Diana is a Roman goddess of the hunt, the Moon, nature, associated with wild animals and woodland. She is equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, absorbed much of Artemis' mythology early in Roman history, including a birth on the island of Delos to parents Jupiter and Latona, a twin brother, though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was known as the virgin goddess of childbirth and women, she was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak groves and deer were sacred to her. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman deities. Diana is revered in modern Neopagan religions including Roman Neopaganism and Wicca. From the medieval to the modern period, as folklore attached to her developed and was adapted into neopagan religions, the mythology surrounding Diana grew to include a consort and daughter, figures sometimes recognized by modern traditions. In the ancient and modern periods, Diana has been considered a triple deity, merged with a goddess of the moon and the underworld.
Dīāna is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios, corresponding to dīvus, dius, as in Dius Fidius, Dea Dia, in the neuter form dium'sky'. It is derived from Proto-Indo-European *dyew-' sky'. On the tablets of Pylos a theonym di-wi-ja is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Modern scholars accept the identification; the ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon.... People regard Diana and the moon as one and the same.... The moon is so called from the verb to shine. Lucina is identified with it, why in our country they invoke Juno Lucina in childbirth, just as the Greeks call on Diana the Light-bearer. Diana has the name Omnivaga, not because of her hunting but because she is numbered as one of the seven planets, she is invoked at childbirth because children are born after seven, or after nine, lunar revolutions... --Quintus Lucilius Balbus as recorded by Marcus Tullius Cicero and translated by P.
G. Walsh. De Natura Deorum, Book II, Part ii, Section c The persona of Diana is complex, contains a number of archaic features. Diana was considered to be a goddess of the wilderness and of the hunt, a central sport in both Roman and Greek culture. Early Roman inscriptions to Diana celebrated her as a huntress and patron of hunters. In the Hellenistic period, Diana came to be or more revered as a goddess not of the wild woodland but of the "tame" countryside, or villa rustica, the idealization of, common in Greek thought and poetry; this dual role as goddess of both civilization and the wild, therefore the civilized countryside, first applied to the Greek goddess Artemis. By the 3rd century CE, after Greek influence had a profound impact on Roman religion, Diana had been fully combined with Artemis and took on many of her attributes, both in her spiritual domains and in the description of her appearance; the Roman poet Nemesianus wrote a typical description of Diana: She carried a bow and a quiver full of golden arrows, wore a golden cloak, purple half-boots, a belt with a jeweled buckle to hold her tunic together, wore her hair gathered in a ribbon.
Diana was considered an aspect of a triple goddess, known as Diana triformis: Diana and Hecate. According to historian C. M. Green, "these were an amalgamation of different goddesses, they were Diana... Diana as huntress, Diana as the moon, Diana of the underworld." At her sacred grove on the shores of Lake Nemi, Diana was venerated as a triple goddess beginning in the late 6th century BCE. Andreas Alföldi interpreted an image on a late Republican coin as the Latin Diana "conceived as a threefold unity of the divine huntress, the Moon goddess and the goddess of the nether world, Hekate"; this coin, minted by P. Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BCE, has been acknowledged as representing an archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis, it represents Artemis with the bow at one extremity, Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a central deity not identifiable, all united by a horizontal bar. The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this image to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan models; the coin shows that the triple goddess cult image still stood in the lucus of Nemi in 43 BCE.
Lake Nemi was called Triviae lacus by Virgil, while Horace called Diana montium custos nemoremque virgo and diva triformis. Two heads found in the sanctuary and the Roman theatre at Nemi, which have a hollow on their back, lend support to this interpretation of an archaic triple Diana; the earliest epithet of Diana was Trivia, she was addressed with that title by Virgil and many others. "Trivia" comes from the Latin trivium, "triple way", refers to Diana's guardianship over roadways Y-junctions or three-way crossroads. This role carried a somewhat dark and dangerous connotation, as it metaphorically pointed the way to the underworld. In the 1st-century CE play Medea, Seneca's titular sorceress calls on Trivia to cast a mag
Libertas is the Roman goddess and embodiment of liberty. The Roman Republic was established with the creation of Libertas and is associated with the overthrow of the Tarquin kings, she was worshiped by the family of Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger. In 238 BC, before the Second Punic War, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus built a temple to Libertas on the Aventine Hill. Census tables were stored inside the temple's atrium. A subsequent temple was built on Palatine Hill, another of the Seven hills of Rome, by Publius Clodius Pulcher. By building and consecrating the temple on the site of the former house of then-exiled Cicero, Clodius ensured that the land was uninhabitable. Upon his return, Cicero argued that the consecration was invalid and thus managed to reclaim the land and destroy the temple. In 46 BC, the Roman Senate voted to build and dedicate a shrine to Libertas in recognition of Julius Caesar, but no temple was built. Libertas, along with other Roman goddesses, has served as the inspiration for many modern-day symbols, including the Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in the United States.
According to the National Park Service, the Statue's Roman robe is the main feature that invokes Libertas and the symbol of Liberty from which the Statue derives its name. In addition, money throughout history has borne the image of Libertas. Libertas was pictured on Galba's "Freedom of the People" coins during his short reign after the death of Nero; the University of North Carolina records two instances of private banks in its state depicting Libertas on their banknotes. The Greek equivalent of the goddess Libertas is the personification of liberty; as "Liberty", Libertas was depicted on the obverse of most coinage in the U. S. into the twentieth century. The goddess Libertas is depicted on the Great Seal of France, created in 1848; this is the image which influenced French sculptor Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi in the creation of his statue of Liberty Enlightening the World. Libertas was associated with the pileus worn by the freed slave: Among the Romans the cap of felt was the emblem of liberty.
When a slave obtained his freedom he had his head shaved, wore instead of his hair an undyed pileus. Hence the phrase servos ad pileum vocare is a summons to liberty, by which slaves were called upon to take up arms with a promise of liberty; the figure of Liberty on some of the coins of Antoninus Pius, struck A. D. 145, holds this cap in the right hand. Libertas was recognized in ancient Rome by the rod, used ceremonially in the act of Manumissio vindicta, Latin for "Freedom by the Rod": The master brought his slave before the magistratus, stated the grounds of the intended manumission; the lictor of the magistratus laid a rod on the head of the slave, accompanied with certain formal words, in which he declared that he was a free man ex Jure Quiritium, that is, "vindicavit in libertatem". The master in the meantime held the slave, after he had pronounced the words "hunc hominem liberum volo," he turned him round and let him go, whence the general name of the act of manumission; the magistratus declared him to be free The symbolic characters Columbia who represents the United States and Marianne, who represents France, the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor, many other characters and concepts of the modern age were created, are seen, as embodiments of Libertas.
Liber Libera a goddess in Roman mythology Liberty, the article describing conceptions of liberty as a goddess in other cultures Liberty Leading the People David Hackett Fischer and Freedom The many faces of Miss Liberty
Pluto was the ruler of the underworld in classical mythology. The earlier name for the god was Hades, which became more common as the name of the underworld itself. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pluto represents a more positive concept of the god who presides over the afterlife. Ploutōn was conflated with Ploutos, a god of wealth, because mineral wealth was found underground, because as a chthonic god Pluto ruled the deep earth that contained the seeds necessary for a bountiful harvest; the name Ploutōn came into widespread usage with the Eleusinian Mysteries, in which Pluto was venerated as a stern ruler but the loving husband of Persephone. The couple received souls in the afterlife, are invoked together in religious inscriptions. Hades, by contrast, had few temples and religious practices associated with him, he is portrayed as the dark and violent abductor of Persephone. Pluto and Hades differ in character. In Greek cosmogony, the god received the rule of the underworld in a three-way division of sovereignty over the world, with his brother Zeus ruling the Sky and his other brother Poseidon sovereign over the Sea.
His central narrative is the abduction of Persephone to be the queen of his realm. Plouton as the name of the ruler of the underworld first appears in Greek literature of the Classical period, in the works of the Athenian playwrights and of the philosopher Plato, the major Greek source on its significance. Under the name Pluto, the god appears in other myths in a secondary role as the possessor of a quest-object, in the descent of Orpheus or other heroes to the underworld. Plūtō is the Latinized form of the Greek Plouton. Pluto's Roman equivalent is Dis Pater, whose name is most taken to mean "Rich Father" and is a direct translation of Plouton. Pluto was identified with the obscure Roman Orcus, like Hades the name of both a god of the underworld and the underworld as a place; the borrowed Greek name Pluto is sometimes used for the ruler of the dead in Latin literature, leading some mythology handbooks to assert misleadingly that Pluto was the Roman counterpart of Hades. Pluto becomes the most common name for the classical ruler of the underworld in subsequent Western literature and other art forms.
The name Plouton does not appear in Greek literature of the Archaic period. In Hesiod's Theogony, the six children of Cronus and Rhea are Zeus, Poseidon, Hades and Hestia; the male children divide the world into three realms. Hades takes Persephone with the consent of Zeus. Ploutos, "Wealth," appears in the Theogony as the child of Demeter and Iasion: "fine Plutus, who goes upon the whole earth and the broad back of the sea, whoever meets him and comes into his hands, that man he makes rich, he bestows much wealth upon him." The union of Demeter and Iasion, described in the Odyssey, took place in a fallow field, ploughed three times, in what seems to be a reference to a ritual copulation or sympathetic magic to ensure the earth's fertility. "The resemblance of the name Ploutos to Plouton..." it has been noted, "cannot be accidental. Plouton is lord of the dead, but as Persephone's husband he has serious claims to the powers of fertility." Demeter's son Plutus merges in the narrative tradition with her son-in-law Pluto, redefining the implacable chariot-driver Hades whose horses trample the flowering earth.
That the underworld god was associated early on with success in agricultural activity is evident in Hesiod's Works and Days, line 465-469: "Pray to Zeus of the Earth and to pure Demeter to make Demeter's holy grain sound and heavy, when first you begin ploughing, when you hold in your hand the end of the plough-tail and bring down your stick on the backs of the oxen as they draw on the pole-bar by the yoke-straps." Plouton was one of several euphemistic names for Hades, described in the Iliad as the god most hateful to mortals. Plato says that people prefer the name Plouton, "giver of wealth," because the name of Hades is fear-provoking; the name was understood as referring to "the boundless riches of the earth, both the crops on its surface—he was a god of the land—and the mines hidden within it." What is sometimes taken as "confusion" of the two gods Plouton and Ploutos held or acquired a theological significance in antiquity. As a lord of abundance or riches, Pluto expresses the aspect of the underworld god, positive, symbolized in art by the "horn of plenty", by means of which Plouton is distinguished from the gloomier Hades.
The Roman poet Ennius, the leading figure in the Hellenization of Latin literature, considered Pluto a Greek god to be explained in terms of the Roman equivalents Dis Pater and Orcus. It is unclear; some scholars think that rituals and beliefs pertaining to Pluto entered Roman culture with the establishment of the Saecular Games in 249 BC, that Dis pater was only a translation of Plouton. In the mid-1st century BC, Cicero identifies Pluto with Dis, explaining that "The earth in all its power and plenty is sacred to Father Dis, a name, the same as Dives,'The Wealthy One,' as is the Greek Plouton; this is because everything is born of the earth and returns to it again."During the Roman Imperial era, the Greek geographer Strabo makes a distinction between Pluto and Hades. In writing of the mineral wealth of ancient Iberia, he says that among the Turdetani, it is "Pluto, not Hades, who inhabits the region down belo
Pomona was a goddess of fruitful abundance in ancient Roman religion and myth. Her name comes from the Latin word pomum, "fruit," orchard fruit. Pomona was said to be a wood nymph. In the myth narrated by Ovid, she scorned the love of the woodland gods Silvanus and Picus, but married Vertumnus after he tricked her, disguised as an old woman, she and Vertumnus shared a festival held on August 13. Her priest was called the flamen Pomonalis; the pruning knife was her attribute. There is a grove, sacred to her called the Pomonal, located not far from Ostia, the ancient port of Rome. Pomona was the goddess of fruit trees and orchards. Unlike many other Roman goddesses and gods, she does not have a Greek counterpart, though she is associated with Demeter, she cares for their cultivation. She was not associated with the harvest of fruits itself, but with the flourishing of the fruit trees. In artistic depictions she is shown with a platter of fruit or a cornucopia; the City of Pomona in Los Angeles County, California, is named after the goddess.
Pomona College was founded in the city and retained its name after relocating to its present-day location, Claremont. The Pomona Docks were built on the site of the Pomona Gardens. A former public house nearby was named the Pomona Palace. A bronze statue of Pomona sits atop the Pulitzer Fountain in Manhattan's Grand Army Plaza in New York; the fountain was funded by newspaper tycoon Joseph Pulitzer, designed by the architect Thomas Hastings, crowned by a statue conceived by the sculptor Karl Bitter. The fountain was dedicated in May 1916. Pomona is mentioned in C. S. Lewis's children's book Prince Caspian. Pomona is the title of a play by Alistair McDowell, commissioned in 2014 for the Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama. Karpo, one of the Horae; the ballet Pomona, with music by Constant Lambert, choreography by Frederick Ashton and scenery and costumes by Vanessa Bell, was first performed by the Vic-Wells Ballet at the Sadler's Wells Theatre on 17 January 1933. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pomona". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Cambridge University Press
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops and motherly relationships. She was the central deity in Rome's so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad was paired with her daughter Proserpina in what Romans described as "the Greek rites of Ceres", her seven-day April festival of Cerealia included the popular Ludi Ceriales. She was honoured in the May lustratio of the fields at the Ambarvalia festival, at harvest-time, during Roman marriages and funeral rites. Ceres is the only one of Rome's many agricultural deities to be listed among the Dii Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology; the Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature. Ceres' name derives from the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European root *ḱerh₃-, meaning "to satiate, to feed", the root for Latin crescere "to grow" and through it, the English words create and increase. Roman etymologists thought ceres derived from the Latin verb gerere, "to bear, bring forth, produce", because the goddess was linked to pastoral and human fertility.
Archaic cults to Ceres are well-evidenced among Rome's neighbours in the Regal period, including the ancient Latins and Sabellians, less among the Etruscans and Umbrians. An archaic Faliscan inscription of c. 600 BC asks her to provide far, a dietary staple of the Mediterranean world. Throughout the Roman era, Ceres' name was synonymous with grain and, by extension, with bread. Ceres was credited with the discovery of spelt wheat, the yoking of oxen and ploughing, the sowing and nourishing of the young seed, the gift of agriculture to humankind, she had the power to fertilise and fructify plant and animal seed, her laws and rites protected all activities of the agricultural cycle. In January, Ceres was offered spelt wheat and a pregnant sow, along with the earth-goddess Tellus, at the movable Feriae Sementivae; this was certainly held before the annual sowing of grain. The divine portion of sacrifice was the entrails presented in an earthenware pot. In a rural context, Cato the Elder describes the offer to Ceres of a porca praecidanea.
Before the harvest, she was offered a propitiary grain sample. Ovid tells that Ceres "is content with little, provided that her offerings are casta". Ceres' main festival, was held from mid to late April, it included circus games. It opened with a horse-race in the Circus Maximus, whose starting point lay below and opposite to her Aventine Temple. After the race, foxes were released into the Circus, their tails ablaze with lighted torches to cleanse the growing crops and protect them from disease and vermin, or to add warmth and vitality to their growth. From c.175 BC, Cerealia included ludi scaenici through April 12 to 18. In the ancient sacrum cereale a priest the Flamen Cerialis, invoked Ceres along with twelve specialised, minor assistant-gods to secure divine help and protection at each stage of the grain cycle, beginning shortly before the Feriae Sementivae. W. H. Roscher lists these deities among the indigitamenta, names used to invoke specific divine functions. Vervactor, "He who ploughs" Reparator, "He who prepares the earth" Imporcitor, "He who ploughs with a wide furrow" Insitor, "He who plants seeds" Obarator, "He who traces the first ploughing" Occator, "He who harrows" Serritor, "He who digs" Subruncinator, "He who weeds" Messor, "He who reaps" Conuector, "He who carries the grain" Conditor, "He who stores the grain" Promitor, "He who distributes the grain" In Roman bridal processions, a young boy carried Ceres' torch to light the way.
The adult males of the wedding party waited at the groom's house. A wedding sacrifice was offered to Tellus on the bride's behalf. Varro describes the sacrifice of a pig as "a worthy mark of weddings" because "our women, nurses" call the female genitalia porcus. Spaeth believes Ceres may have been included in the sacrificial dedication, because she is identified with Tellus and, as Ceres legifera, she "bears the laws" of marriage. In the most solemn form of marriage, the bride and groom shared a cake made of far, the ancient wheat-type associated with Ceres. From at least the mid-republican era, an official, joint cult to Ceres and Proserpina reinforced Ceres' connection with Roman ideals of female virtue; the promotion of this cult coincides with the rise of a plebeian nobility, an increased birthrate among plebeian commoners, a fall in the birthrate among patrician families. The late Republican Ceres Mater is described as alma. Several of Ceres' ancient Italic precursors are motherhood. Ceres was patron and protector of plebeian laws and Tribunes
Vulcan is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes, deserts and the forge in ancient Roman religion and myth. Vulcan is depicted with a blacksmith's hammer; the Vulcanalia was the annual festival held August 23 in his honor. His Greek counterpart is the god of fire and smithery. In Etruscan religion, he is identified with Sethlans. Vulcan belongs to the most ancient stage of Roman religion: Varro, the ancient Roman scholar and writer, citing the Annales Maximi, records that king Titus Tatius dedicated altars to a series of deities among which Vulcan is mentioned; the origin of the name is unclear. Roman tradition maintained that it was related to Latin words connected to lightning, which in turn was thought of as related to flames; this interpretation is supported by Walter William Skeat in his etymological dictionary as meaning lustre. It has been supposed that his name was not Latin but related to that of the Cretan god Velchanos, a god of nature and the nether world. Wolfgang Meid has dispued this identification as phantastic.
More this etymology has been taken up by Gérard Capdeville who finds a continuity between Cretan Minoan god Velchanos and Etruscan Velchans. The Minoan god's identity would be that of a young deity, master of fire and companion of the Great Goddess. Christian Guyonvarc'h has proposed the identification with the Irish name Olcan. Vasily Abaev compares it with the Ossetic Wærgon, a variant of the name of Kurdalægon, the smith of the Nart saga. Since the name in its normal form Kurdalægon is stable and has a clear meaning, this hypothesis has been considered unacceptable by Dumezil. Vulcan's oldest shrine in Rome, called the Vulcanal, was situated at the foot of the Capitoline in the Forum Romanum, was reputed to date to the archaic period of the kings of Rome, to have been established on the site by Titus Tatius, the Sabine co-king, with a traditional date in the 8th century BC, it was the view of the Etruscan haruspices that a temple of Vulcan should be located outside the city, the Vulcanal may have been on or outside the city limits before they expanded to include the Capitoline Hill.
The Volcanalia sacrifice was offered here to Vulcan, on August 23. Vulcan had a temple on the Campus Martius, in existence by 214 BC; the Romans identified Vulcan with the Greek smith-god Hephaestus. Vulcan became associated like his Greek counterpart with the constructive use of fire in metalworking. A fragment of a Greek pot showing Hephaestus found at the Volcanal has been dated to the 6th century BC, suggesting that the two gods were associated at this date. However, Vulcan had a stronger association than Hephaestus with fire's destructive capacity, a major concern of his worshippers was to encourage the god to avert harmful fires; the festival of Vulcan, the Vulcanalia, was celebrated on August 23 each year, when the summer heat placed crops and granaries most at risk of burning. During the festival bonfires were created in honour of the god, into which live fish or small animals were thrown as a sacrifice, to be consumed in the place of humans; the Vulcanalia was part of the cycle of the four festivities of the second half of August related to the agrarian activities of that month and in symmetric correlation with those of the second half of July.
While the festivals of July dealt with untamed nature and waters at a time of danger caused by their relative deficiency, those of August were devoted to the results of human endeavour on nature with the storing of harvested grain and their relationship to human society and regality which at that time were at risk and required protection from the dangers of the excessive strength of the two elements of fire and wind reinforced by dryness. It is recorded that during the Vulcanalia people used to hang their clothes and fabrics under the sun; this habit might reflect a theological connection between the divinized Sun. Another custom observed on this day required that one should start working by the light of a candle to propitiate a beneficial use of fire by the god. In addition to the Vulcanalia of August 23, the date of May 23, the second of the two annual Tubilustria or ceremonies for the purification of trumpets, was sacred to Vulcan; the Ludi Vulcanalici, were held just once on August 23, 20 BC, within the temple precinct of Vulcan, used by Augustus to mark the treaty with Parthia and the return of the legionary standards, lost at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC.
A flamen, one of the flamines minors, named. The flamen Vulcanalis officiated at a sacrifice to the goddess Maia, held every year at the Kalendae of May. Vulcan was among the gods placated after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64. In response to the same fire, Domitian established a new altar to Vulcan on the Quirinal Hill. At the same time a red bull-calf and red boar were added to the sacrifices made on the Vulcanalia, at least in that region of the city; the nature of the god is connected with religious ideas concerning fire. The Roman concept of the god seems to associate him to both the destructive and the fertilizing powers of fire. In the first aspect he is worshipped in the Volcanalia to avert its potential danger to harvested wheat, his cult is located outside the boundaries of
Saturn is a god in ancient Roman religion, a character in myth as a god of generation, plenty, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation. In developments, he came to be a god of time, his reign was depicted as a Golden Age of peace. The Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum housed the state treasury. In December, he was celebrated at what is the most famous of the Roman festivals, the Saturnalia, a time of feasting, role reversals, free speech, gift-giving and revelry. Saturn the planet and Saturday are both named after the god; the Roman land preserved the remembrance of a remote time during which Saturn and Janus reigned on the site of the city before its foundation: the Capitol was called mons Saturnius. The Romans identified Saturn with the Greek Cronus, whose myths were adapted for Latin literature and Roman art. In particular, Cronus's role in the genealogy of the Greek gods was transferred to Saturn; as early as Livius Andronicus, Jupiter was called the son of Saturn. Saturn had two mistresses.
The name of his wife, the Roman equivalent of Greek Rhea, means "wealth, resources." The association with Ops is considered a development, however, as this goddess was paired with Consus. Earlier was Saturn's association with Lua, a goddess who received the bloodied weapons of enemies destroyed in war. Under Saturn's rule, humans enjoyed the spontaneous bounty of the earth without labour in the "Golden Age" described by Hesiod and Ovid. According to Varro, Saturn's name was derived from satu, meaning "sowing". Though this etymology looks implausible on linguistic grounds it does reflect an original feature of the god. A more probable etymology connects the name with Etruscan god Satre and placenames such as Satria, an ancient town of Latium, Saturae palus, a marsh in Latium; this root may be related to Latin phytonym satureia. Another epithet, variably Sterculius and Sterces, referred to his agricultural functions. Agriculture was important to Roman identity, Saturn was a part of archaic Roman religion and ethnic identity.
His name appears in the ancient hymn of the Salian priests, his temple was the oldest known to have been recorded by the pontiffs. Quintus Lucilius Balbus gives a separate etymology in Cicero's De Natura Deorum. In this interpretation, the agricultural aspect of Saturn would be secondary to his primary relation with time and seasons. Since Time consumes all things, Balbus asserts. Since agriculture is so linked to seasons and therefore an understanding of the cyclical passage of time, it follows that agriculture would be associated with the deity Saturn; the temple of Saturn was located at the base of the Capitoline Hill, according to a tradition recorded by Varro known as Saturnius Mons, a row of columns from the last rebuilding of the temple still stands. The temple was consecrated in 497 BC but the area Saturni was built by king Tullus Hostilius as confirmed by archaeological studies conducted by E. Gjerstad, it housed the state treasury throughout Roman history. The position of Saturn's festival in the Roman calendar led to his association with concepts of time the temporal transition of the New Year.
In the Greek tradition, Cronus was sometimes conflated with Chronus, "Time," and his devouring of his children taken as an allegory for the passing of generations. The sickle or scythe of Father Time is a remnant of the agricultural implement of Cronus-Saturn, his aged appearance represents the waning of the old year with the birth of the new, in antiquity sometimes embodied by Aion. In late antiquity, Saturn is syncretized with a number of deities, begins to be depicted as winged, as is Kairos, "Timing, Right Time"; the figure of Saturn is one of the most complex in Roman religion. G. Dumézil refrained from discussing Saturn in his work on Roman religion on the grounds of insufficient knowledge. On the contrary, his follower Dominique Briquel has attempted a thorough interpretation of Saturn utilising Dumézil's three-functional theory of Indoeuropean religion, taking the ancient testimonies and the works of A. Brelich and G. Piccaluga as his basis; the main difficulty scholars find in studying Saturn is in assessing what is original of his figure and what is due to hellenising influences.
Moreover, some features of the god may be common to Cronus but are nonetheless ancient and can be considered proper to the Roman god, whereas others are later and arrived after 217 BC, the year in which the Greek customs of the Kronia were introduced into the Saturnalia. Among the features which are authentic of the Roman god, Briquel identifies: the time of his festival in the calendar, which corresponds to the date of the consecration of his temple; these three elements in Briquel's view indicate. The god's strict relationship with the cults of the Capitoline Hill and in particular with Jupiter are highlighted by the legends concerning the refusal of gods Iuventas and Terminus to leave their abode in the shrines on the Capitol