Ambiorix was, together with Cativolcus, prince of the Eburones, leader of a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul, where modern Belgium is located. In the nineteenth century Ambiorix became a Belgian national hero because of his resistance against Julius Caesar, as written in Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. In 57 BC Julius Caesar conquered parts of Gaul and Belgica. There were several tribes in the country; the Eburones were ruled by Catuvolcus. In 54 BC Caesar's troops urgently needed more food, so the local tribes were forced to give up part of their harvest, which had not been good that year. Understandably the starving Eburones were reluctant to do so and Caesar ordered that camps be built near the Eburones' villages; each centurion was ordered to make sure. This created resentment among the Eburones. Although Julius Caesar had freed him from paying tribute to the Atuatuci, Ambiorix joined Catuvolcus in the winter of 54 BC in an uprising against the Roman forces under Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta.
Because a drought had disrupted his grain supply, Caesar was forced to winter his legions among the rebellious Belgic tribes. Roman troops led by Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta were wintering among the Eburones when they were attacked by them, led by Ambiorix and Cativolcus. Ambiorix deceived the Romans, telling them the attack was made without his consent, further advised them to flee as a large Germanic force was preparing to cross the Rhine. Trusting Ambiorix and Cotta's troops left the next morning. A short distance from their camp, the Roman troops were massacred. Elsewhere, another Roman force under Q. Tullius Cicero, brother of the orator Marcus, were wintering amongst the Nervii. Leading a coalition of rebellious Belgic tribes, Ambiorix surrounded Cicero's camp. After a long while, a Roman messenger was able to slip through the Belgic lines and get word of the uprising to Caesar. Mobilizing his legions, Caesar marched to Cicero's aid; as they approached the besieged Roman camp, the Belgae moved to engage Caesar's troops.
Vastly outnumbered, Caesar ordered his troops to appear confused and frightened, they lured the Belgae to attack them on ground favourable to the Romans. Caesar's forces launched a fierce counterattack, soon put the Belgae to flight. Caesar's troops entered Cicero's camp to find most of the men wounded. Meanwhile, Indutiomarus, a leader of the Treveri, began to harass Labienus's camp daily provoking Labienus to send out his cavalry with specific orders to kill Indutiomarus, they did so, routed the remnants of Indutiomarus's army. Caesar remained in Gaul for the remainder of winter due to the renewed Gallic threat; when the Roman senate heard what had happened, Caesar swore to put down all the Belgic tribes. Ambiorix had killed five cohorts. A Belgic attack on Q. Tullius Cicero stationed with a legion in the territory of the Nervii, failed due to the timely appearance of Caesar; the Roman campaigns against the Belgae took a few years, but the tribes were slaughtered or driven out and their fields burned.
The Eburones disappeared from history after this genocidal event. According to the writer Florus and his men succeeded in crossing the Rhine and disappeared without a trace. Caesar wrote about Ambiorix in his commentary about his battles against De Bello Gallico. In this text he wrote the famous line: "Of these, the Belgae are the bravest.". Ambiorix remained a obscure figure until the nineteenth century; when Belgium became independent in 1830 the national government started searching through their historical archives for people who could serve as national heroes. In Caesar's De Bello Gallico and his deeds were rediscovered. In 1841 the Belgian poet Joannes Nolet de Brauwere Van Steeland wrote a lyrical epic about Ambiorix and on September 5, 1866 a statue of Ambiorix was erected on the main market square in Tongeren, referred to by Caesar as Atuatuca, i.e. Atuatuca Tungrorum. Today, Ambiorix is one of the most famous characters in Belgian history. Many companies and friteries have named themselves after him, in many Belgian comics such as Suske en Wiske and Jommeke he plays a guest role.
There was a short-lived comic called Ambionix, which featured a scientist teleporting a Belgic chief, loosely based on Ambiorix, to modern-day Belgium. In the French comic Asterix, in the album Asterix in Belgium, Obelix and Vitalstatistix go to Belgium because they are angry with Caesar about his remark that the Belgians are the bravest of all the Gauls. List of people who disappeared Caesar, De Bello Gallico v. 26-51, vi. 29-43, viii. 24. 7-11. 10. Ambiorix
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He wrote Latin prose. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years, their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a number of his accomplishments, notably his victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the English Channel and the Rhine River, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to past Gaul; these achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC.
With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars; as a result, Caesar found himself with no other options but to cross the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. This began Caesar's civil war, his victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar, he gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Empire. He initiated land support for veterans, he centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was proclaimed "dictator for life", giving him additional authority. His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites. On the Ides of March, 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus and Decimus Junius Brutus, who stabbed him to death.
A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, the era of the Roman Empire began. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust; the biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history, his cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor". He has appeared in literary and artistic works, his political philosophy, known as Caesarism, inspired politicians into the modern era. Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas the son of the goddess Venus.
The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which settled in Rome around the mid-7th century BC, after the destruction of Alba Longa. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families; the Julii existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section; the Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesar's father called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia, his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic.
His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood. In 85 BC, Caesar's father died so Caesar was the head of the family at 16, his coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated as the new Flamen Dialis, he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia. Following Sulla's final victory, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one, he was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against hi
The Morini were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul. They were mentioned in such classical works as the Commentarii de Bello Gallico written by Julius Caesar, they became an established part of the Roman empire with the coastal parts of the present-day départment of Pas-de-Calais in northernmost France, bordering on the English Channel. A generation after their entry into the Roman Empire the writer Vergil described them poetically as the remotest of people; the tribe's name Morini is thought to be Celtic meaning "those of the sea". It is derived from the suffix -no- and the Celtic word mori meaning "sea", mentioned in the Vienna Glossary as more translated into Latin as mare "sea". Another derived word morici exists and is translated into Latin as marini "sailors"; the variation morici is found in Aremorici "those who live in front of the sea". Morini represents another variation. Mori is Irish muir; the Indo-European prototype was *móri that gave birth to Germanic *mari: English mere, German Meer, etc..
Old Slavic morje, etc. One of the most important cities of the Morini, was Gesoriacum, modern Boulogne-sur-Mer, called Bononia by Zosimus in late antiquity, Bonen in the Dutch language. Itius Portus or Portus Itius was the name of a Morini port city considered to be either Wissant or Boulogne; the administrative capital or civitas during the Roman Empire was Tarwanna or Tervanna, modern Thérouanne, today in France, inland from Boulogne. But in imperial times Boulogne is referred to as a civitas itself, implying either that it had supplanted Thérouanne as civitas of the Morini after a partial destruction in 275, or else that it had become administratively separate because of its military and economic importance. Thérouanne is only 30km to the southwest of Cassel, the Roman civitas of the neighbouring Menapii, whose territory stretched northwards to the river deltas of the Scheldt and Rhine, 65km northwest of Arras, the civitas of the Atrebates. To the south of the Morini and Atrebates were the Ambiani, whose civitas was at modern Amiens.
Strabo in his Geographica, describes the country of the Morini as being on the sea, close to the Menapii, covered by part of a large forest with low thorny trees and shrubs. He reports that before Roman conquest, the Morini and their neighbours in these forests "fixed stakes in various places, retreated with their whole families into the recesses of the forest, to small islands surrounded by marshes. During the rainy season these proved secure hiding-places, but in times of drought they were taken." Caesar described the Belgae, including the Morini, as Gauls who had different language and laws compared to the central part of Gaul which he called Celtic. He mentioned that he had heard that the Belgae had some Germanic ancestry from east of the Rhine. Place names and personal names show that the Belgae were influenced by Celtic language, but some linguists such as Maurits Gysseling, have argued based on placename studies that they spoke either a Germanic language, or else another language neither Celtic nor Germanic.
Edith Wightman reads Caesar to make a distinction between the core of the Belgae included the Suessiones and Ambiani, placing the Morini, Menapii and other northern tribes in a "transition zone" which may have been more Germanic. She proposes that coin evidence indicates that these northern tribes were bound to an alliance with the core group in the generations before Caesar's arrival, that the Morini may have been a new and loosely bound member of the alliance. Pliny the Elder remarked; the area was known for exporting wool, pork and garum. In late classical times Zosimus implied the Germanic character of the city, calling it Bononia germanorum. Caesar was interested in that part of the Morini territory, where the crossing of the sea to Britannia was "the shortest"; the Morini had several harbours. The tribe counted some pagi, which could make their own decisions; the Morini became unreachable for the Roman army. In 56 BC, when autumn was wet, this tactic worked; the year after, much dryer, it failed.
The Morini participated together with other coastal people and tribes from Britain, in the uprising of the Veneti. Caesar wanted to induce fear in the northern Morini so "that they wouldn't attack him." The territory of the Morini and Menapii was well protected by marshes and woodland and suited for guerrilla tactics. The dangers outweighed the benefits of subduing those economically less interesting regions. In 55 BC Labienus tightened the Roman grip upon the strategically more important western side of the Morini tribal areas. In 54 BC Caesar let one legion, under the command of legate Caius Fabius, hibernate there. In 53 BC the Morini were joined most with the Menapii under the command of the Atrebate Commius. During the great Gallic rebellion led by Vercingetorix, the Morini, like many other Gaulish tribes, sent a contingent of some 5000 men to the relief force which had to liberate Alesia. Although Caesar fought the Morini, he managed to conquer only a part of their territory around Calais.
The rest of the Morini were annexed by emperor Augustus between the years 33-23 B. C.. Their tribal lands became part of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica, forming one district together with the Atrebat
The Meuse or Maas is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea from the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. It has a total length of 925 km. From 1301 the upper Meuse marked the western border of the Holy Roman Empire with the Kingdom of France, after Count Henry III of Bar had to receive the western part of the County of Bar as a French fief from the hands of King Philip IV; the border remained stable until the annexation of the Three Bishoprics Metz and Verdun by King Henry II in 1552 and the occupation of the Duchy of Lorraine by the forces of King Louis XIII in 1633. Its lower Belgian portion, part of the sillon industriel, was the first industrialized area in continental Europe; the Afgedamde Maas was created in the late Middle Ages, when a major flood made a connection between the Maas and the Merwede at the town of Woudrichem. From that moment on, the current Afgedamde Maas was the main branch of the lower Meuse.
The former main branch silted up and is today called the Oude Maasje. In the late 19th century and early 20th century the connection between the Maas and Rhine was closed off and the Maas was given a new, artificial mouth - the Bergse Maas; the resulting separation of the rivers Rhine and Maas reduced the risk of flooding and is considered to be the greatest achievement in Dutch hydraulic engineering before the completion of the Zuiderzee Works and Delta Works. The former main branch was, after the dam at its southern inlet was completed in 1904, renamed Afgedamde Maas and no longer receives water from the Maas; the Meuse and its crossings were a key objective of the last major German WWII counter-offensive on the Western Front, the Battle of the Bulge in the winter of 1944/45. The Meuse is represented in the documentary; the name Meuse is derived from the French name of the river which derives from the Celtic or Proto-Celtic name *Mosā. The Dutch name Maas descends from Middle Dutch Mase, which comes from the presumed but unattested Old Dutch form *Masa, from Proto-Germanic *Masō.
Modern Dutch and German Maas and Limburgish Maos preserve this Germanic form. Despite the similarity, the Germanic name is not derived from the Celtic name, judging from the change from earlier o into a, characteristic of the Germanic languages; the Meuse rises in Pouilly-en-Bassigny, commune of Le Châtelet-sur-Meuse on the Langres plateau in France from where it flows northwards past Sedan and Charleville-Mézières into Belgium. At Namur it is joined by the Sambre. Beyond Namur the Meuse winds eastwards, skirting the Ardennes, passes Liège before turning north; the river forms part of the Belgian-Dutch border, except that at Maastricht the border lies further to the west. In the Netherlands it continues northwards through Venlo along the border to Germany turns towards the west, where it runs parallel to the Waal and forms part of the extensive Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, together with the Scheldt in its south and the Rhine in the north; the river has been divided near Heusden into the Afgedamde Maas on the right and the Bergse Maas on the left.
The Bergse Maas continues under the name of Amer, part of De Biesbosch. The Afgedamde Maas joins the Waal, the main stem of the Rhine at Woudrichem, flows under the name of Boven Merwede to Hardinxveld-Giessendam, where it splits into Nieuwe Merwede and Beneden Merwede. Near Lage Zwaluwe, the Nieuwe Merwede joins the Amer, forming the Hollands Diep, which splits into Grevelingen and Haringvliet, before flowing into the North Sea; the Meuse is crossed by railway bridges between the following stations: Netherlands: Hasselt – Maastricht Weert - Roermond Blerick – Venlo Cuijk – Mook-Molenhoek Ravenstein – Wijchen's-Hertogenbosch – ZaltbommelThere are numerous road bridges and around 32 ferry crossings. The Meuse is navigable over a substantial part of its total length: In the Netherlands and Belgium, the river is part of the major inland navigation infrastructure, connecting the Rotterdam-Amsterdam-Antwerp port areas to the industrial areas upstream:'s-Hertogenbosch, Maastricht, Liège, Namur. Between Maastricht and Maasbracht, an unnavigable section of the Meuse is bypassed by the 36 km Juliana Canal.
South of Namur, further upstream, the river can only carry more modest vessels, although a barge as long as 100 m. can still reach the French border town of Givet. From Givet, the river is canalized over a distance of 272 kilometres; the canalized Meuse used to be called the "Canal de l'Est — Branche Nord" but was rebaptized into "Canal de la Meuse". The waterway can be used by the smallest barges that are still in use commercially 40 metres long and just over 5 metres wide. Just upstream of the town of Commercy, the Canal de la Meuse connects with the Marne–Rhine Canal by means of a short diversion canal; the Cretaceous sea reptile. The first fossils of it were discovered outside Maastricht in 1780. An international agreement was signed in 2002 in Ghent, Belgium about the management of the river amongst France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium. Participating in the agreement were the Belgian regional governments of Flanders and Brussels. Most of the basin area is in Wallonia, followe
The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul in pre-Roman and Roman times. According to descriptions in such authors as Strabo, Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy their territory had stretched northwards to the mouth of the Rhine in the north, but more lastingly it stretched along the west of the Scheldt river. In geographical terms this territory corresponds to the modern Belgian coast, the Belgian provinces of East and West Flanders, it extended into neighbouring France and the river deltas of the Southern Netherlands. Their civitas, or administrative capital, under the Roman empire was Cassel, this was moved nearer to a river in Tournai. Both of these are near Thérouanne, the civitas of the neighbouring Morini tribe, indeed in the Middle Ages Cassel became part of the Diocese of Thérouanne. Cassel was therefore in the southern extreme of the Menapii lands. A pattern of placing Roman tribal capitals in the south is found in the neighbouring Belgian tribal states, of the Nervii and Tungri; the positions of such Roman tribal capitals didn't correspond to the centre of a tribe's territory in pre-Roman political geography.
In those neighbouring regions, the centre of Roman civilization was moved further south, on to a major river, in late Roman times, after the area was threatened by Frankish tribes from outside the empire. To the north and east of the Menapii lay the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. In the time of Caesar, the Menapii had settlements throughout this region and over the Rhine into Germany. During Roman times these islands were under the frontier province of Germania Inferior, inhabited by various groups of people who had moved there under Roman rule. Pliny the elder lists the people in these "Gallic Islands" as Batavi and Canninefates on the largest island and the Chauci whose main lands were to the north of the deltas, the Frisiavones and Marsacii. Of these last three, the Marsaci appear to be mentioned in another place by Pliny as having a presence on the coast south of the delta, neighbouring the Menapii, within Gaul itself; the Frisiavones are mentioned within the listing for Belgian Gaul, but therefore lived in the part of the delta south of the Batavi, northeast of the Menapii.
In one inscription, from Bulla Regia, the Tungri and Frisiavones are grouped together confirming that the Frisiavones lived inland. It is suggested that the Marsaci and the Sturii could be "pagi" belonging to the civitas of either the Frisiavones or the Menapii. South of the delta, east of the river Scheldt from the Menapii, therefore south of the Frisiavones, Pliny mentions the Toxandri, in a position on the northern edge of Gaul, it is known that the Toxandri were associated with the civitates of both the Nervii and the Tungri, so they had a presence in both. While in Pliny the Menapii do not stretch beyond the Scheldt, in Strabo's 1st-century Geographica, they are situated further away than the Nervii and on both sides of the Rhine near its outlets to the sea not far from the Germanic Sigambri. Following Caesar he said that they "dwell amongst marshes and forests, not lofty, but consisting of dense and thorny wood", they are referred to in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geographia, situated "above" the Nervii, near the Meuse river.
While these authors make it clear that the Menapii still lay north of the Nervii in Roman times, it is not clear if they still bordered directly upon the former territory of the Eburones, as they had been in Caesar's time, which in imperial times was within the Civitas Tungrorum, or civitas of the Tungri. In any case as mentioned above they bordered in Roman times upon the Toxandrians, who lived in the north of the lands of the Nervii and Tungri. South of the Menapii were the Atrebates in Artois, south-west along the coast were the Morini; the boundary with the Morini in classical times appears to have been the River Aa. In the Roman empire, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites reports that "Cassel was superseded as capital of the Menapii by Tournai after Gaul was reorganized under Diocletian and Constantine the Great; the civitas Menapiorum became the civitas Turnencensium." By medieval times, when these Roman districts evolved into medieval Roman Catholic dioceses, Cassel had in fact become part of the diocese of Thérouanne, the civitas of the Morini.
The Menapii were persistent opponents of Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul, resisting until 54 BC. They were part of the Belgic confederacy defeated by Caesar in 57 BC; the following year they sided with the Veneti against Caesar. Caesar was again victorious, but the Menapii and the Morini refused to make peace and continued to fight against him, they conducted a hit-and-run campaign. Caesar responded by cutting down the forests, seizing their cattle and burning their settlements, but this was interrupted by heavy rain and the onset of winter, the Menapii and Morini withdrew further into the forests. In 55 BC the Menapii were defeated; that year, while Caesar made his first expedition to Britain, he sent two of his legates and the majority of his army to the territories of the Menapii and Morini to keep them under control. Once again, they retired to the woods, the Romans burned their crops and settlements; the Menapii joined the revolt led by Ambiorix in 54 BC. Caesar says that they, alone of all the tribes of Gaul, had never sent ambassadors to him to discuss terms of peace, had ties of hospitality with Ambiorix.
For that reason he decided to le
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō Bellum Gallicum, is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest; the "Gaul" that Caesar refers to is ambiguous, as the term had various connotations in Roman writing and discourse during Caesar's time. Gaul included all of the regions that Romans had not conquered or administered or which were inhabited by Celts; as the Roman Republic made inroads deeper into Celtic territory and conquered more land, the definition of "Gaul" shifted. Concurrently, "Gaul" was used in common parlance as a synonym for "uncouth" or "unsophisticated" as Romans saw Celtic peoples as uncivilized compared with Rome; the work has been a mainstay in Latin instruction because of its direct prose. It begins with the quoted phrase "Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres", meaning "Gaul is a whole divided into three parts".
The full work is split into eight sections, Book 1 to Book 8, varying in size from 5,000 to 15,000 words. Book 8 was written after Caesar's death; the Latin title, Commentaries on the Gallic War, is retained in English translations of the book, the title is translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, The Gallic War. The victories in Gaul won by Caesar had increased the alarm and hostility of his enemies at Rome, his aristocratic enemies, the boni, were spreading rumors about his intentions once he returned from Gaul; the boni intended to prosecute Caesar for abuse of his authority upon his return, when he would lay down his imperium. Such prosecution would not only see Caesar stripped of his wealth and citizenship, but negate all of the laws he enacted during his term as Consul and his dispositions as pro-consul of Gaul. To defend himself against these threats, Caesar knew he needed the support of the plebeians the Tribunes of the Plebs, on whom he chiefly relied for help in carrying out his agenda.
The Commentaries were an effort by Caesar to directly communicate with the plebeians – thereby circumventing the usual channels of communication that passed through the Senate – to propagandize his activities as efforts to increase the glory and influence of Rome. By winning the support of the people, Caesar sought to make himself unassailable from the boni. In the Commentarii de Bello Gallico Caesar mentions several leaders of the Gallic tribes. Among these and Vercingetorix are notable for their contributions to the Gauls during war. Book 1 and Book 6 detail the importance of Diviciacus, a leader of the Haedui, which lies in the friendly relationship between Caesar and Diviciacus quod ex Gallis ei maximam fidem habebat, his brother, Dumnorix had committed several acts against the Romans because he wanted to become king quod eorum adventu potentia eius deminuta et Diviciacus frater in antiquum locum gratiae atque honoris sit restitutus and summam in spem per Helvetios regni obtinendi venire.
Diviciacus had, in tears, begged Caesar to spare the life of his brother, Caesar saw an opportunity to not only fix his major problem with Dumnorix, but to strengthen the relationship between Rome and one of its small allies. Another major action taken by Diviciacus was his imploring of Caesar to take action against the Germans and their leader, Ariovistus, his fear of Ariovistus and the general outcry from the Gallic people led Caesar to launch a campaign against the Germans though they had been considered friends of the Republic. Vercingetorix, leader of the Arverni, united the Gallic tribes against Caesar during the winter of 53–52 BC; this appears in Book VII, chapters 1–13. Vercingetorix's father, was killed after attempting to seize power amongst the Arverni; when it was clear that Caesar had defeated the Gallic rebellion, Vercingetorix offered to sacrifice himself, put himself at the mercy of Caesar, in order to ensure that his kinsmen were spared. After the defeat, Vercingetorix was brought to Rome and imprisoned for six years before being brought out to adorn Caesar's triumph over Gaul and publicly executed.
Today, Vercingetorix is seen in the same light as others. In De Bello Gallico 6.21–28, Julius Caesar provides his audience with a picture of Germanic lifestyle and culture. He depicts the Germans as primitive hunter gatherers with diets consisting of meat and dairy products who only celebrate earthly gods such as the sun and the moon. German women wear small cloaks of deer hides and bathe in the river naked with their fellow men, yet their culture celebrates men who abstain from sex for as long as possible. Caesar concludes in chapters 25–28 by describing the Germans living in the almost-mythological Hercynian forest full of ox with horns in the middle of their foreheads, elks without joints or ligatures, uri who kill every man they come across. However, the distinguishing char