Córdoba spelled Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, taken over by the Visigoths, followed by the Umayyad Caliphate in the eighth century, it became the capital of a Muslim emirate, the Caliphate of Córdoba, which encompassed most of the Iberian Peninsula. During this period, it became a centre of education and learning, by the 10th century had grown to be the largest city in Europe, it was recaptured by Christian forces during the so-called Reconquista. Today, Córdoba is still home to many notable pieces of Moorish architecture such as the Mezquita, named as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984, is in use as a Cathedral; the UNESCO status has since been expanded to encompass the whole historic centre of Córdoba. Much of this architecture, such as the Alcázar and the Roman bridge has been reworked or reconstructed by the city's successive inhabitants. Córdoba has the highest summer temperatures in Spain and Europe, with average high temperatures around 37 °C in July and August.
The first traces of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 42,000 to 35,000 BC. Pre-urban settlements around the mouth of the Guadalquivir river are known to have existed from the 8th century BC; the population learned copper and silver metallurgy. The first historical mention of a settlement dates to the Carthaginian expansion across the Guadalquivir, when general Hamilcar Barca renamed it Kartuba, from Kart-Juba, meaning "the City of Juba", a Numidian commander who had died in a battle nearby. Córdoba was named as Corduba. In 169 Roman consul M. Claudius Marcellus, grandson of Marcus Claudius Marcellus, who had governed both Further and Hither Spain, founded a Latin colony alongside the pre-existing Iberian settlement. Between 143 and 141 BC. A Roman forum is known to have existed in the city in 113 BC; the famous Cordoba Treasure, with mixed local and Roman artistic traditions, was buried in the city at this time. It became a colonia with the title Patricia, between 46 and 45 BC.
It was sacked by Caesar in 45 due to its Pompeian allegiance, settled with veterans by Augustus. It had a colonial and provincial forum and many temples, it was the chief center of Roman intellectual life in Hispania Ulterior. Its republican poets were succeeded by Lucan. At the time of Julius Caesar, Córdoba was the capital of the Roman province of Hispania Baetica; the great Roman philosopher Seneca the Younger, his father, the orator Seneca the Elder, his nephew, the poet Lucan came from Roman Cordoba. In the late Roman period, its bishop Hosius was the dominant figure of the western Church throughout the earlier 4th cent, it occupied an important place in the Provincia Hispaniae of the Byzantine Empire and under the Visigoths, who conquered it in the late 6th century. Córdoba was captured in 711 by the Umayyad army. Unlike other Iberian towns, no capitulation was signed and the position was taken by storm. Córdoba was in turn governed by direct Umayyad rule; the new Umayyad commanders established themselves within the city and in 716 it became a provincial capital, subordinate to the Caliphate of Damascus.
Different areas were allocated for services in the Saint Vincent Church shared by Christians and Muslims, until construction of the Córdoba Mosque started on the same spot under Abd-ar-Rahman I. Abd al-Rahman allowed the Christians to rebuild their ruined churches and purchased the Christian half of the church of St Vincent. In May 766 Córdoba was chosen as the capital of the independent Umayyad emirate caliphate, of al-Andalus. By 800 the megacity of Cordoba supported over 200,000 residents, 0.1 per cent of the global population. During the apogee of the caliphate, Córdoba had a population of about 400,000 inhabitants, with estimates ranging from 100,000 to an unlikely 1,000,000. In the 10th and 11th centuries Córdoba was one of the most advanced cities in the world, a great cultural, political and economic centre; the Great Mosque of Córdoba dates back to this time. After a change of rulers the situation changed quickly; the vizier al-Mansur–the unofficial ruler of al-Andalus from 976 to 1002—burned most of the books on philosophy to please the Moorish clergy.
Córdoba had a prosperous economy, with manufactured goods including leather, metal work, glazed tiles and textiles, agricultural produce including a range of fruits, vegetables and spices, materials such as cotton and silk. It was famous as a centre of learning, home to over 80 libraries and institutions of learning, with knowledge of medicine, astronomy, botany far exceeding the rest of Europe at the time. In 1002 Al-Mansur was returning to Córdoba from an expedition in the area of Rioja, his death was the beginning of the end of Córdoba. Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar, al-Mansur's older son, succeeded to his father’s authority, but he died in 1008 assassinated. Sanchuelo, Abd al-Malik’s younger brother succeeded him. While Sanchuelo was away fighting Alfonso V of Leon, a revolution made Mohammed II al-Mahdi the Caliph. Sanchuelo sued for pardon but he was killed when he returned to Cardova; the slaves revolted against Mahdi, killed him in 1009, replaced him with Hisham II in 1010. Hisham II was forced out of office.
In 1012 the Berbers "sacked Cardova." In 1016 th
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
De Ira is a Latin work by Seneca. The work defines and explains anger within the context of Stoic philosophy, offers therapeutic advice on how to prevent and control anger; the Stoic philosopher Posidonius is considered the main source for Seneca. Other influences may have included works On Passions by the Stoics Chrysippus and Antipater of Tarsus, Seneca may have known works written by the Peripatetic philosopher Theophrastus and the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus; the exact date of the writing of the work is unknown, apart from an earliest date, deduced from repeated references by Seneca to the episodic anger of Caligula, who died 24 January 41 AD. Seneca refers to his brother by his native name, rather than his adoptive one, which he bore by 52/53 AD, suggesting the work may date from the mid 40s AD. Book III begins with its own introduction on the horrors of anger, can be read on its own, which has led to suggestions that it was devised either as a appendix to the work, or that it was a separate treatise in its own right.
Ira is defined as anger, rage, passion, indignation - to be angry. De Ira consists of three books, it is part of Seneca's series of Dialogi. The essay is addressed to Lucius Annaeus Novatus; the works first sentence reads: You have asked me Novatus to write on how anger can be mitigated Although split into three books, De Ira is divided into two parts. The first part deals with theoretical questions; the first part begins with a preamble on the horrors of anger, followed by definitions of anger. It continues with questions such as whether anger is natural, whether it can be moderate, whether it is involuntary, whether it can be erased altogether; the second part begins with advice on how the avoidance of bad temper can be taught to both children and adults. This is followed by numerous snippets of advice on how anger can be forestalled or extinguished, many anecdotes are given of examples to be imitated or avoided; the work concludes with a few tips on mollifying other people, followed by Seneca's summing-up.
De Ira is written within the context of Stoicism, which sought to guide people out of a life enslaved to the vices, to the freedom of a life characterised by virtue. This is achievable by the development of an understanding of how to control the passions, anger being classified as a passion, to make these subject to reason; as a Stoic, Seneca believed the relationship of the passions to reason are that the passions arise in a rational mind as a result of a mis-perceiving or misunderstanding of reality. A passion is a defective belief, they occur. Seneca states that his therapy has two main aims: one is that we do not become angry, the other is that we do no wrong when we are angry. Much of the advice is devoted to the first aim of preventing anger. Seneca does offer some practical advice on restraining anger although after this he resumes his theme of preventing anger. For the Stoics anger was contrary to human nature, vengeance considered an evil, which explains Seneca's emphasis on anger prevention.
The fact that he offers advice on restraining anger shows an awareness that his audience is one of male Roman aristocrats for whom anger was a part of everyday routine. The work survives due to being a part of the Codex Ambrosianus manuscript which dates from the 11th century. Belief John M. Cooper, J. F. Procope. Seneca: Moral and Political Essays. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521348188 Robert A. Kaster, Martha C. Nussbaum. Seneca: Anger, Revenge. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226748421 Works related to Of Anger at Wikisource University of Minnesota, Morris - Selections from De Ira - Full text of "Moral essays. With an English translation by J. W. Basore
The Silvae is a collection of Latin occasional poetry in hexameters and lyric meters by Publius Papinius Statius. There are 32 poems in the collection, divided into five books; each book contains a prose preface which dedicates the book. The subjects of the poetry are varied and provide scholars with a wealth of information on Domitian's Rome and Statius' life; the Silvae were rediscovered by Poggio Bracciolini in the Library of Reichenau Abbey around 1417, along with the Punica of Silius. The Silvae were composed by Statius between 89-96 CE; the first three books seem to have been published together after 93 CE, Book 4 was released in 95 CE. Book 5 is thought to have been released posthumously c. 96. Each book is datable by a comparison of the careers of the individual poems' addressees and references in other authors such as Martial; the title of the collection has caused some debate on the part of scholars, though it is assumed that it was taken from the lost Silvae of Lucan. In Latin, silva which in the nominative plural is Silvae, can mean both "forest" and "material."
Silva was used to describe the draft of a poet's work, composed impromptu in a moment of strong inspiration and, revised into a polished, metrical poem. This suggests that the Silvae are revised, impromptu pieces of occasional poetry which were composed in the space of a few days' time, he goes on to say in the preface. All the poems are dedicated individually to a patron and are accompanied by titles which are considered a addition by editors; as remarked above, the similarity in title suggests that Statius may have modeled his Silvae on a collection of Lucan's poetry, however the loss of that work makes comparisons difficult. There was a strong tradition of Latin panegyric poetry and prose, lost today, but can still be seen in works such as the Laus Pisonis and the Elegiae in Maecenatem. Catullus and his collection of polymetric poetry seems to be an important inspiration for Statius. Several of his poems employ Catullus' favorite meter and cover a diverse range of themes similar to the variety in Catullus' work, although Statius avoids the invective tone of Catullus except in jest at 4.9.
Horace is an important model, whose influence is felt in Statius' lyric compositions and in his epistle. The narrative style of Ovid can be detected in the story of Pan in 2.3. Virgilian references abound. Lucan's poetry serves as an inspiration for 2.7. On the Greek side, we learn from the lament for his father 5.3 that Statius was familiar with the canonical nine lyric poets and the Alexandrian Pleiad. Pindar is one of the most important influences for Statius; the preface to the first book dedicates the work to a fellow poet. The poet anxiously describes his impromptu style of composition, hopes his poetry is polished enough and gives a brief outline of the poems to come along with context about their composition. 1.1 Ecus Maximus Domitiani Imp. Praise for and elaborate description of the colossal equestrian statue of Domitian erected in the forum in 91 CE. Discussion of the situation in the forum, comparison with mythological exempla, the imagined reactions of Roman historical personages to the statue.
1.2 Epithalamion in Stellam et Violentillam One of the longer Silvae The poem begins with a monumentalizing of the day and describes a conversation between Venus and Cupid, in which the gods praise Stella and Violentilla and describe their love for each other. Venus travels to Rome and admires Domitian's palace before giving advice to Roman maidens and Violentilla to seek marriage; the poet describes the wedding at which gods and humans mix and finishes by encouraging the poet to sing elegy. 1.3 Villa Tiburtina Manili Vopisci A description of the villa, praise of the landscape at Tivoli, description of Vopiscus' art collection, praise of otium. 1.4 Soteria Rutili Gallici Statius describes the concern of the Senate for Gallicus when he was ill, Apollo praises Gallicus' military career and seeks a cure. The poem ends with a sacrifice of thanksgiving for his recovery. 1.5 Balneum Claudi Etrusci The poet invokes the muses and water nymphs as patrons of the building and describes the baths. 1.6 Kalendae Decembres In hendecasyllables, this poem describes Statius' attendance at a Saturnalia banquet given by Domitian.
The preface dedicates the book to Atedius Melior and summarizes the poems in it which focus on loss, object descriptions, end with a genethliakon. 2.1 Glaucias Atedi Melioris Delicatus This is a long poem of consolation for the loss of Melior's lover, Glaucias. The weeping poet explains the difficulty of the theme.
Acts 18 is the eighteenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It records the final part of the second missionary journey of Paul, together with Silas and Timothy, the beginning of the third missionary journey; the book containing this chapter is anonymous, but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke. The original text is divided into 28 verses; some most ancient manuscripts containing this chapter are: Papyrus 38 Codex Vaticanus Codex Sinaiticus Codex Bezae Codex Alexandrinus Codex Laudianus This chapter mentions the following places: This part of the second missionary journey of Paul took place in c. AD 50–52, based on the time when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia. Paul travelled from Athens to a distance of about 82 km on modern roads; when Silas and Timothy had come from Macedonia, Paul was compelled by the Spirit, testified to the Jews that Jesus is the Christ. When Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews with one accord rose up against Paul and brought him to the judgment seat,Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus or Gallio was a Roman senator and brother of famous writer Seneca.
He was the proconsul of Achaia. According to this chapter, he dismissed, his behaviour on this occasion showed his disregard for Jewish sensitivities, the impartial attitude of Roman officials towards Christianity in its early days. Gallio's tenure can be accurately dated to between 51–52 AD; the reference to proconsul Gallio in the Delphi Inscription, or Gallio Inscription provides an important marker for developing a chronology of the life of Apostle Paul by relating it to the trial of Paul in Achaea mentioned in this chapter. Therefore, the events of Acts 18 can be dated to this period; this is significant because it is the most known date in the life of Paul. Matthew Henry claims that the crowd that beat up Sosthenes was enraged at Gallio, they demonstrated. Gallio's indifference to the case against Paul could be commendable for its impartiality; however Gallio's indifference to the beating up of an innocent man, carried indifference too far, not only showing a contempt for the case, but for the people presenting the case.
So Paul still remained a good while. He took leave of the brethren and sailed for Syria, Priscilla and Aquila were with him, he had his hair cut off at Cenchrea. Matthew Henry claimed that the original text is ambiguous as to who had their hair cut off, it could have been Aquila or Paul; the vow was a Nazarite vow with the hair cut signifying completion of the vow period. Cenchrea on the east side of the isthmus was one of two ports for Corinth, it was used for sea journeys to the east. Other related Bible parts: Acts 14, Acts 15, Acts 16, Acts 17 Acts 18 NIV
Claudius was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Antonia Minor, he was born at Lugdunum in the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37. Claudius' infirmity saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius's and Caligula's reigns, his survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last man of his family. Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an efficient administrator, he was an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads and canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain. Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, issued up to twenty edicts a day, he was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign by elements of the nobility.
Claudius was forced to shore up his position. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. Many authors contend. After his death in 54, his grand-nephew, step-son, adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor, his 13-year reign would not be surpassed by any successors until that of Domitian, who reigned for 15 years. He was a descendant of the Octavii Rufi, Julii Caesares, the Claudii Nerones, he was a great-nephew of Augustus. He was a nephew of Tiberius through Tiberius' brother. Through his brother Germanicus, Claudius was a great uncle of Nero. Through his mother Antonia Minor he was a grandson of Mark Antony. Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC at Lugdunum, he had two older siblings and Livilla. His mother, may have had two other children who died young, his maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Augustus' sister, he was therefore the great-great grandnephew of Gaius Julius Caesar. His paternal grandparents were Livia, Augustus' third wife, Tiberius Claudius Nero.
During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was the illegitimate son of Augustus, to give the appearance that Augustus was Claudius' paternal grandfather. In 9 BC, his father Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania from illness. Claudius was left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried; when Claudius' disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour. Antonia referred to him as a monster, used him as a standard for stupidity, she seems to have passed her son off to his grandmother Livia for a number of years. Livia was a little kinder, but often sent him short, angry letters of reproof, he was put under the care of a "former mule-driver" to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness and a lack of will-power. However, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests. In AD 7, Livy was hired to tutor him with the assistance of Sulpicius Flavus.
He spent a lot of his time with the philosopher Athenodorus. Augustus, according to a letter, was surprised at the clarity of Claudius' oratory. Expectations about his future began to increase, his work as a budding historian damaged his prospects for advancement in public life. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, Claudius began work on a history of the Civil Wars, either too truthful or too critical of Octavian—then reigning as Augustus Caesar. In either case, it was far too early for such an account, may have only served to remind Augustus that Claudius was Antony's descendant, his mother and grandmother put a stop to it, this may have convinced them that Claudius was not fit for public office. He could not be trusted to toe the existing party line; when he returned to the narrative in life, Claudius skipped over the wars of the Second Triumvirate altogether. But the damage was done, his family pushed him into the background; when the Arch of Pavia was erected to honor the Imperial clan in 8 BC, Claudius' name was inscribed on the edge—past the deceased princes and Lucius, Germanicus' children.
There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius himself decades and that he did not appear at all. When Augustus died in AD 14, Claudius—then aged 23—appealed to his uncle Tiberius to allow him to begin the cursus honorum. Tiberius, the new Emperor, responded by granting Claudius consular ornaments. Claudius was snubbed. Since the new Emperor was no more generous than the old, Claudius gave up hope of public office and retired to a scholarly, private life. Despite the disdain of the Imperial family, it seems that from early on the general public respected Claudius. At Augustus' death, the equites, or knights, chose
The gens Junia was one of the most celebrated families in Rome. The gens may have been patrician; the family was prominent in the last days of the Roman monarchy. Lucius Junius Brutus was the nephew of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last King of Rome, on the expulsion of Tarquin in 509 BC, he became one of the first consuls of the Roman Republic. Junius, the nomen of the gens, may be etymologically connected with the goddess Juno, after whom the month of Junius was named. Scholars have long been divided on the question of whether the Junii were patrician; the family was prominent throughout the whole of Roman history, all of the members who are known, from the early times of the Republic and on into the Empire, were plebeians. However, it seems inconceivable that Lucius Junius Brutus, the nephew of Tarquin the Proud, was a plebeian. So jealous of their prerogatives were the patricians of the early Republic, that in 450 BC, the second year of the Decemvirate, a law forbidding the intermarriage of patricians and plebeians was made a part of the Twelve Tables, the fundamental principles of early Roman law.
It was not until the passage of the lex Licinia Sextia in 367 BC that plebeians were permitted to stand for the consulship. Still, it has been suggested that the divisions between the orders were not established during the first decades of the Republic, that as many as a third of the consuls elected before 450 may in fact have been plebeians. If this were not the case, the consuls chosen at the birth of the Roman Republic may have been exceptions. On balance, it seems more that the Junii were at first numbered amongst the patricians, that they afterward passed over to the plebeians. At the end of the Republic, the Junii Silani were raised to patrician status by Augustus, one of them held the office of Flamen Martialis. Several of them bore the name of a great family of the Manlia gens; the praenomina favored by the early Junii were Marcus and Decimus. Except for the Bruti Bubulci, who favored the praenomen Gaius and may have been a cadet branch of the family, the Junii Bruti relied on these three names.
Many of the other families of the Junii used these names, although some added Gaius and others Quintus. The Junii Silani used the praenomen Appius; the Junii were by far the most prominent family to make regular use of Decimus. The names Titus and Tiberius were avoided by the Junii throughout most of their history. According to tradition, these were the names of the sons of Lucius Junius Brutus, the first consul, who joined in a conspiracy by their uncles, the Vitellii, to restore the Tarquins to power, they were condemned and executed by order of their own father, this disgrace led to the abandonment of their names by future generations. The only noteworthy exception appears to be the orator Titus Junius, who lived in the final century of the Republic; the family names and surnames of the Junii which occur in the time of the Republic are, Bubulcus, Paciaecus, Pera and Silanus. Norbanus was supposed to be a surname of the Junia gens, but in fact it seems to have been a gentile name. A few Junii are mentioned without any cognomen.
Many Junii appear under the Empire with other surnames, but most of them cannot be regarded as part of the gens. Brutus was the name of a plebeian family of the Junia gens, which claimed descent from Lucius Junius Brutus; this possibility was denied by some ancient authorities, on the grounds that the first consul was a patrician, because his two sons preceded him in death. However, one tradition states that there was a third son, from whom the Bruti were descended, it is not impossible that the elder sons had children of their own. Brutus is known to have had a brother, put to death by his uncle the king, there may have been other relatives. Moreover, Niebuhr raised the possibility, but if he had been a patrician, as the weight of tradition holds, his descendants may still have gone over to the plebeians. The name of Brutus is said to have been given to Lucius because he feigned idiocy after the execution of his brother, in hope of avoiding the same fate. However, his father is referred to as Brutus by the ancient authorities, while this may have come about for narrative convenience, it is possible that the surname had been borne by the family for some time.
According to Festus, the older meaning of the adjective brutus was "serious" or "grave", in which case the surname is much the same as Severus. A less probable explanation suggests a common origin with the name with that of the Bruttii, a people of southern Italy who broke away from the Samnites in the fourth century BC, whose name is said to have meant, "runaway slaves"; the surname Bubulcus refers to one. The only persons known to have borne this cognomen bore that of Brutus, therefore may have belonged to that family, rather than a distinct stirps of the Junia gens. If so, the Bubulci were the only members of the family to use the praenomen Gaius, they appear in history during the Second Samnite War, at the same time as the other Junii Bruti emerge from two centuries of obscurity, with the agnomen Scaeva. This suggests; the origin of the cognomen Pera, which appears in the middle of the thi