Neptune was the god of freshwater and the sea in Roman religion. He is the counterpart of the Greek god Poseidon. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Neptune was the brother of Pluto. Salacia was his wife. Depictions of Neptune in Roman mosaics those of North Africa, are influenced by Hellenistic conventions. Neptune was associated with fresh water springs before the sea. Like Poseidon, Neptune was worshipped by the Romans as a god of horses, under the name Neptunus Equester, a patron of horse-racing; the etymology of Latin Neptunus is unclear and disputed. The ancient grammarian Varro derived the name from nuptus i.e. "covering", with a more or less explicit allusion to the nuptiae, "marriage of Heaven and Earth". Among modern scholars Paul Kretschmer proposed a derivation from IE *neptu- "moist substance". Raymond Bloch supposed it might be an adjectival form in -no from *nuptu-, meaning "he, moist". Georges Dumézil though remarked words deriving root *nep- are not attested in IE languages other than Vedic and Avestan.
He proposed an etymology that brings together Neptunus with Vedic and Avestan theonyms Apam Napat, Apam Napá and Old Irish theonym Nechtan, all meaning descendant of the waters. By using the comparative approach the Indo-Iranian and Irish figures would show common features with the Roman historicised legends about Neptune. Dumézil thence proposed to derive the nouns from IE root *nepot-, "descendant, sister's son". More in his lectures delivered on various occasions in the 1990s, German scholar Hubert Petersmann proposed an etymology from IE rootstem *nebh- related to clouds and fogs, plus suffix -tu denoting an abstract verbal noun, adjectival suffix -no which refers to the domain of activity of a person or his prerogatives. IE root *nebh-, having the original meaning of "damp, wet", has given Sanskrit nábhah, Hittite nepis, Latin nubs, German Nebel, Slavic nebo etc; the concept would be close to that expressed in the name of Greek god Όυράνος, derived from IE root *h2wórso-, "to water, irrigate" and *h2worsó-, "the irrigator".
This etymology would be more in accord with Varro's. A different etymology grounded in the legendary history of Latium and Etruria was proposed by Preller and Müller-Deeke: Etruscan Nethunus, Nethuns would be an adjectival form of toponym Nepe, town of the ager Faliscus near Falerii; the district was traditionally connected to the cult of the god: Messapus and Halesus, the eponymous hero of Falerii, were believed to be his own sons. Messapus led others to war in the Aeneid. Nepi and Falerii have been famed since antiquity for the excellent quality of the water of their springs, scattered in meadows. Nepet is considered a hydronymic toponym of pre-Indo-European origin widespread in Europe and from an appellative meaning "damp wide valley, plain", cognate with pre-Greek νάπη, "wooded valley"; the theology of Neptune may only be reconstructed to some degree, as since early times he was identified with the Greek god Poseidon: his presence in the lectisternium of 399 BC is a testimony to the fact.
Such an identification may well be grounded in the strict relationship between the Latin and Greek theologies of the two deities. It has been argued that Indo-European people, having no direct knowledge of the sea as they originated from inland areas, reused the theology of a deity either chthonic or wielding power over inland freshwaters as the god of the sea; this feature has been preserved well in the case of Neptune, a god of springs and rivers before becoming a god of the sea, as is testified by the numerous findings of inscriptions mentioning him in the proximity of such locations. Servius the grammarian explicitly states Neptune is in charge of all the rivers and waters, he is the lord of horses because he worked with Minerva to make the chariot. He may find a parallel in Irish god Nechtan, master of the well from which all the rivers of the world flow out and flow back to. Poseidon on the other hand underwent the process of becoming the main god of the sea at a much earlier time, as is shown in the Iliad.
In the earlier times it was the god Portunus or Fortunus, thanked for naval victories, but Neptune supplanted him in this role by at least the first century BC when Sextus Pompeius called himself "son of Neptune." For a time he was paired with the goddess of the salt water. Neptune was considered the legendary progenitor god of a Latin stock, the Faliscans, who called themselves Neptunia proles. In this respect he was the equivalent of Mars, Janus and Jupiter among Latin tribes. Salacia would represent the virile force of Neptune; the Neptunalia was the festival of Neptune at the height of summer. The date and the construction of tree-branch shelters suggest a primitive role for Neptune as god of water sources in the summer's drought and heat; the most ancient Roman calendar set the feriae of Neptunus on July 23, two days after the Lucaria of July 19 and 21 and two days before the Furrinalia of July 25. Georg Wissowa had remarked that festivals falling in a range of three days are complementary.
Dumézil elaborated that these festivals in some way were all related to the importance of water during the period of summer heat and drought, when river and spring waters are at their lowest. Founding his analysis on the works of Palladius and Columella Dumézil argues that while the Lucaria were devoted to the dressing of woods, clearing the undergrown bushes by cutting on the 19 by uprooting and burning on the 21, the Neptunalia were devoted to works
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fifth largest museum in the United States. It contains more than 450,000 works of art, making it one of the most comprehensive collections in the Americas. With more than one million visitors a year, it is the 60th most-visited art museum in the world as of 2017. Founded in 1870, the museum moved to its current location in 1909; the museum is affiliated with the School of the Museum of Fine Arts at Tufts. The Museum of Fine Arts was founded in 1870 and was located on the top floor of the Boston Athenaeum and most of its initial collection came from the Athenæum's Art Gallery. Francis Davis Millet, a local artist, was instrumental in starting the Art School affiliated with the museum, in appointing Emil Otto Grundmann as its first director. In 1876, the museum moved to a ornamented brick Gothic Revival building designed by John Hubbard Sturgis and Charles Brigham, noted for its massed architectural terracotta, it was located in Copley Square at St. James Streets.
It was built entirely of brick and terracotta, imported from England, with some stone about its base. In 1907, plans were laid to build a new home for the museum on Huntington Avenue in Boston's Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood, near the recently-constructed mansion that would become the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Museum trustees decided to hire architect Guy Lowell to create a design for a museum that could be built in stages, as funding was obtained for each phase. Two years the first section of Lowell’s neoclassical design was completed, it featured a 500-foot façade of a grand rotunda. The museum moved to its new location that year; the second phase of construction built a wing along The Fens to house paintings galleries. It was funded by Maria Antoinette Evans Hunt, the wife of wealthy business magnate Robert Dawson Evans, opened in 1915. From 1916 through 1925, the noted artist John Singer Sargent painted the frescoes that adorn the rotunda and the associated colonnades; the Decorative Arts Wing was built in 1928 and expanded in 1968.
An addition designed by Hugh Stubbins and Associates was built in 1966–70, another by The Architects Collaborative in 1976. The West Wing, now the Linde Family Wing for Contemporary Art, was designed by I. M. Pei and opened in 1981; this wing now houses the museum's cafe, meeting rooms, a giftshop/bookstore, as well as large exhibition spaces. The Tenshin-En Japanese Garden designed by Kinsaku Nakane opened in 1988, the Norma Jean Calderwood Garden Court and Terrace opened in 1997. In the mid-2000s, the museum launched a major effort to expand its facilities. In a seven-year fundraising campaign between 2001 and 2008 for a new wing, the endowment, operating expenses, the museum managed to total over $500 million, in addition to acquiring over $160 million worth of art. During the global financial crisis between 2007 and 2012, the museum's budget was trimmed by $1.5 million and the museum increased revenues by conducting traveling exhibitions, which included a loan exhibition sent to the for-profit Bellagio in Las Vegas in exchange for $1 million.
In 2011, Moody's Investors Service calculated that the museum had over $180 million in outstanding debt. However, the agency cited growing attendance, a large endowment, positive cash flow as reasons to believe that the museum's finances would become stable in the near future. In 2011, the museum put eight paintings by Monet, Pissarro, Sisley and others on sale at Sotheby's, bringing in a total of $21.6 million, to pay for Man at His Bath by Gustave Caillebotte at a cost reported to be more than $15 million. The renovation included a new Art of the Americas Wing to feature artwork from North and Central America. In 2006, the groundbreaking ceremonies took place; the wing and adjoining Ruth and Carl J. Shapiro Family Courtyard were designed in a restrained, contemporary style by the London-based architectural firm Foster and Partners, under the directorship of Thomas T. Difraia and CBT/Childs Bertman Tseckares Architects; the landscape architecture firm Gustafson Guthrie Nichol redesigned the Huntington Avenue and Fenway entrances, access roads, interior courtyards.
The wing opened on November 2010 with free admission to the public. Mayor Thomas Menino declared it "Museum of Fine Arts Day", more than 13,500 visitors attended the opening; the 12,000-square-foot glass-enclosed courtyard features a 42.5-foot high glass sculpture, titled the Lime Green Icicle Tower, by Dale Chihuly. In 2014, the Art of the Americas Wing was recognized for its high architectural achievement by being awarded the Harleston Parker Medal, by the Boston Society of Architects. In 2015, the museum renovated Tenshin-en; the garden, which opened in 1988, was designed by Japanese professor Kinsaku Nakane. The garden's kabukimon-style entrance gate was built by Chris Hall of Massachusetts, using traditional Japanese carpentry techniques; the Museum of Fine Arts possesses materials from a wide variety of art cultures. The museum maintains a large online database with information on over 346,000 items from its collection, accompanied with digitized images; some highlights of the collection include: Egyptian artifacts including sculptures and jewelry Dutch Golden Age painting, including 113 works given in 2017 by collectors Rose-Marie and Eijk van Otterloo and Susan and Matthew Weatherbie The gift includes works from 76 artists, as well as the Haverkamp-Begemann Library, a collection of more than 20,000 books, donated by the van Otterloos.
The donors are establishing a dedic
The gens Lucretia was a prominent family of the Roman Republic. Patrician, the gens included a number of plebeian families; the Lucretii were one of the most ancient gentes, the wife of Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome, was named Lucretia. The first of the Lucretii to obtain the consulship was Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus in 509 BC, the first year of the Republic; the patrician Lucretii favored the praenomina Titus, Spurius and Publius. They were one of the only gentes known to have used the name Hostus, may have used Opiter, favored by the Verginii; the main praenomina used by the plebeian Lucretii were Lucius, Marcus and Quintus. There are examples of Gaius and Titus; the only patrician family of the Lucretii bore the cognomen Tricipitinus. The plebeian families are known by the surnames Gallus and Vespillo. Gallus was a cockerel. Vespillo, an occupational surname referring to one who removes corpses, was bestowed on one of this family who had thrown the body of Tiberius Gracchus into the river.
Carus, "dear", was a surname belonging to the poet Lucretius. On coins, the cognomen Trio is found. A few of the Lucretii are mentioned without any surname; this list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Lucretia, the wife of Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome, according to some accounts, she married after his accession to the throne. Lucius Lucretius, quaestor in 218 BC, at the commencement of the Second Punic War. Marcus Lucretius, tribunus plebis in 210 BC, took a leading part in the dispute over the appointment of a dictator in that year. Spurius Lucretius, praetor in 205 BC, during the Second Punic War, received Ariminum, subsequently called Gallia Cisalpina, as his province. In 203 he rebuilt the city of Genua, destroyed by Mago. Gaius Lucretius Gallus, praetor in 171 BC, received the command of the fleet in the war against Perseus. In the following year he was accused of great cruelty, condemned to pay a heavy fine. Marcus Lucretius, tribunus plebis in 172 BC, brought forward a bill ut agrum Campanum censores fruendum locarent.
In the following year, he served as legate to his brother, the praetor, in Greece. Spurius Lucretius, praetor in 172 BC, obtained the province of Hispania Ulterior. In 169 he served with distinction under the consul Quintus Marcius Philippus in the war against Perseus, he was one of three ambassadors sent into Syria in 162. Gnaeus Lucretius Trio, triumvir monetalis circa 136 BC. Quintus Lucretius Ofella, a partisan of Sulla, he commanded the army that accepted the surrender of Praeneste in 82 BC; the following year, he made himself a candidate for consul, in violation of Sulla's law de magistratibus, was slain by one of Sulla's soldiers. Lucius Lucretius Trio, triumvir monetalis circa 76 BC. Marcus Lucretius, a senator, one of the judices retained by Verres, in consequence of which he was suspected of having been bribed. Titus Lucretius Carus, a celebrated poet of the 1st century BC and writer of De rerum natura, "On the Nature of the Things". Quintus Lucretius, an intimate friend of Gaius Cassius Longinus, a supporter of the aristocratic party.
During the Civil War he was obliged to flee the town of Sulmo, when his own troops opened the gates to Marcus Antonius. Titus Lucretius Tricipitinus, father of the consuls of 509 and 508 BC. Spurius Lucretius T. f. Tricipitinus, a member of the Roman Senate, praefectus urbi under Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last King of Rome. Lucretia S. f. T. n. married Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, one of the first consuls in 509 BC. Titus Lucretius T. f. Tricipitinus, consul in 508 and 504 BC. In 504 he and his colleague carried on the war against the Sabines. Lucius Lucretius T. f. T. n. Tricipitinus, consul in 462 BC, triumphed over the Volsci. In 449 he was one of the senators. Hostus Lucretius L. f. T. n. Tricipitinus, consul in 429 BC. Publius Lucretius Hosti f. L. n. Tricipitinus, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 419 and 417 BC. Lucius Lucretius Flavus Tricipitinus, consul in 393 BC, tribunus militum consulari potestate in 391, 388, 383, 381. According to Plutarch, he was the first senator allowed to speak, which in times was the privilege of the princeps senatus, although the appointment of that name did not exist in the time of Lucretius.
Lucretius Vespillo, aedile in 133 BC, he threw the corpse of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus into the Tiber, thereby obtaining his cognomen, which refers to a corpse-bearer for the poor. Quintus Lucretius Vespillo, an orator and jurist, proscribed by Sulla and put to death. Quintus Lucretius Q. f. Vespillo, served in the fleet of Gnaeus Pompeius in 48 BC, during the Civil War, he was appointed consul suffectus in 19 BC
Roman Republican currency
Roman Republican currency refers to the gold and silver Coinage struck by the various magistrates of the Roman Republic, to be used as legal tender. In modern times, the abbreviation RRC, "Roman Republican Coinage" the name of a reference work on the topic by Michael H. Crawford, has come to be used as an identifying tag for coins assigned a number in that work, such as RRC 367. Coins came late to the Republic compared with the rest of the Mediterranean Greece and Asia Minor where coins were invented in the 7th century BC; the currency of central Italy was influenced by its natural resources, with bronze being abundant and silver ore being scarce. The coinage of the Roman Republic started with a few silver coins devised for trade with the Greek colonies in Southern Italy, heavy cast bronze pieces for use in Central Italy. During the Second Punic war a flexible system of coins in bronze and gold was created; this system was dominated by the silver denarius, a denomination which remained in circulation for 450 years.
The coins of the republic are of particular interest because they were produced by "mint magistrates", junior officials who choose the designs and legends. This resulted in the production of coins advertising the officials' families for political purposes. Before the introduction of coinage in Italy the two important forms of value in the economy were sheep, from which the Latin word for money is derived, irregularly shaped pieces of bronze known as aes rude which needed to be weighed for each transaction, it is unclear when money became used, but Roman tradition recorded that pay of the army began during the siege of Veii in 406 BC and it appears that Aes rude was the currency well before this. Toward the end of the 4th century BC bronze began to be cast in flat bars which are known today, without any historical authority, as aes signatum; these bars were leaded, of varying weights although on the order of five Roman pounds, had a design on one and both sides. The actual function of aes signatum has been variously interpreted.
Rome produced its own aes signatum around 300 BC which are distinguished by the inscription "ROMANOM" and production continued to about the end of the first Punic war in 240 BC, overlapping some of the developments described below. According to Pomponius, a lawyer who lived during the 2nd century AD, the group of three mint magistrates tresviri monetales was established in 289 BC, but this date seems to be far too early, if they did not come into existence during the Second Punic War, the formation of a formal college may not have occurred until some time after 200 BC The three members of this committee were known as the "tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo", a lengthy title, always abbreviated to "III. V. A. A. A. F. F.". Julius Caesar raised their number to four. According to Suidas, the mint was located in the temple of Juno Moneta on the Capitoline Hill. By this time Rome was familiar with coinage, as it had been introduced to Italy in the Greek colonies of Metapontum and Sybaris before 500 BC and Neapolis ca 450 BC.
Rome had conquered a large portion of central Italy, giving it large quantities of bronze, but little silver. A system of heavy cast leaded bronze coinage was introduced. Stylistically the coins were distinctly Roman and, due to both their size and their being cast rather than struck, crude compared to the coinage elsewhere around the Mediterranean at the time; the standard coin was the as. The bronze coinage was a more or less full value currency rather than a token currency, based on the "libral standard" where the as weighed one Roman pound with fractions in units of Roman ounces, with 12 unciae in a libra; the "uncia" was thus both a weight and a coin of the same weight. This changed when the weight of the aes grave was decreased to 10 unciae ca 270 BC (the "light libral standard", remaining at that level until 225 BC suddenly to 5 unciae c. the start of the second Punic war in 218 BC falling to 1.5–1 unciae around 211 BC. In addition to the as and its fractions, multiples of the as were produced.
Fractions were much more common than their multiples during the period of aes grave. By the time of the semi-libral standard, the smaller denominations such as the uncia and semuncia were struck rather than cast. A variety of less common denominations were minted over time. Greek-style struck bronze coins were produced in small quantity with the inscription ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ around 300 BC, they are believed to have been produced on behalf of Rome by Neapolis, based on the similar style and weight with Neapolis' own coinage, used to facilitate trade in the wake of the construction of the Appian Way, started in 312 BC. Rome entered into a war against Tarentum in 281 BC, it was in this context that Rome produced its first Greek-style silver didrachm with the head of Mars wearing a Corinthian helmet on one side
Dolphin is a common name of aquatic mammals within the order Cetacea, arbitrarily excluding whales and porpoises. The term dolphin refers to the extant families Delphinidae, Platanistidae and Pontoporiidae, the extinct Lipotidae. There are 40 extant species named as dolphins. Dolphins range in size from the 1.7 m long and 50 kg Maui's dolphin to the 9.5 m and 10 t killer whale. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, they have two limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not quite as flexible as seals, some dolphins can travel at 55.5 km/h. Dolphins use their conical shaped teeth to capture fast moving prey, they have well-developed hearing, adapted for both air and water and is so well developed that some can survive if they are blind. Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths, they have a layer of blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water. Although dolphins are widespread, most species prefer the warmer waters of the tropic zones, but some, like the right whale dolphin, prefer colder climates.
Dolphins feed on fish and squid, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals, like seals. Male dolphins mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a long period of time. Dolphins produce a variety of vocalizations in the form of clicks and whistles. Dolphins are sometimes hunted in places such as Japan, in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. Besides drive hunting, they face threats from bycatch, habitat loss, marine pollution. Dolphins have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. Dolphins feature in literature and film, as in the film series Free Willy. Dolphins are sometimes trained to perform tricks; the most common dolphin species in captivity is the bottlenose dolphin, while there are around 60 captive killer whales. The name is from Greek δελφίς, "dolphin", related to the Greek δελφύς, "womb".
The animal's name can therefore be interpreted as meaning "a'fish' with a womb". The name was transmitted via the Latin delphinus, which in Medieval Latin became dolfinus and in Old French daulphin, which reintroduced the ph into the word; the term mereswine has historically been used. The term'dolphin' can be used to refer to, under the parvorder Odontoceti, all the species in the family Delphinidae and the river dolphin families Iniidae, Pontoporiidae and Platanistidae; this term has been misused in the US in the fishing industry, where all small cetaceans are considered porpoises, while the fish dorado is called dolphin fish. In common usage the term'whale' is used only for the larger cetacean species, while the smaller ones with a beaked or longer nose are considered'dolphins'; the name'dolphin' is used casually as a synonym for bottlenose dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin. There are six species of dolphins thought of as whales, collectively known as blackfish: the killer whale, the melon-headed whale, the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale, the two species of pilot whales, all of which are classified under the family Delphinidae and qualify as dolphins.
Though the terms'dolphin' and'porpoise' are sometimes used interchangeably, porpoises are not considered dolphins and have different physical features such as a shorter beak and spade-shaped teeth. Porpoises share a common ancestry with the Delphinidae. A group of dolphins is called a "school" or a "pod". Male dolphins are called "bulls", females "cows" and young dolphins are called "calves". Parvorder Odontoceti, toothed whales Family Platanistidae Ganges and Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica with two subspecies Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor Family Iniidae Amazon river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis Orinoco river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis humboldtiana Araguaian river dolphin, Inia Araguaiaensis Bolivian river dolphin, Inia boliviensis Family Lipotidae Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer Family Pontoporiidae La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei Family Delphinidae, oceanic dolphins Genus Delphinus Long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis Genus Tursiops Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus Burrunan dolphin, Tursiops australis, a newly discovered species from the sea around Melbourne in September 2011.
Genus Lissodelphis Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis Southern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis peronii Genus Sotalia Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis Costero, Sotalia guianensis Genus Sousa Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis Chinese white dolphin, Sousa chinensis chinensis Atlantic humpback dolphin, Sousa teuszii Genus Stenella Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene Pantropical
Ursa Major is a constellation in the northern sky, whose associated mythology dates back into prehistory. Its Latin name means "greater she-bear", standing as a reference to and in direct contrast with nearby Ursa Minor, the lesser bear. In antiquity, it was one of the original 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy, is now the third largest constellation of the 88 modern constellations. Ursa Major is known from the asterism of its main seven bright stars comprising the "Big Dipper", "the Wagon", "Charles's Wain" or "the Plough", with its stellar configuration mimicking the shape of the "Little Dipper"; the general constellation outline significantly features in numerous world cultures, is used as a symbol of the north. E.g. as the flag of Alaska. The asterism's two brightest stars, named Dubhe and Merak, can be used as the navigational pointer towards the place of the current northern pole star, Polaris in Ursa Minor. Ursa Major is visible throughout the year from most of the northern hemisphere, appears circumpolar above the mid-northern latitudes.
From southern temperate latitudes, the main asterism is invisible, but the southern parts of the constellation can still be viewed. Appearing in the northern sky, Ursa Major occupies a large area covering 1279.66 square degrees or 3.10% of the total sky, making it the third largest constellations in the night sky. Eugène Delporte in 1930, who set the official International Astronomical Union constellation boundaries, formed a 28-sided irregular polygon, which according to the equatorial coordinate system, stretches between the right ascension coordinates of 08h 08.3m and 14h 29.0m and the declination coordinates of +28.30° and +73.14°. Ursa Major borders eight other constellations: Draco to the north and northeast, Boötes to the east, Canes Venatici to the east and southeast, Coma Berenices to the southeast and Leo Minor to the south, Lynx to the southwest and Camelopardalis to the northwest; the three-letter constellation abbreviation'UMa' was adopted by the IAU in 1922. The "Big Dipper" is an asterism within Ursa Major composed of seven bright stars that together comprise one of the best-known patterns in the sky.
Like many of its common names allude to, its shape is said to resemble either a ladle, an agricultural plough or wagon. Starting with the "ladle" portion of the dipper and extending clockwise through the handle, these stars are the following: α Ursae Majoris, known by the Arabic name Dubhe, which at a magnitude of 1.79 is the 35th-brightest star in the sky and the second-brightest of Ursa Major. Β Ursae Majoris, called Merak, with a magnitude of 2.37. Γ Ursae Majoris, known as either Phecda or Phad, with a magnitude of 2.44. Δ Ursae Majoris, or Megrez, meaning "root of the tail," referring to its location as the intersection of the body and tail of the bear. Ε Ursae Majoris, known as Alioth, a name which refers not to a bear but to a "black horse," the name corrupted from the original and mis-assigned to the named Alcor, the naked-eye binary companion of Mizar. Alioth is the brightest star of Ursa Major and the 33rd-brightest in the sky, with a magnitude of 1.76. It is the brightest of the "peculiar A stars," magnetic stars whose chemical elements are either depleted or enhanced, appear to change as the star rotates.
Ζ Ursae Majoris, the second star in from the end of the handle of the Big Dipper, the constellation's fourth-brightest star. Mizar, which means "girdle," forms a famous double star, with its optical companion Alcor, the two of which were termed the "horse and rider" by the Arabs; the ability to resolve the two stars with the naked eye is quoted as a test of eyesight, although people with quite poor eyesight can see the two stars. Η Ursae Majoris, known as either Alkaid or Benetnash, both meaning the "end of the tail." With a magnitude of 1.85, Alkaid is the third-brightest star of Ursa Major. Except for Dubhe and Alkaid, the stars of the Big Dipper all have proper motions heading toward a common point in Sagittarius. A few other such stars have been identified, together they are called the Ursa Major Moving Group; the stars Merak and Dubhe are known as the "pointer stars" because they are helpful for finding Polaris known as the North Star or Pole Star. By visually tracing a line from Merak through Dubhe and continuing for 5 units, one's eye will land on Polaris indicating true north.
Another asterism known as the "Three Leaps of the Gazelle" is recognized in Arab culture, a series of three pairs of stars found along the southern border of the constellation. W Ursae Majoris is the prototype of a class of contact binary variable stars, ranges between 7.75m and 8.48m. 47 Ursae Majoris is a Sun-like star with a three-planet system. 47 Ursae Majoris b, discovered in 1996, orbits every 1078 days and is 2.53 times the mass of Jupiter. 47 Ursae Majoris c, discovered in 2001, orbits every 2391 days and is 0.54 times the
A laurel wreath is a round wreath made of connected branches and leaves of the bay laurel, an aromatic broadleaf evergreen, or from spineless butcher's broom or cherry laurel. It is worn as a chaplet around the head, or as a garland around the neck; the symbol of the laurel wreath traces back to Greek mythology. Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head, wreaths were awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions; this includes the ancient Olympics — for which they were made of wild olive tree known as "kotinos", — and in poetic meets. Whereas ancient laurel wreaths are most depicted as a horseshoe shape, modern versions are complete rings. In common modern idiomatic usage it refers to a victory; the expression "resting on one's laurels" refers to someone relying on long-past successes for continued fame or recognition, where to "look to one's laurels" means to be careful of losing rank to competition. Apollo, the patron of sport, is associated with the wearing of a laurel wreath.
This association arose from the ancient Greek mythology story of Daphne. Apollo, mocked the god of love, for his use of bow and arrow, as Apollo is patron of archery; the insulted Eros prepared two arrows: one of gold and one of lead. He shot Apollo with the gold arrow, instilling in the god a passionate love for the river nymph Daphne, he shot Daphne with the lead arrow. Apollo was turned into a laurel tree. Apollo vowed to honor Daphne forever and used his powers of eternal youth and immortality to render the laurel tree evergreen. Apollo crafted himself a wreath out of the laurel branches and turning Daphne into a cultural symbol for him and other poets and musicians. In some countries the laurel wreath is used as a symbol of the master's degree; the wreath is given to young masters at the university graduation ceremony. The word "laureate" in'poet laureate' refers to the laurel wreath; the medieval Florentine poet and philosopher Dante Alighieri, a member of the Sicilian School, is represented in paintings and sculpture wearing a laurel wreath.
In Italy, the term laureato is used in to refer to any student. Right after the graduation ceremony, or laurea in Italian, the student receives a laurel wreath to wear for the rest of the day; this tradition originated at the University of Padua and has spread in the last two centuries to all Italian universities. At Connecticut College in the United States, members of the junior class carry a laurel chain, which the seniors pass through during commencement, it represents the continuation of life from year to year. Following commencement, the junior girls write out with the laurels their class year, symbolizing they have become seniors and the period will repeat itself the following spring. At Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts, USA, laurel has been a fixture of commencement traditions since 1900, when graduating students carried or wore laurel wreaths. In 1902, the chain of mountain laurel was introduced; the mountain laurel represents the bay laurel used by the Romans in crowns of honor.
At Reed College in Portland, United States, members of the senior class receive laurel wreaths upon submitting their senior thesis in May. The tradition stems from the use of laurel wreaths in athletic competitions. At St. Mark's School in Southborough, students who complete three years of one classical language and two of the other earn the distinction of the Classics Diploma and the honor of wearing a laurel wreath on Prize Day. In Sweden, those receiving a doctorate or an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Philosophy, receive a laurel wreath during the ceremony of conferral of the degree. In Finland, in University of Helsinki a laurel wreath is given during the ceremony of conferral for masters's degree. Doctors wear a special kind of Doctoral hat; the laurel wreath is a common motif in architecture and textiles. The laurel wreath is seen carved in the stone and decorative plaster works of Robert Adam, in Federal, Regency and Beaux-Arts periods of architecture. In decorative arts during the Empire period, the laurel wreath is seen woven in textiles, inlaid in marquetry, applied to furniture in the form of gilded brass mounts.
Alfa Romeo added a laurel wreath to their logo after they won the inaugural Automobile World Championship in 1925 with the P2 racing car. Laurel wreaths are sometimes used in heraldry, it may be used around the shield, or on top of it. Media related to Laurel in heraldry at Wikimedia Commons The "wreath of service" is located on all commissioner position patches in the Boy Scouts of America; this is a symbol for the service rendered to units and the continued partnership between volunteers and professional Scouter. The wreath of service represents commitment to unit service. Carruthers, Emile. "The Ancient Origins of the Flower Crown". The Iris; the Getty. Retrieved 2019-02-14. Civic Crown Corolla Grass Crown Kether Laureate Mural crown Naval crown Nobel laureate Olive wreath Coat of arms of Greece Media related to Laurel wreaths at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of rest on one's laurels at Wikti