France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Philip I of France
Philip I, called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin, Philip was born 23 May 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine, the son of Henry I and his wife Anne of Kiev. Unusual at the time for Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, although he was crowned king at the age of seven, until age fourteen his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Baldwin V of Flanders acted as co-regent, following the death of Baldwin VI of Flanders, Robert the Frisian seized Flanders. Baldwins wife, Richilda requested aid from Philip, who defeated Robert at the battle of Cassel in 1071, Philip first married Bertha in 1072. Although the marriage produced the heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort. He repudiated Bertha and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092, in 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh of Die, for the first time, after a long silence, Pope Urban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont in November 1095.
In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of Chartres, Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his fathers, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals, in 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany. In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin, in 1100, he took control of Bourges. It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the First Crusade was launched, Philip at first did not personally support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philips brother Hugh of Vermandois, was a major participant, Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire – and not in St Denis among his forefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, according to Abbot Suger, Philip‘s children with Bertha were, married Hugh I of Champagne before 1097 and then, after her divorce, to Bohemund I of Antioch in 1106
Bertrade de Montfort
Bertrade de Montfort was a queen consort of France by marriage to Philip I of France. She was was the daughter of Simon I de Montfort and Agnes and her brother was Amaury de Montfort. According to the chronicler John of Marmoutier, The lecherous Fulk fell passionately in love with the sister of Amaury de Montfort, whom no good man ever praised save for her beauty. Bertrade and Fulk were married, and they became the parents of a son, Philip married her on 15 May 1092, despite the fact that they both had spouses living. He was so enamoured of Bertrade that he refused to leave her even when threatened with excommunication, pope Urban II did excommunicate him in 1095, and Philip was prevented from taking part in the First Crusade. Astonishingly, Bertrade persuaded Philip and Fulk to be friends, according to Orderic Vitalis, Bertrade was anxious that one of her sons succeed Philip, and sent a letter to King Henry I of England asking him to arrest her stepson Louis. Orderic claims she sought to kill Louis first through the arts of sorcery, whatever the truth of these allegations, Louis succeeded Philip in 1108.
Bertrade lived on until 1117, William of Malmesbury says, still young and beautiful, took the veil at Fontevraud Abbey, always charming to men, pleasing to God, and like an angel. Her son from her first marriage was Fulk V of Anjou who became King of Jerusalem iure uxoris, the dynasties founded by Fulks sons ruled for centuries, one of them in England, the other in Jerusalem
Suger was a French abbot and historian. He was one of the earliest patrons of Gothic architecture, and is credited with popularizing the style. Several times in his writings he suggests that his was a humble background, in 1091, at the age of ten, Suger was given as an oblate to the abbey of St. Denis, where he began his education. He trained at the priory of Saint-Denis de lEstrée, and there first met the future king Louis VI of France, from 1104 to 1106, Suger attended another school, perhaps that attached to the abbey of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire. In 1106 he became secretary to the abbot of Saint-Denis, in the following year he became provost of Berneval in Normandy, and in 1109 of Toury. In 1118, Louis VI sent Suger to the court of Pope Gelasius II at Maguelonne, on his return from Maguelonne, Suger became abbot of St-Denis. Until 1127, he occupied himself at court mainly with the affairs of the kingdom, while during the following decade he devoted himself to the reorganization. He bitterly opposed the divorce, having himself advised the marriage.
Although he disapproved of the Second Crusade, he himself, at the time of his death, had started preaching a new crusade, Suger served as the friend and counsellor both of Louis VI and Louis VII. He urged the king to destroy the bandits, was responsible for the royal tactics in dealing with the communal movements. He left his abbey, which possessed considerable property and embellished by the construction of a new built in the nascent Gothic style. Suger wrote extensively on the construction of the abbey in Liber de Rebus in Administratione sua Gestis, Libellus Alter de Consecratione Ecclesiae Sancti Dionysii, similarly the assumption by 19th century French authors that Suger was the designer of St Denis has been almost entirely discounted by more recent scholars. Instead he is seen as having been a bold and imaginative patron who encouraged the work of an innovative master mason. A chalice once owned by Suger is now in the collections of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. Abbot Suger and confidant of the French Kings, Louis VI and Louis VII, decided in about 1137 to rebuild the great Church of Saint-Denis, Suger began with the West front, reconstructing the original Carolingian façade with its single door.
He designed the façade of Saint-Denis to be an echo of the Roman Arch of Constantine with its three-part division, the rose window above the West portal is the earliest-known such example, although Romanesque circular windows preceded it in general form. At the completion of the west front in 1140, Abbot Suger moved on to the reconstruction of the eastern end and he designed a choir that would be suffused with light. The new structure was finished and dedicated on 11 June 1144, the Abbey of Saint-Denis thus became the prototype for further building in the royal domain of northern France
Consanguinity is the property of being from the same kinship as another person. In that aspect, consanguinity is the quality of being descended from the same ancestor as another person, the laws of many jurisdictions set out degrees of consanguinity in relation to prohibited sexual relations and marriage parties. Rules of Consanguinity are used to determine heirs of an estate according to statutes that govern intestate succession, the Knot System is a numerical notation that defines consanguinity. Issues of consanguinity arise in several aspects of the law, Laws prohibiting incest govern the degree of kinship within which marriage or sexual intercourse is permitted. These are almost universally prohibited within the degree of consanguinity. Some jurisdictions forbid marriage between first cousins, while others do not, marriage with aunts and uncles is legal in several countries. Consanguinity is relevant to inheritance, particularly with regard to intestate succession, in general, the law favors inheritance by persons closely related to the deceased.
Some jurisdictions bar citizens from service on a jury on the basis of consanguinity with persons involved in the case, in many countries, laws prohibiting nepotism bar employment of, or certain kinds of contracts with, the near relations of public officers or employees. Under Roman civil law, which early canon law of the Catholic Church followed, in the ninth century the church raised the number of prohibited degrees to seven and changed the method by which they were calculated. Eventually the nobility became too interrelated to marry as the pool of non-related prospective spouses became smaller and they had to either defy the churchs position or look elsewhere for eligible marriage candidates. In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council made what they believed was a change to canon law reducing the number of prohibited degrees of consanguinity from seven back to four. The method of calculating prohibited degrees was changed also, instead of the former practice of counting up to the common ancestor down to the proposed spouse, the new law computed consanguinity by counting back to the common ancestor.
After 1215 the general rule was that while fourth cousins could marry without dispensation, in fourteenth century England, for example, papal dispensations for annulments due to consanguinity were relatively few. The connotations of degree of consanguinity varies by context, most cultures define a degree of consanguinity within which sexual interrelationships are regarded as incestuous. The rule is strict on the mothers side, where the limit is about four generations back. This rule does not apply to Muslims or other ethnic groups, islamThe category includes those one is forbidden to marry due to relationship of blood as well as some who are forbidden due to marital relations. And do not marry women whom your fathers married except what has already passed and it was indeed obscene, hateful and an evil way. And those already married except those whom your right hand possesses, and allowed for you are all besides these if you seek them with your property seeking chastity not fornication
Louis VI of France
Louis VI, called the Fat, was King of the Franks from 1108 until his death. Chronicles called him roi de Saint-Denis, Louis VI managed to reinforce his power considerably and became one of the first strong kings of France since the division of the Carolingian Empire in 843. Louis was a king but by his forties his weight had become so great that it was increasingly difficult for him to lead in the field. Louis was born on 1 December 1081 in Paris, the son of Philip I and his first wife, and. How valiant he was in youth, and with what energy he repelled the king of the English, William Rufus, when he attacked Louis inherited kingdom. Louis married Lucienne de Rochefort, a French crown princess, in 1104, on 3 August 1115 Louis married Adelaide of Maurienne, daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II. Adelaide was one of the most politically active of all Frances medieval queens and her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI. During her tenure as queen, royal charters were dated with both her regnal year and that of the king, suger became Louiss adviser before he became king and he succeeded his father at the age of 26 on 29 July 1108.
Louiss half-brother prevented him from reaching Rheims, and so Daimbert, Archbishop of Sens, ralph the Green, Archbishop of Rheims, sent envoys to challenge the validity of the coronation and anointing, but to no avail. When Louis ascended the throne the Kingdom of France was a collection of feudal principalities, beyond the Isle de France the French Kings had little authority over the great Dukes and Counts of the realm but slowly Louis began to change this and assert Capetian rights. This process would take two centuries to complete but began in the reign of Louis VI, the second great challenge facing Louis was to counter the rising power of the Anglo-Normans under their capable new King, Henry I of England. From early in his reign Louis faced the problem of the barons who resisted the Kings authority and engaged in brigandry. In 1108, soon after he ascended the throne, Louis engaged in war with Hugh of Crecy, who was plaguing the countryside and had captured Eudes, Count of Corbeil, Louis besieged that fortress to free Eudes.
In early 1109, Louis besieged his half-brother, the son of Bertrade de Montfort, philips plots included the lords of Montfort-lAmaury. Amaury III of Montfort held many castles which, when linked together, in 1108-1109 a seigneur named Aymon Vaire-Vache seized the lordship of Bourbon from his nephew, Archambaud, a minor. Louis demanded the boy be restored to his rights but Aymon refused the summons, Louis raised his army and besieged Aymon at his castle at Germigny-sur-lAubois, forcing its surrender and enforcing the rights of Archambaud. In 1122, Bishop of Clermont, appealed to Louis after William VI, Count of Auvergne, had driven him from his episcopal town. When William refused Louis summons, Louis raised an army at Bourges, and marched into Auvergne, supported by some of his vassals, such as the Counts of Anjou, Brittany. Louis seized the fortress of Pont-du-Chateau on the Allier, attacked Clermont, four years William rebelled again and Louis, though his increasing weight made campaigning difficult, marched again
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Amadeus III, Count of Savoy
Amadeus III of Savoy was Count of Savoy and Maurienne from 1103 until his death. He was known as a Crusader and he was born in Carignano, the son of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, the daughter of William I of Burgundy. He succeeded as count of Savoy upon the death of his father and he helped restore the Abbey of St. Maurice of Agaune, in which the former kings of Burgundy had been crowned, and of which he himself was abbot until 1147. He founded the Abbey of St. Sulpicius in Bugey, Tamié Abbey in the Bauges, despite his marriage to Mahaut, he still fought against his brother-in-law Guy, who was killed at the Battle of Montmélian. Following this, King Louis VI of France, married to Amadeus sister Adélaide de Maurienne, Amadeus was saved by the intercession of Peter the Hermit, and by his promise to participate in Louis planned crusade. In 1147, he accompanied his nephew Louis VII of France and he financed his expedition with help from a loan from the Abbey of St. Maurice. Amadeus travelled south through Italy to Brindisi, where he crossed over to Durazzo, after crossing into Anatolia, who was leading the vanguard, became separated from Louis near Laodicea, and Louis forces were almost entirely destroyed.
Marching on to Adalia, Louis and other barons decided to continue to Antioch by ship, on the journey, Amadeus fell ill on Cyprus, and died at Nicosia in April 1148. He was buried in the Church of St. Croix in Nicosia, in Savoy, his son Humbert III succeeded him, under the regency of bishop Amadeus of Lausanne. The Early History of the House of Savoy, 1000-1233, Charles, Medieval Lands Project on Amadeus III of Savoy, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy