrey Mould, both already closely identified with the architecture of Central Park. The original building was eclipsed by the south range of the museum, designed by J. Cleaveland Cady. It extends 700 feet along West 77th Street, with corner towers 150 feet tall and its pink brownstone and granite, similar to that found at Grindstone Island in the St. Lawrence River, came from quarries at Picton Island, New York. The entrance on Central Park West, the New York State Memorial to Theodore Roosevelt and it leads to a vast Roman basilica, where visitors are greeted with a cast of a skeleton of a rearing Barosaurus defending her young from an Allosaurus. The museum is accessible through its 77th street foyer, renamed the Grand Gallery. The hall leads into the oldest extant exhibit in the museum, since 1930, little has been added to the exterior of the original building. The architect Kevin Roche and his firm Roche-Dinkeloo have been responsible for the planning of the museum since the 1990s. Various renovations both interior and exterior have been carried out including improvements to Dinosaur Hall and mural restoration in Roosevelt Memorial Hall, in 1992 the firm designed the new eight story AMNH Library. The museums south façade, spanning 77th Street from Central Park West to Columbus Avenue was cleaned, repaired and re-emerged in 2009, steven Reichl, a spokesman for the museum, said that work would include restoring 650 black-cherry window frames and stone repairs. The museums consultant on the latest renovation is Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. an architectural and engineering firm with headquarters in Northbrook, the museums first two presidents were John David Wolfe and Robert L. Stuart, both among the museums founders. The museum was not put on a sound footing until the appointment of the president, Morris K. Jesup. Jesup was president for over 25 years, overseeing its expansion, the fourth president, Henry Fairfield Osborn, was appointed in 1906 on the death of Jesup. Osborn consolidated the museums expansion, developing it into one of the worlds foremost natural history museums, F. Trubee Davison was president from 1933 to 1951, with A. Perry Osborn as Acting President from 1941 to 1946

6. Glaciology – Glaciology is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology is an earth science that integrates geophysics, geology, physical geography, geomorphology, climatology, meteorology, hydrology, biology. The impact of glaciers on people includes the fields of human geography, the discoveries of water ice on the Moon, Mars, Europa and Pluto add an extraterrestrial component to the field, as in astroglaciology. Areas of study within glaciology include glacial history and the reconstruction of past glaciation, a glaciologist is a person who studies glaciers. A glacial geologist studies glacial deposits and glacial erosive features on the landscape, glaciology and glacial geology are key areas of polar research. Alpine - ice flows down the valleys of mountainous areas and forms a tongue of ice moving towards the plains below, continental - an ice sheet found today, only in high latitudes, thousands of square kilometers in area and thousands of meters thick. These tend to smooth out the landscapes, accumulation, where the formation of ice is faster than its removal. Wastage or ablation, where the sum of melting and evaporation is greater than the amount of snow added each year, ablation wastage of the glacier through sublimation, ice melting and iceberg calving. Ablation zone Area of a glacier in which the loss of ice through ablation exceeds the annual gain from precipitation. Arête an acute ridge of rock where two cirques abut, bergschrund crevasse formed near the head of a glacier, where the mass of ice has rotated, sheared and torn itself apart in the manner of a geological fault. Cirque, corrie or cwm bowl shaped depression excavated by the source of a glacier, creep adjustment to stress at a molecular level. Flow movement in a constant direction, fracture brittle failure under the stress raised when movement is too rapid to be accommodated by creep. It happens for example, as the part of a glacier moves faster than the edges. Horn spire of rock, also known as a pyramidal peak and it is an extreme case of an arête. Plucking/Quarrying where the adhesion of the ice to the rock is stronger than the cohesion of the rock, tarn a post-glacial lake in a cirque. Tunnel valley The tunnel that is formed by erosion of ice. The tunnel valley is what remains of it in the rock when the ice sheet has melted. Movement of the glacier is very slow and its velocity varies from a few centimeters per day to a few meters per day

7. Geographic Names Information System – It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are also recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail. In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, William, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles, Policies, and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes

9. Agalina Glacier – Agalina Glacier is a 4.8 km long and 2.9 km wide glacier on Pefaur Peninsula, Danco Coast on the west side of Antarctic Peninsula, situated east of Poduene Glacier and west of Krapets Glacier. It drains northwards, and flows into both Graham Passage and the west arm of Salvesen Cove, the glacier is named after Agalina Point on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. Agalina Glacier is centred at 64°26′20″S 61°26′00″W, DOS610 Series, Sheet W6460. Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Tolworth, UK,1978, scale 1,250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 1993–2016 and this article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission

10. Aitkenhead Glacier – Aitkenhead Glacier is a 10-mile long glacier flowing east-southeast from the Detroit Plateau, Graham Land, into Prince Gustav Channel. It was mapped from surveys by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, and named by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee for Neil Aitkenhead, scale 1,250000 topographic map No.5697. Institut für Angewandte Geodäsie and British Antarctic Survey,1996 and this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document Aitkenhead Glacier

11. Altimir Glacier – Altimir Glacier is a 4. 8-kilometre long and 5. 5-kilometre wide glacier draining the north slopes of the Osterrieth Range on Anvers Island in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. It flows northwards to enter Dalchev Cove in Fournier Bay east of Studena Point, the glacier is named after the settlement of Altimir in northwestern Bulgaria. Altimir Glacier is located at 64°35′50″S 63°09′00″W and it was mapped by the British Directorate of Overseas Surveys in 1980. Scale 1,200000 topographic map No.3217, scale 1,250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 1993–2016 and this article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission

12. Anchialus Glacier – Anchialus Glacier is the 8.5 km long and 3.4 km wide glacier in Sostra Heights on the east side of northern Sentinel Range in Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica. It is situated north of lower Embree Glacier, east of Sabazios Glacier, south of lower Newcomer Glacier, the glacier drains the northeast slopes of Mount Malone and the west slopes of Bracken Peak, flows northwards and joins Newcomer Glacier east of Mount Lanning. The glacier is named after the ancient town of Anchialus in Southeastern Bulgaria, Anchialus Glacier is centred at 77°51′50″S 85°24′30″W. Reston, Virginia, US Geological Survey,1961, scale 1,250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 1993–2016 and this article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission

13. Andrew Glacier – Andrew Glacier is a glacier 3 nautical miles long, flowing northeast into Ognen Cove in Charcot Bay immediately west of the Webster Peaks on Trinity Peninsula, northern Graham Land. It was charted in 1948 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey who named the feature for Dr. James, Andrew, medical officer at the FIDS Hope Bay station in 1946–47. Scale 1,250000 topographic map of Antarctica, scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 1993–2016. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document Andrew Glacier

Glacier [videos]
A glacier (US: or UK: ) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms
Satellite imagery of the Siachen Glacier, Jammu and Kashmir in India
Ice calving from the terminus of the Perito Moreno Glacier in western Patagonia, Argentina
The Aletsch Glacier, the largest glacier of the Alps, in Switzerland
The Quelccaya Ice Cap is the largest glaciated area in the tropics, in Peru
American Museum of Natural History [videos]
The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York
Looking at the east entrance from Central Park West
Drawing of the AMNH south façade
Locations of exploring and field parties in 1913, American Museum of Natural History map
The old 77th street "castle" entrance of the museum
Glaciology [videos]
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of
Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Swiss Alps. The moraine is the high bank of debris in the top left hand quarter of the image.
A kettle pond in Hossa, Suomussalmi municipality, Finland
Image: Rothera station 2
Image: Bylot Island Glacier (cropped)
United States Geological Survey [videos]
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United
Clarence King, first director of the USGS
The USGS headquarters in Reston, Virginia
1892 15-minute map (or topographic sheet) of the Mount Marcy area of the Adirondacks in New York State from the first decades of the USGS
Image: USGS Station
Armira Glacier [videos]
Armira Glacier (Bulgarian: ледник Армира, ‘Lednik Armira’ \'led-nik ar-'mi-ra\) is a 3 km long glacier on Smith Island
Topographic map of Smith Island.
The southeast side of Smith Island from Osmar Strait
Image: Livingston Island Map 2010
Image: Livingston Island Map 2010 15
Arena Glacier [videos]
Arena Glacier is a glacier 3 nautical miles (6 km) long, flowing northeast from Mount Taylor into Hope Bay 2 nautical
Image: Hope Bay 2016 Trinity Peninsula–Arena Glacier 01
Image: Hope Bay 2016 Trinity Peninsula–Arena Glacier 03
Image: Hope Bay 2016 Trinity Peninsula–Arena Glacier 02
South Georgia Island [videos]
South Georgia is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British Overseas territory of South
Central South Georgia
Church at Grytviken
Image: SG Settlements
Frederic Augustus Lucas [videos]
Frederic Augustus Lucas, Sc.D. (March 25, 1852 – February 9, 1929) was an American museum director. — Biography
Frederic A. Lucas in 1911
Lucas in 1918
Robert Cushman Murphy [videos]
Robert Cushman Murphy (April 29, 1887 – March 20, 1973) was an American ornithologist and Lamont Curator of birds at
The whaling ship, Daisy, which Murphy traveled on to the Antarctic
Anchialus Glacier [videos]
Anchialus Glacier (Bulgarian: ледник Анхиало, ‘Lednik Anchialus’ \'led-nik an-hi-'a-lo\) is the 8.5 km long and 3.4 km
Map of northern Sentinel Range.
Arapya Glacier [videos]
Arapya Glacier (Bulgarian: ледник Арапя, ‘Lednik Arapya’ \'led-nik a-ra-'pya\) is the 11.4 km long and 5 km wide
Sentinel Range map.
Argentina Glacier [videos]
Argentina Glacier is a glacier flowing northwest from Hurd Dome and terminating near Argentina Cove, South Bay,
Image: Livingston Greenwich map
Astrolabe Glacier [videos]
Astrolabe Glacier is a glacier 7 kilometres (4 nmi) wide and 19 kilometres (10 nmi) long, flowing north-northeast from
Natural-colour satellite image of Astrolabe.
Allison Glacier (Antarctica) [videos]
Allison Glacier is a small glacier in Victoria Land, Antarctica. Its head is located just north of Mount Huggins,
Map depicting the location of Allison Glacier in Victoria Land, Antarctica
Image: Fire
Bay of Isles [videos]
The Bay of Isles is a bay 9 miles (14 km) wide and receding 3 miles (5 km), lying between Cape Buller and Cape Wilson
Pendleton's map lists it as the "Bay of Island"
Aagaard Glacier [videos]
Aagaard Glacier (66°46′S 64°31′W), also known as Glaciar Alderete, is a 8-mile (13 km) long Antarctic glacier which
Location of Foyn Coast on Antarctic Peninsula.
Agalina Glacier [videos]
Agalina Glacier (Bulgarian: ледник Агалина, translit. Lednik Agalina \'led-nik a-ga-'li-na\) is a 4.8 km (3.0 mi) long
Location of Pefaur (Ventimiglia) Peninsula on Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula.
Ahlmann Glacier [videos]
Ahlmann Glacier (67°52′S 65°45′W) is the southernmost of two glaciers on the east side of Hemimont Plateau flowing east
Location of Hemimont Plateau on the Antarctic Peninsula.
Aitkenhead Glacier (63°57′S 58°44′W) is a 10-mile (16 km) long glacier flowing east-southeast from the Detroit Plateau,
Location of Trinity Peninsula.
Albone Glacier [videos]
Albone Glacier (64°13′S 59°42′W) is a deeply entrenched narrow glacier on the east side of Wolseley Buttress flowing
Location of Nordenskjöld Coast.
Altimir Glacier [videos]
Altimir Glacier (Bulgarian: ледник Алтимир, ‘Lednik Altimir’ \'led-nik al-ti-'mir\) is a 4.8-kilometre (3.0 mi) long
Location of Anvers Island in the Antarctic Peninsula region.
Ambergris Glacier [videos]
Ambergris Glacier (65°43′S 62°37′W) is a glacier flowing south-southeast from Mount Sara Teodora between Chintulov
Location of Aristotle Mountains on the Antarctic Peninsula.
Geographic Names Information System [videos]
The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more
The logo of the United States Geological Survey