click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón

Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón was a Spanish magistrate and explorer who in 1526 established the short-lived San Miguel de Gualdape colony, one of the first European attempts at a settlement in what is now the United States. Ayllón's account of the region inspired a number of attempts by the Spanish and French governments to colonize the southeastern United States. Ayllón was born in Toledo around 1480, the younger son of a prominent family whose roots traced back to a high-ranking mozarab judge in Islamic Spain, his parents were Inés de Villalobos. Ayllón received a good education in law and his father's position gave him valuable insights into the practice of politics. In 1502, the Spanish Monarchs sent Nicolás de Ovando to serve as governor of Hispanola in the Indies. Ayllón accompanied Ovando's flotilla and arrived at the capital, Santo Domingo, in April 1502. In 1504 Ayllón was appointed alcalde mayor, the chief magistrate and administrative officer, of Concepción. Ayllón was expected to establish order in the turbulent gold-mining districts in the hinterlands of the island.

In 1509 Ovando and his lieutenants, including Ayllón, were recalled to Spain and subjected to a residencia, a review or audit of their term in office. Ayllón faced charges that he enriched himself unjustly but was able to defend himself with no harm to his career or his wealth. After his return to Spain he undertook additional studies in law and earned the equivalent of a master's degree from the University of Salamanca. Meanwhile, Ferdinand was concerned by his lack of control in the Indies and the growing influence of the new governor, Diego Colón. In 1511 Ferdinand established a royal appeals court, the Real Audiencia in Hispanola; the king demonstrated considerable faith in Ayllón when he appointed him as one of three judges of this important court meant to assert royal power in the colonies. Ayllón reached Hispanola in May, 1512 and became an important figure in the politics of the island. Around 1514 he married the daughter of a wealthy miner, Ana de Bezerra, adding wealth and prestige to his political power.

He became owner of a sugar plantation and funded various slave-trading ventures. Complaints were made that Ayllón and the other judges were unfairly dominating the slave-market and driving up the price of slaves; when Ferdinand died in 1516, Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros became regent for the young King Charles V. Cisneros was determined to put an end to the abuse of the Indians. Ayllón and the other judges of the audencia were suspended in 1517 and put under investigation for alleged abuses. However, when Cisneros was removed from the regency, the residencia was cut short and the judges were restored to office in 1520. During his suspension, Ayllón remained an influential figure in the Indies. In 1519, after Hernán Cortés began his conquest of Mexico, Cortés declared his independence from Diego Velázquez, the governor of Cuba and sponsor of the expedition. Fearful that the dispute between Cortés and Velázquez would escalate into open warfare, Crown authorities sent Ayllón first to Cuba to confer with Velázquez and on to Mexico in an attempt to convince both sides to settle their differences in court.

When Ayllón reached Mexico, he was forcibly detained and sent back to Santo Domingo with nothing to show for his efforts. After Ayllón's reinstatement to the audiencia a ship arrived at Santo Domingo sometime around August 1521; the pilot, Francisco Gordillo, had been hired by Ayllón to lead a slaving expedition to the Bahamas. Finding the islands depopulated and another slaving ship piloted by Pedro de Quejo sailed northwest in search of land rumored to be found in that direction. On June 24, 1521, they made landfall at Winyah Bay on the coast of present-day South Carolina. After some preliminary exploration of the region, they kidnapped sixty Indians and brought them back to Hispanola. In addition to the Indian slaves and Quejo brought back glowing reports of the land they had found, they said it would not require military conquest and once settled the area would become a rich and prosperous colony. Ayllón was inspired by these reports and soon wrote to the Spanish crown requesting permission to explore and settle the region.

That same year he traveled to Spain on business for the audencia but used the opportunity to press his case for the new land. Ayllón took with him one of the captured Indians, baptized as Francisco de Chicora. In Spain they met the court chronicler, Peter Martyr, with whom Chicora spoke at length about his people and homeland, about neighboring provinces. Ayllón signed a contract with the crown on June 12, 1523 allowing him to establish a settlement on the eastern seaboard and conduct trade with the local natives, he would be governor for life and the title alguacil mayor would be held by him and his heirs forever. In return for these and numerous other privileges, Ayllón was required to perform a more detailed exploration of the region, establish missions, a Franciscan monastery to further conversion of the native population, he was restrained from implementing an encomienda or other means of forcing Indian labor. While still in Spain Ayllón was named a comendador in the military order of Santiago.

Before returning home, Ayllon was ordered to Puerto Rico where he was required to complete a number of pending investigations and audits of current and former government officials. From the Crown's viewpoint, his efforts were successful in bringing some order to the government on the island and helped put an end to Diego Colón's independent authority in the islands. After an absence of three years, Ayllón returned to Santo Domingo around December, 1

Hygropoda

Hygropoda is a genus of nursery web spiders, first described by Tamerlan Thorell in 1894. As of June 2019 it contains twenty-six species and one subspecies, found only in Asia and Australia: Hygropoda africana Simon, 1898 – Gabon, Sierra Leone Hygropoda albolimbata – Indonesia Hygropoda argentata Zhang, Zhu & Song, 2004 – China, Thailand Hygropoda balingkinitanus – Philippines Hygropoda borbonica – Réunion Hygropoda bottrelli – Philippines Hygropoda campanulata Zhang, Zhu & Song, 2004 – China, Thailand Hygropoda celebesiana – Indonesia Hygropoda chandrakantii – India Hygropoda dolomedes – Indonesia Hygropoda gracilis – India Hygropoda higenaga – China, Japan Hygropoda linearis – Madagascar Hygropoda lineata – Indonesia to Australia Hygropoda longimana – Bangladesh, Malaysia Hygropoda longitarsis – Vietnam, Indonesia Hygropoda l. fasciata – Indonesia Hygropoda macropus Pocock, 1897 – Indonesia Hygropoda madagascarica Strand, 1907 – Madagascar Hygropoda menglun Zhang, Zhu & Song, 2004 – China Hygropoda procera Thorell, 1895 – Myanmar Hygropoda prognatha Thorell, 1894 – Singapore Hygropoda sikkimus – India Hygropoda subannulipes Strand, 1911 – Indonesia Hygropoda taeniata Wang, 1993 – China Hygropoda tangana – Tanzania, South Africa, Madagascar Hygropoda yunnan Zhang, Zhu & Song, 2004 – China, Laos List of Pisauridae species

C. D. Howe

Clarence Decatur Howe, was a powerful Canadian Cabinet minister, representing the Liberal Party. Howe served in the governments of Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King and Louis St. Laurent continuously from 1935 to 1957, he is credited with transforming the Canadian economy from agriculture-based to industrial. During the Second World War, his involvement in the war effort was so extensive that he was nicknamed the "Minister of Everything". Born in Massachusetts, Howe moved to Nova Scotia as a young adult to take up a professorship at Dalhousie University. After working for the Canadian government as an engineer, he began his own firm, became a wealthy man. In 1935, he was recruited as a Liberal candidate for the House of Commons of Canada by Opposition leader Mackenzie King; the Liberals won the election in a landslide, Howe won his seat. Mackenzie King appointed him to the Cabinet. There, he took major parts in many new enterprises, including the founding of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Trans-Canada Air Lines.

When World War II began in 1939, Howe played a crucial role in Canada's war effort, recruited many corporate executives to serve as executives in wartime enterprises. Howe's impatience with the necessity for parliamentary debate of his proposals won him few friends, he was accused of dictatorial conduct by the Opposition; as the Liberal government entered its third decade, it and Howe came to be seen as arrogant. The Government's attempt to impose closure in the 1956 Pipeline Debate led to major controversy in the House of Commons. In the 1957 election, Howe's actions and policies were made an issue by Opposition leader John Diefenbaker. Howe faced a serious challenge in his riding, but was expected to make speeches elsewhere as a major Liberal leader. Howe lost his seat in the election, Diefenbaker became Prime Minister, ending 22 years of Liberal rule. Howe returned to the private sector; the former minister died of a heart attack in December 1960. Howe was raised in Waltham, Massachusetts, in the United States.

The Howes were well-regarded in the local community, William Howe, Clarence's father, was involved in local politics. When not doing political work, William Howe was a house builder. Clarence's mother, the former Mary Emma Hastings, was a teacher and the daughter of a prosperous farmer on whose farm Clarence spent his childhood summers. Clarence did well in school and, upon his graduation from Waltham High School in 1903, he took the entrance examinations for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he passed, after taking basic courses at the school, did advanced work in engineering. During the summers, he worked for J. B. Worcester & Co. a firm much of the Boston subway system. While at school, he became a favourite pupil of Professor George Swain. Howe accepted, although the young engineer felt that he should leave the Boston area to begin his career. Soon afterwards, Howe was offered an opportunity to become an engineering professor at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. A popular story about Howe was that Swain had Howe and fellow engineer James Barker toss a coin to see who would get the job.

Barker denied the tale in life, stating he had no interest in the position and no one who knew Howe would be foolish enough to gamble with him, as Howe had shown himself to be uncommonly lucky. In any event, Howe had no better prospects in sight. At the time, Dalhousie was a small university, with only 400 students, members of the teaching staff had a heavy workload. Howe, at age 23, was little older than some of his students, he had little experience in the field, on trips outside Halifax, he and his students would solve problems together. Howe's view was that any problem could be solved through common hard work. Howe took his students to the countryside, where they camped and planning imaginary railroads, his student Denis Stairs, who would go on to lead the Montreal Engineering Company, said of Howe that by the time the camp ended, his students had great respect for him. Student C. J. Mackenzie, who Howe would appoint to the National Research Council presidency, stated that Howe was not a brilliant lecturer, but that his presentations were always clear.

Howe said of university education, "The worker at college continues to work, becomes a successful engineer. The shirker continues to shirk, gets nowhere." In addition to his own work, Howe found time for an active social life in Halifax, considered marrying the sister of one of his students, but she had another husband in mind. After Howe's first year in Halifax, engineering instruction of upperclassmen was taken away from Dalhousie and other universities in the province, placed in a separate technical institute in which Howe had no role. Howe stated that he liked Dalhousie, had this change not occurred, he might have remained there as a professor. In 1913, however, a former colleague at Dalhousie, Robert Magill, appointed chairman of the Board of Grain Commissioners, offered Howe the post of chief engineer, with responsibility for supervising the construction of grain elevators. Howe stated, "I've never seen one of those things in my life, but I'll take the job." The same year, he applied to become a British subject, as Canadians were.

In mid-1913, Howe journeyed to Northwestern Ontario to take up his new post. The Board was headquartered in Fort William, where Canadian wheat was transferred from r

Templemore

Templemore is a town in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is a civil parish in the historical barony of Eliogarty, it is part of the parish of Templemore and Killea in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly. The 2011 Census results show that the town's population decreased by 13.8% from 2,255 in 2006 to 1,943 in 2011. Templemore is the eighth largest town in County Tipperary; the N62 national route connects the town to the main Dublin-Limerick motorway and Roscrea north of the parish. Travelling south, the route connects to Thurles and the main Dublin-Cork motorway; the N62 originates in Athlone. To the east, the R433 connects the town to the M8 at a more northerly point via the villages of Clonmore and the town of Rathdowney in County Laois. Alternatively, the motorway may be accessed via the village of Templetuohy. To the west, the R501, tracking the Devil's Bit mountain range, goes to Borrisoleigh. Templemore railway station is on the Dublin-Cork railway line operated by Iarnród Éireann.

There are direct trains to and from stations like Dublin Heuston railway station, Thurles Cork and Limerick daily The ancient territory of Éile obtained its name from pre-historic inhabitants called the Eli, about whom little is known beyond what may be gathered from legends and traditions. The extent of Éile varied throughout the centuries with the rise and fall of the tribes in occupation. Before the 5th century AD the details of its history which can be gleaned from surviving records and literature are exceedingly meagre and confusing. During this century however Éile appears to have reached its greatest extent, stretching from Croghan Bri Eli to just south of Cashel; the southern part of this territory embraced the baronies of Eliogarty and Ikerrin, a great part of the modern barony of Middle Third, the territory of Ileagh and a portion of the present barony of Kilnamanagh Upper. By the 8th century, the territory of Ancient Éile had broken up into a number of petty kingdoms: the O'Carroll occupied the northern portion, the O'Spillanes held Ileagh, the Eóganacht Chaisil had annexed Middle Third.

The ancient name of the district on which the town now stands was Tuatha Corca Teine. Teine was supposed to have been the son of the King of Connacht, arriving in the district shortly after Saint Patrick. Monastic settlements were located at the site of Teine's fort,'Land of the Monks'. A holy man named Silean is reputed to have accompanied St Patrick and to have established a monastery in the area. There is no townland called Templemore; the townland on which the town is built is Kiltillane. With the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, a powerful Norman family – the Butlers – became the new overlords. Early in the 14th century, they were raised to the Earldom of Ormond; as the holders of the County Palatine of Tipperary, they were entitled to appoint sheriffs and judges, to gather certain classes of revenue that would have been due to the Crown. This privilege was withdrawn in 1715; the family donated a small piece of land to the Abbey of St Thomas in Dublin, about 1200 a large Abbey was built with a moated graveyard, the remains of which are still to be seen in Templemore Demesne known as the "Town Park".

The Blackcastle, as it is locally known, was built in the Town Park in 1450 by James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond. This building and its manor lands were occupied by the Butlers and were leased to the families of Purcell of Loughmore and Morris of Knockagh; the O′Fogarty clan held what is now the barony of Eliogarty, while to the north of them, at least some time were O'Meaghers of Ikerrin. The River Nore, at its position between Roscrea and Templemore, although just a small stream at this point, is taken as the southern limit of Ely O'Carroll territory. Around 1695 the Butlers sold extensive lands to an English family called Carden from Cheshire, who settled in the area and located at Barnane and Fishmoyne. Over the next 200 years, this family was to play a significant part in the development of the town and district which has the nickname of "Carden's Wild Demesne", after the popular 19th century poem. Templemore owes its improved state to the liberality and exertions of the John C. Carden, Bart. under whose auspices the public buildings were erected, by whom the ground on which the town stands was granted at a nominal annual rent.

Following the burning of the Blackcastle, Carden built a new estate. He built a mansion known as the Priory on the edge of the town; the architecture of the Priory was in the style of the Elizabethan era. The Priory was surrounded by a demesne which had a formal garden with paved paths around an artificial lake. Quoting from a contemporary newspaper commentary of 1861, when the Priory was still under construction:The noble Gothic pile of finely chiselled limestone, with its battlements, turrets and extensive façade, spacious arched doorway. There were extensive gardens and a lot of money was spent on them: The house itself consists of sixty rooms, the sum of, we understand £20,000 in round numbers, has been expended so far upon the building, – Upon entering the grand hall, through the massive oaken doorway, replete with medieval decorations, the visitor finds that ‘The Priory’ has been erected in a style of magnificence not g

The Price Is Right

The Price Is Right is a television game show franchise produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman, created by Bob Stewart, is produced and owned by FremantleMedia now Fremantle. The franchise centers on television game shows, but includes merchandise such as video games, printed media and board games; the franchise began in 1956 as a television game show hosted by Bill Cullen and was revamped in 1972. This version was hosted by Bob Barker. Since 2007, Drew Carey has hosted the program. In the show, contestants compete to win cash and prizes by guessing the pricing of merchandise; the program remains a stalwart in the television ratings. It managed to break away from the quiz show format, used in other game shows. Since the current version premiered, it has been adapted in several international formats around the world, most notably in the United Kingdom, Mexico & Vietnam. In 2013, TV Guide ranked it No. 5 in its list of the 60 greatest game shows ever. The original version of The Price Is Right was first broadcast on NBC, ABC, from 1956 to 1965.

Hosted by Bill Cullen, it involved four contestants bidding on a wide array of merchandise prizes, whose values ranged anywhere from a few dollars, to thousands, doing so in the manner of auctions except that Cullen did not act out the role of auctioneer. Instead, contestants tried to bid closest to the product's actual retail price without going over that price. Depending on the prize, contestants were allowed, in proper turn. In the case of the former, each contestant in-turn bid on the displayed item, they could make a final bid, or "freeze." The contestant whose bid was closest to the correct value of the prize – and had not gone over that value – won it. There was a special game set aside for the home viewer, which offered several prizes in a package, which included a luxury vacation trip, and/or a new car as part of the package. Viewers submitted their bids via post cards. At the end of each episode, the contestant who had won the most was declared the winner and became the returning champion, entitled to play again in the next episode.

This version began as part of NBC's daytime schedule. An alleged series of technical problems made the pilot episode look bad enough for NBC to decline buying the show, but after an appeal from the producers, citing the fact that at that time all TV shows were given up to an initial 13 weeks to succeed or fail, it aired anyway, it became successful enough to warrant a second version of the series, beginning on prime time in the fall of 1957. Shown weekly, that version had the distinction of being the first TV game show to be broadcast in color. After being a Top-10 prime time show for some time its ratings but noticeably declined, by 1963 NBC canceled it, it was picked up by ABC. ABC's prime time version ran for one full season, the daytime version ended in 1965. Since 1972, the current version of The Price Is Right uses the same structure: One Bid, where four players attempt to bid on an initial prize, being as close as possible without going over; the first four players are called from the studio audience at the start of the show in Contestant's Row to play One Bid, after each pricing game, a new player is called to fill the slot.

Pricing games, where the contestant plays for a range of prizes money or automobiles, with most games based on the player's knowledge of the retail price of these items. The Showcase, where the two top players of the day are shown two showcases, collections of several prizes; the player with the highest winnings to that point gets the option of either bidding on the first showcase, or passing that to the other player who must bid on it. The player who bids closer to the retail price of their own showcase without going over wins the showcase; when the new format debuted as The New Price Is Right, shows were thirty minutes in length: three pricing games were played and the two contestants with the highest winnings entered the Showcase. By June 1973, the show was renamed back to The Price is Right; the show was expanded into an hour-long format on November 3, 1975, allowing six pricing games to be played per episode. A new feature, the Showcase Showdown, was added to select, it is played after the first three players have completed their pricing games to select one player from this set, again after the last three.

In the Showdown, each player is given two chances to spin a wheel which displays every monetary amount from 5¢ to $1.00 in 5¢ increments. The player may either stop after the first spin or take the second one, with the values from both spins being added together in the latter case to determine their score; the player who comes the closest to $1.00 without going over, either on the first spin alone or the sum of both, advances to the Showcase. A score of $1.00 awards a cash bonus and gives the player a chance to win larger amounts in a bonus spin. The series debuted September 4, 1972, in two forms: a daily version on CBS with Bob Barker as host, a weekly version dubbed "the nighttime Price Is Right," hosted by Dennis James and airing in first-run syndication. Barker took over the nighttime version in 1977 (which re

Peter Blanchfield

Peter Blanchfield was an Irish sportsperson. He played hurling with his local club James Stephens and was a member of the Kilkenny senior inter-county team from 1935 until 1945. Blanchfield played his club hurling with the famous James Stephens club in Kilkenny and enjoyed much success, he won his first senior county title in 1935. It was the club's first victory in a county final. Blanchfield added a second county medal to his collection in 1937. Blanchfield first came to prominence on the inter-county scene with Kilkenny in 1935; that year he collected his first Leinster title following a victory over Laois. The subsequent All-Ireland final saw Blanchfield's take on Limerick for the second time in three years. Once again the match was a close one, Kilkenny clung on and won by a single point – 2-5 to 2-4, it was Blanchfield's first All-Ireland medal. In 1936 Blanchfield added a second Leinster medal to his collection before lining out in a second consecutive All-Ireland final. Once again, the two outstanding teams of the decade and Limerick, were paired together in the championship decider.

Limerick were coming into their prime at this stage and gained revenge for the defeats of 1933 and 1935 by trouncing ‘the Cats’ on a score line of 5-6 to 1-5. Kilkenny bounced back in 1937 with Blanchfield collecting a third Leinster winners' title; the All-Ireland final pitted Kilkenny against Tipperary in the unusual venue of FitzGerald Stadium in Killarney. ‘The Cats’ were on a downward spiral by this stage as they were walloped by 3-11 to 0-3. In 1939 ‘the Cats’ reclaimed their provincial crown with a victory over reigning All-Ireland champions Dublin, it was Blanchfield's fourth provincial medal of the decade. The subsequent All-Ireland final against Cork has gone down in history as the famous ‘thunder and lightning’ final when a huge downpour interrupted play. In the end victory went to Kilkenny by a single point, it was not the last time. It was Blanchfield's second All-Ireland medal. In 1940 Blanchfield added a fifth Leinster medal to his collection after another defeat of Dublin; the All-Ireland final saw Kilkenny and Limerick, the two dominant team of the last decade, take to the field for one final game.

Kilkenny had peaked in the final the year. A 3-7 to 1-7 defeat for Kilkenny resulted in Blanchfield ending up on the losing side for the third time. An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the county hampered Kilkenny’s championship hopes for the next few seasons. In spite of this the team bounced back in 1943 with Blanchfield adding a sixth Leinster medal to his impressive collection; the subsequent All-Ireland semi-final provided what was regarded as the time as the biggest shock in the history of the championship. Antrim had defeated Galway in the All-Ireland quarter-final in, a fluke. Antrim proved that their victory was far from lucky as they defeated Blanchfield's side in the subsequent semi-final. Two years in 1945 Blanchfield won his seventh and final Leinster medal before lining out in his final All-Ireland final. Tipperary provided the opposition on that occasion. 70,000 people packed into Croke Park to witness a classic encounter, with 5,000 more fans being locked out of the stadium.

Tipp took the lead at half-time, Kilkenny fought back with three second-half goals. In spite of this Tipp held on to win the game by 5-6 to 3-6. Blanchfield retired from inter-county hurling after this defeat