Music of Puerto Rico
The music of Puerto Rico has evolved as a heterogeneous and dynamic product of diverse cultural resources. The most conspicuous musical sources have been Spain and West Africa, although many aspects of Puerto Rican music reflect origins elsewhere in Europe and the Caribbean and, in the last century, the USA. Puerto Rican music culture today comprises a wide and rich variety of genres, ranging from indigenous genres like bomba to recent hybrids like reggaeton. Broadly conceived, the realm of "Puerto Rican music" should comprise the music culture of the millions of people of Puerto Rican descent who have lived in the USA, in New York City, their music, from salsa to the boleros of Rafael Hernández, cannot be separated from the music culture of Puerto Rico itself. Music culture in Puerto Rico during the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries is poorly documented, it included Spanish church music, military band music, diverse genres of dance music cultivated by the jíbaros and enslaved Africans and their descendants.
While these never constituted more than 11% of the island's population, they contributed some of the island's most dynamic musical features becoming distinct indeed. In the 19th century Puerto Rican music begins to emerge into historical daylight, with notated genres like danza being better documented than folk genres like jíbaro music and bomba y plena; the African people of the island used drums made of carved hardwood covered with untreated rawhide on one side made from goatskin. A popular word derived from creole to describe this drum was shukbwa, that means'trunk of tree' If the term "folk music" is taken to mean music genres that have flourished without elite support, have evolved independently of the commercial mass media, the realm of Puerto Rican folk music would comprise the Hispanic-derived jíbaro music, the Afro-Puerto Rican bomba, the "creole" plena; as these three genres evolved in Puerto Rico and are unique to that island, they occupy a respected place in island culture if they are not as popular as contemporary musics like salsa or reggaeton.
Jíbaros are small farmers of Hispanic descent who constituted the overwhelming majority of the Puerto Rican population until the mid-twentieth century. They are traditionally recognized as romantic icons of land cultivation, hard working, self-sufficient and with an innate love of song and dance, their instruments were relatives of the Spanish vihuela the cuatro—which evolved from four single strings to five pairs of double strings — and the lesser known tiple. A typical jíbaro group nowadays might feature a cuatro and percussion instrument such as the güiro scraper and/or bongo. Lyrics to jíbaro music are in the décima form, consisting of ten octosyllabic lines in the rhyme scheme abba, accddc. Décima form derives from 16th century Spain. Although it has died out in that country, it took root in various places in Latin America—especially Cuba and Puerto Rico—where it is sung in diverse styles. A sung décima might be pre-composed, derived from a publication by some literati, or ideally, improvised on the spot in the form of a “controversia” in which two singer-poets trade witty insults or argue on some topic.
In between the décimas, lively improvisations can be played on the cuatro. This music form is known as "típica" as well as "trópica"; the décimas are sung with standardized cuatro accompaniment patterns. About twenty such song-types are in common use; these are grouped into viz. seis and aguinaldo. Traditionally, the seis could accompany dancing, but this tradition has died out except in tourist shows and festivals; the aguinaldo is most characteristically sung during the Christmas season, when groups of revelers go from house to house, singing jíbaro songs and partying. The aguinaldo texts are not about Christmas, unlike Anglo-American Christmas carols, they are sung by a solo with the other revelers singing chorus. In general, Christmas season is a time when traditional music—both seis and aguinaldo—is most to be heard. Many groups of Puerto Ricans are dedicated to preserving traditional music by continued practice. Jíbaro music came to be marketed on commercial recordings in the twentieth century, singer-poets like Ramito are well documented.
However, jíbaros themselves were becoming an endangered species, as agribusiness and urbanization have drastically reduced the numbers of small farmers on the island. Many jíbaro songs dealt accordingly with the vicissitudes of migration to New York. Jíbaro music has in general declined accordingly, although it retains its place in local culture around Christmas time and special social gatherings, there are many cuatro players, some of whom have cultivated prodigious virtuosity. Historical references indicate that by the decades around 1800 plantation slaves were cultivating a music and dance genre called bomba. By the mid-twentieth century, when it started to be recorded and filmed, bomba was performed in regional variants in various parts of the island Loíza, San Juan, Mayagüez, it is not possible to reconstruct the history of bomba. French Caribbean elements are evident in the bomba style of Mayagüez, striking choreographic parallels can be seen with the bélé of Martinique. All of
The Casals Festival is a classical music event celebrated every year in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in honor of classical musician Pablo Casals. The festival was founded in 1956 by Pablo Casals, it was promoted by Teodoro Moscoso and David Ogilvy with the objectives of changing the image of Puerto Rico and promoting tourism to the island during off-peak tourism time. After implementing Operation Bootstrap, Teodoro Moscoso employed advertiser David Ogilvy to propagate the image of a people engaged in a cultural renaissance. Teodoro Moscoso's decisive actions at critical junctures and his personal persuasiveness, as with Pablo Casals, who at the age of 80 was persuaded to establish the Casals Festival at San Juan. Pablo Casals, was born in Spain to a Puerto Rican mother Pilar Defilló, he was a cello player and a supporter of the Spanish Republican Government and as such came to odds with Generalisimo Francisco Franco when the Spanish Republican Government was overthrown. Casals went to live in the French village of Prades.
There he established the Prades Festival. Casals visited Puerto Rico in 1955 and in 1956 In 1956, Casals moved permanently to the island, he was scheduled to inaugurate the festival. The inauguration of the festival was held in the University of Puerto Rico Theater. Casals, supposed to perform Suite Number 3 in C major, for solo cello by Johann Sebastian Bach, fell ill and suffered a heart attack during the rehearsals. Though Casals was hospitalized, the event went on as scheduled with the performance of pianist Rudolf Serkin; when the festival first started, the majority of the musicians contracted by the festival orchestra for the event came from the United States. Some of the exceptions to this practice were Jesús María Sanromá, Henry Hutchinson Sr. Fernando Valenti and Narciso Figueroa and his brothers. By 1970, the majority of the members of the festival's orchestra were Puerto Ricans. Amongst the musical directors who have participated in the festival besides Casals are Mstislav Rostropovich, Leonard Bernstein, Zubin Mehta, Eugene Ormandy, Sir John Barbirolli, Yehudi Menuhin and Krzysztof Penderecki.
The artistic direccion of the festival has been under the following "maestros" at one time or another: Jorge Mester, Odón Alonso, Mstislav Rostropovich, Krzysztof Penderecki, Elías López Sobá, Justino Diaz and presently under Maximiano Valdés. Pablo Casals died on October 22, 1973, his widow Marta Casals, the president of the musical committee and Co‑Chairman of the Board and Music Director until 1979, undertook to continue the annual event. The festival has now taken on a new dimension with the appointment of pianist and scholar Elías López-Sobá and bass/baritone Justino Díaz as artistic and musical directors; these two Puerto Rican artists have continued to follow the legacy of Pablo and Marta Casals, attracting many musicians for a series of concerts. The festival, now held at the Luis A. Ferre Performing Arts Center in San Juan, celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2006 with a performance of the Philadelphia Orchestra under the musical direction of Maestro Christoph Eschenbach; the Prades Festival established by Casals in France in 1950 was renamed the Pablo Casals Festival in 1982.
List of artists who have participated in the Casals Festival Official Web Site
Mayagüez, Puerto Rico
Mayagüez is the eighth-largest municipality of Puerto Rico. It was founded as Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria, is known as La Sultana del Oeste, Ciudad de las Aguas Puras, or Ciudad del Mangó. On April 6, 1894, the Spanish Crown gave it the formal title of Excelente Ciudad de Mayagüez. Mayagüez is located in the center of the western coast on the island of Puerto Rico, it is a principal city of the Mayagüez Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Mayagüez–San Germán–Cabo Rojo Combined Statistical Area. The Mayagüez Metro Area lies today on two former Taíno Cacicazgos: Yaguex and Yagüeca, a region noted for its record of colonial resistance; the Tainos constituted the majority of the island's inhabitants at the time of contact with Europeans in 1493 and called it Borikén or Borinquen, which means: "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord" or "land of the great lords." Today, this appellation and its variations continue to designate the Island of Puerto Rico and its people. These Taínos came from South American branches of Arawakan speakers, more from Venezuela, lived in small villages, organized their society in clans and named their chiefs Cacique.
They were farmers who domesticated crops as pineapples and sweet potatoes supplemented by fish and seafood. Mayagüez was founded on September 18, 1760 by a group led by brothers Faustino and Lorenzo Martínez de Matos, Juan de Silva and Juan de Aponte, at a hill located about one kilometer inland from Mayagüez Bay and the outlet of the Yagüez River; the Spanish Crown granted the founders the right to self-government in 1763, formally separating the town from the larger Partido de San Germán. The settlement was named Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria de Mayagüez to evoke an apparition of the Virgin Mary on the island of Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands. Most of the town's settlers, including its founders, migrated from the archipelago, whose patron saint is the Virgin of Candelaria. On May 7, 1836, the settlement was elevated to the royal status of villa, Rafael Mangual was named its first mayor. At the time, the villa's principal economic activity was agriculture; the famous patriot, sociologist, philosopher and novelist Eugenio María de Hostos was born in Mayagüez in 1839.
On July 10, 1877 the villa received its city charter from the Royal Crown of Spain. When after the Treaty of Paris, the U. S. conducted its first census of Puerto Rico, the population of Mayagüez was 35,700. The city's main Roman Catholic church, Our Lady of the Candelaria, was built in a plot consecrated on August 21, 1760, its first masonry building was erected in 1780. The current church was built in 1836, was rebuilt in 1922; the redesign by architect Luis Perocier sought to restore the building to its original splendor. The 1918 San Fermín earthquake had destroyed the temple's ceiling, a lightning bolt struck and tore down a wedge-shaped corner of one of its two bell towers. However, lack of proper funding and the extent of the damage of the original structure forced the rebuilding to be scaled-down considerably. In 1911, the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was founded in Mayagüez. Today it is known as the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez — the Caribbean's leading engineering institution.
Between 1962 and 1998 Mayagüez was a major tuna processing center. At one time, 80% of all tuna products consumed in the United States were packed in Mayagüez. Mayagüez was a major textile industry hub. Today, Mayagüez is the fifth-largest city and is considered one of the most important cities in the island; the city is centered on the impressive Spanish-style Plaza Colón, a tribute to Christopher Columbus, whose stature stands in the middle of the square, surrounded by 16 bronze statues. Mayagüez has become a major college town with the establishment of the UPRM, the now closed Eugenio María de Hostos Law School and the Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico. Mayagüez is located near the geographical center of the west coast of Puerto Rico about two to three hours by automobile from San Juan, its land area is 77.6 square miles. The city's terrain includes. Of its multiple rivers and streams, the two most important are the Río Yagüez, which flows from the Central Mountain Range through downtown until it empties into the Mona Passage.
Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017 triggered numerous landslides in Mayagüez. In some areas of Mayagüez there were more than 25 landslides per square mile due to the significant amount of rain that fell. Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge Mayagüez has a tropical monsoon climate; the city has the most extreme weather of the island. The high frequency of severe storms in the summer can produce strong winds, floods and sometimes hail and tornadoes; the average annual temperature is 75 °F. Winter is quite dry and cool, with temperatures between 82 °F and 55 °F. Summer is very hot and humid, with temperatures reaching 95 °F, with heat index of up to 115 °F. From May to October, most evenings experience severe thunderstorms, due to heat and the topography of the
San Germán, Puerto Rico
San Germán is a municipality located in the southwestern region of Puerto Rico, south of Mayagüez and Maricao, north of Lajas, east of Hormigueros and Cabo Rojo, west of Sabana Grande. San Germán is spread over San Germán Pueblo, it is both a principal city of the San Germán–Cabo Rojo Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Mayagüez–San Germán–Cabo Rojo Combined Statistical Area. San Germán is the second oldest city of Puerto Rico, after San Juan; the island of Puerto Rico was once split between the San Germán municipalities. The latter covered the western half of Puerto Rico, extended from the western shores of the island to Arecibo in the north and Ponce in the south. Spanish settlement in the original city of San Germán occurred early in the conquest and colonization of Puerto Rico. After the destruction of a small early settlement near modern-day Añasco during a Taíno uprising which started in February 1511, the new settlement was built by Miguel Diaz at Guayanilla and named after Germaine of Foix, the new queen of King Fernando.
This town was attacked by French corsairs in August 1528, May 1538 and 1554. The construction of a small fort began in 1540, but work stopped in 1546 when the population of the town began moving inland to the current modern location. An early written reference to the new town occurs in 1573. A letter sent to Spain's king Philip II mentions a city with the names of Nueva Salamanca and San Germán. Spanish conquerors used the name Nueva Salamanca to honor the city of Salamanca in Spain. On May 12, 1570, the Royal Audience of Santo Domingo ordered that both the populations of San Germán and Santa María de Guadianilla be merged into a single city due to the constant attacks; the new city was built on the hills of Santa Marta, next to the Guanajibo River in 1573. Its official name was Nueva Villa de Salamanca, named after the city of Salamanca in Spain. However, the population would call the city San Germán el Nuevo and the Villa de San Germán. San Germán is known as the founding city of towns, given the fact that in 1514 the Spanish crown separated the island into two administrative territories.
The borders of the two partidos were established as the Camuy River to the north and the Jacagua river to the south. They were named the San Germán Partition. San Germán is in the southwest. Mountains in San Germán include Tetas de Cerro Gordo. San Germán has a number of rivers: Río Caín, Río Duey, Río Rosario, Río Guanajibo, Río Hoconuco Guamá and Rio El Brujo. Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017 triggered numerous landslides in San Germán with the significant amount of rain that fell. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, San Germán is subdivided into barrios. San Germán is the site of the Porta Coeli church, one of the earliest Spanish churches built in Latin America. Porta Coeli is still a major attraction that brings both domestic and international tourists every year. Puente de Bolas Casa Morales Ceiba de la Libertad Historic Gallery Lola Rodríguez de Tió Museum Casa Cruz de la Luna Ramírez de Arrellano y Rossell Museum Santo Domingo Plazuela Three Races and One Culture Mural San Germán Historic District Porta Coeli Inter-American University of Puerto Rico Church San Germán de Auxerre La Barrica, Original Spanish Tavern.
Circa 1847The urban center of San Germán is composed of Spanish colonial houses. Many have been restored and conserve their Spanish look while other houses are somewhat abandoned and in poor condition. There are ongoing projects employing public and private funding to preserve and restore many houses and monuments and to maintain San Germán's colonial era look. Patron Celebrations - July Festival de la Pana - July Anón Festival - September Christmas Festival - December Christmas Parade - Early December Patron Celebrations — Celebrated in San Germán's Ward, Rosario Poblado, which borders Mayagüez. San Germán is home to one of Puerto Rico's oldest basketball franchises, dating back to the 1930s, the San Germán Athletics, nicknamed "The Orange Monster". Many glories of Puerto Rican basketball have played in San Germán, a city, known as "The Crib of Puerto Rican Basketball"; some of those players are Arquelio Torres, José "Piculín" Ortiz, Eddie Casiano, Nelson Quiñones, Elías "Larry" Ayuso, Christian Dalmau, so many others.
Their home court is The Arquelio Torres Ramírez Court, which houses 5,000 fans. The Athletic's fan base is most referred to as their sixth man, or "The Orange Monster"; this is because for a visiting team it's hard to win in San Germán due to how vigorous and "into" the game the fans are. The Athletics have been to 26 National Superior Basketball Finals, of which one was cancelled due to confiscation because of a fight between players from San Germán and the Ponce Lions, giving birth to Puerto Rican basketball's most intense rivalry. Championships: 1932, 1936, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1985, 1991, 1994, 1997 Sub-Championships: 1931, 1933, 1936, 1938, 1940, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1965, 1986 The area around San Germán grows fruits and sugar cane on mid-scale. Dairy farms are present in small scale; some locals grow other produce on a small scale. Other industries in the municipality include Baxter Serum Mfg. Cordis, Wallace Silversmiths de Puerto Rico, General Electric
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Hormigueros, Puerto Rico
Hormigueros is a municipality of Puerto Rico located in the western region of the island, northeast of Cabo Rojo. Hormigueros is spread over Hormigueros Pueblo, it is part of the Mayagüez Metropolitan Statistical Area. The region of what is now Hormigueros belonged to the Guaynia region, located on the southernwest portion of Puerto Rico. Archaeological findings have established that there were tribes settled in the region around 820 BC. During the Spanish colonization at the beginning of the 16th century, it is possible that some of them settled in the area. A coffin found underground a basilica was tested in laboratories and was dated prior to 1600; some historians mentioned the Horomico river as one of the main sources of gold during the rush of the era. In 1692, the town of Hormigueros was first established, first as a village of Mayagüez, it was founded by Giraldo González de la Renta sometimes spelled Geraldo). For a short time, in 1898, Hormigueros became a barrio of Mayagüez, before it again became its own municipality.
There is folklore about the town's founder, an explanation of why the church in the town, Basílica Menor de la Virgen de Monserrate, became so important. The legend has to do with the townspeople aiding Geraldo in finding his eight-year-old daughter, "with eyes as blue as the turquoise skies", when she disappeared; when his daughter was found 15 days she was unharmed, not hungry, unafraid and explained that a black woman had helped her. Geraldo and the townspeople imagined it was the Virgin of Montserrat and Geraldo said that for having helped his daughter she would be venerated for all ages. Many people began praying for miracles at the place. Many pilgrimages have been made to the church as early as in the 17th century, it had not been the first time Geraldo had experienced a miracle at the location where the church would be built. The first miracle was when a savage bull was going to attack him but when he prayed the bull bent its knees, bowed its head to the ground, didn't attack; some versions of the story of the bull that would kill Geraldo state the bull's legs broke and thus was unable to charge at him.
Since many Catholics perform penitence by walking the steps to the church on their knees. The town's flag is based on the towns shield, it consists of a blue cloth with a horizontal white rhombus. Superposed on the white rhombus is another blue rhombus with a white globe outlined in blue with a cross; the globe with the cross represents Christ's domain over the world. This symbol is a traditional attribute to the Virgin of Montserrat; the town's shield is formed with silver-plated edge. On the blue bottom there's a green hill, a representation of Our Lady of Monserrate de Hormigueros Sanctuary, with its silver stairway; the border has symmetrical black dots, on guard. On the top of the shield resides a crown formed by a wall, with three towers that have blue doors and windows; the joints of the stones are filled with blue lines. The shield is surrounded by two chains that begin at the crown and finish under the bottom part of the shield with the last links broken; the name of Hormigueros means "anthill" in English.
The town derives its name from three concepts. The first one refers to the crowds that gathered at the Basilica Menor on September 8 to honor the Virgin of Montserrat; the second refers to the topographic formation of the town which consists of countless hills resembling "anthills" or mogotes, reason why it was called "Valle del Hormiguero" or "Anthill Valley". Third, it is possible that the name was originated from a Taíno word: Horomico, which means "río de oro" or "river of gold" due to the importance of the rivers in the area during the gold rush of the Spanish colonization; the municipality of Hormigueros can be divided in three areas: the northern mountainous region that covers one fourth of the town, with hills of relative height. Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017 triggered landslides in Hormigueros with the significant amount of rain that fell; the climate conditions of Hormigueros are humid. The average temperature is 72 to 79 °F. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Hormigueros is subdivided into barrios.
These residential areas are located outside Hormigueros downtown: Buenaventura San Romualdo Norte San Romualdo Sur Valle Hermoso Norte Valle Hermoso Sur Despite its small size, Hormigueros still has several few attractions for visitors. Some of them are: Birán Recreational Farm Central Eureka Basilica Menor de la Virgen de MonserrateThe economy of Hormigueros is still developing. In the 1980s and'90s Allergan, Inc. had a subsidiary established in town boosting the economic development of Hormigueros. However, after Allergan left no other private industry has opened operations in Hormigueros. On the other hand, Hormigueros does provide abundant land and accessibility for an economic development and expansion. Not far away there are two regional airports: Eugenio María de Hostos Airport at Mayagüez and Mercedita Airport at Ponce. In addition, there is Rafael Hernández International Airport at Aguadilla. All three airports lie within 30 miles approximately. Hormigueros is one of the least populated municipalities of Puerto Rico due to its small size.
The population, according to the 2000 census, was 16,614 with a population density of 1,510.3 people per square mile. Since the
Interamerican University of Puerto Rico
The Inter American University of Puerto Rico is a private, co-educational, Christian university in Puerto Rico. It was founded in 1912 in Puerto Rico; the University has campuses in Aguadilla, Barranquitas, Bayamón, Guayama, San Juan, San Germán. The university has three professional schools: School of Optometry, School of Law, the School of Aeronautics; the Inter offers academic programs in 11 teaching units. The San Germán campus is the home to the Inter American School, a private co-educational college-preparatory school; the Inter American University was founded as Polytechnic Institute of Puerto Rico in 1912 by Rev. John Will Harris and his brother Clarence Harris, it was founded as an elementary and high school in the Lomas de Santa Marta sector of the town of San Germán in land now occupied by the University's San Germán Campus. In 1927, the first high school class graduation took place. In 1944, the institute was accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, thus becoming the first liberal arts college to receive such accreditation in Puerto Rico, as well as the first outside the continental United States.
This accreditation has been maintained over the years. The governing body of the Inter American University of Puerto Rico is its Board of Trustees, which perpetuates itself and whose members are elected without interference from any external authority; the President of the University is the senior scholar at the Institution. Systemic Management Council comprises the President of the University who chairs the Council, the Vice-Rectors, the Dean of the Faculty of Law, Dean of the School of Optometry, an Executive Secretary appointed by the President, the Executive Director Information Systems, the Director of the Legal Office and the Director of the Office of Systemic Research and Evaluation. Students will participate in the meetings of the Council when systemic issues are under consideration relevant to its functions, the following advisers: the President of the University Council, the Director of the Office of Human Resources, the Director of the Office of Promotion and Recruitment and the Director- Systemic Development Planning and Physical Plant.
The faculty and administration of the Faculty of Law and School of Optometry determine their own programs and rules subject to approval by the President and Board of Trustees. In all other respects, these two professional schools are governed by the rules and general procedures of the University. Academic Senates of the teaching units and the University Council, Academic Senate heirs agencies was established in 1966 and the University Senate who succeeded him in 1973, dealing with the academic welfare of the University through a process of formal articulation between the units; the Academic Senates made academic standards and the University Council the ratification, subject to the presence of the President of the University. Both bodies formulate recommendations on matters relating to educational policy and research. Inter American University of Puerto Rico is an ecumenically oriented institution, but does not adhere to any one particular theology or ecclesiastical body. Founded by Dr. John William Harris, a minister of the Presbyterian Church, Inter American University maintains a historic and enriching association with the Presbyterian Church as well as with other Christian groups in accordance with its ecumenical spirit.
Inter American University of Puerto Rico is a community of higher education dedicated to a comprehensive search for truth within an environment of responsible freedom and through the encouragement of a mature academic life which guarantees true freedom of investigation. Within this context, religion is studied in the University as an academic discipline designed to engage in fruitful dialog with other university disciplines. In affirming its commitment to the Christian ecumenical ideal, the University dedicates itself to the renewal and reaffirmation not only of its own Christian heritage, but the culture within which it is situated and which it serves; this does not oblige the acceptance of all the details of our Christian past nor of all the elements of modern Christianity. The University has fostered and will continue to foster the convergence of all Christians in the one faith centered about the person of Jesus Christ as He is made known to us in the apostolic tradition of the Scriptures as the One whom Christians regard as decisive and normative in man‟s relations with God and his fellow men and society.
The University affirms its conviction that to be a Christian today implies, on the one hand, knowledge of and obedience to the Gospel and, on the other, identification with the Universal church by means of an individual commitment to a particular Christian communion. The ecumenical posture of the University involves openness to society, technology and a plurality of faiths; the eleven academic units of Inter American University of Puerto Rico are authorized by the Council on Education of Puerto Rico and accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education to offer university studies of the undergraduate and professional levels, as the case may be. The University is committed to the professional accreditation of its academic programs. For this rea