Marcus Furius Camillus
Marcus Furius Camillus was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times dictator, was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome. Camillus belonged to the lineage of the Furii Camilli, whose origin had been in the Latin city of Tusculum. Although this city had been a bitter enemy of the Romans in the 490s BC, after both the Volsci and Aequi began to wage war against Rome, Tusculum joined Rome, unlike most Latin cities. Soon, the Furii integrated into Roman society, thus the Furii had become an important Roman family by the 450s. The father of Camillus was a patrician tribune of consular powers. Camillus had more than three brothers: the eldest one was Lucius junior, both consul and tribune of consular powers; the Latin noun camillus denoted a child acolyte at religious rituals. During Camillus's infancy, his relative Quintus Furius Paculus was the Roman Pontifex Maximus. The'military tribunes with consular authority' or consular tribunes, were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic.
Consular tribunes served in 444 BC and continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC. The office was created, along with the magistracy of the censor, in order to give the plebeian order access to higher levels of government without having to reform the office of consul. At that time in Rome's history, plebeians could not be elected to the highest magistracy of Consul, whereas they could be elected to the office of consular tribune. Camillus had been a noteworthy soldier in the wars with the Volsci. Subsequently, Camillus was a military tribune. In 403 BC, he was appointed censor with Marcus Postumius Albinus Regillensis and, by means of extensive taxation, took action to solve financial problems resulting from incessant military campaigns. In 406 BC, Rome declared war against the rival Etrurian city of Veii; the city of Veii was located on a well-fortified and elevated site. This required the Romans to commence a siege lasting several years. In 401 BC, as the war started to grow unpopular in Rome, Camillus was appointed consular tribune.
He assumed command of the Roman army, within a short time he stormed two allies of Veii and Capena, which resisted behind their walls. In 398 BC, Camillus received consular tribune powers and looted Capena; when Rome suffered severe defeats in 396 BC, the tenth year of this war, the Romans resorted again to Camillus, named dictator for the first time. After defeating both Falerii and Capena at Nepete, Camillus commanded the final strike against Veii, he dug the soft ground below the walls and the Romans infiltrated through the city's sewage system defeating the enemy. Not interested in capitulation terms, but in Veii's complete destruction, the Romans slaughtered the entire adult male population and made slaves of all the women and children; the plunder was large. For the battle, Camillus had invoked the protection of Mater Matuta extensively, he looted the statue of Juno for Rome. Back in Rome, Camillus paraded on a quadriga, a four-horse chariot, the popular celebrations lasted four days. Plutarch wrote of this: Camillus... assumed more to himself than became a civil and legal magistrate.
This alienated the hearts of his fellow-citizens, who were not accustomed to such display. Camillus opposed the plebeian plan to populate Veii with half of the Romans, it would have resolved the poverty issues. Deliberately, Camillus protracted the project until its abandonment. Camillus rendered himself controversial in not fulfilling his promise to dedicate a tenth of the plunder to Delphi for the god Apollo; the Roman soothsayers announced that the gods were displeased by this, so the Senate charged the citizens and the sought amounts of gold were retrieved. To finish Falerii, the last surviving enemy of this war, Camillus was made consular tribune again in 394 BC, he seized the opportunity to divert the bitter conflict between Roman social classes into a unifying external conflict. He besieged Falerii and, after he rejected as immoral the proposal of a local school teacher who had surrendered most of the local children to the Romans, the people of Falerii were moved to gratitude, made peace with Rome.
The entire Italian Peninsula was impressed by the Roman victories of Camillus. Aequi and Capena proposed peace treaties. Rome increased its territory by seventy percent and some of the land was distributed to needy citizens. Rome had become the most powerful nation of the central peninsula; the Romans were restive. Furthermore, Camillus rejected both the land redistribution and the uncontrolled Roman population of Veii, he was impeached by his political adversaries, by an accusation of embezzlement of the Etruscan plunder. To Camillus, his friends explained that, although the condemnation seemed unavoidable, they would help to pay the fine. Camillus spurned this, he abandoned Rome with his wife and Lucius, his surviving son, went to Ardea. In his absence, Camillus was condemned to pay 1,500 denarii; the Gauls, who had invaded most of Etruria, reached Clusium and its people turned to Rome for help. However, the Roma
Consul was the title of one of the two chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, subsequently an important title under the Roman Empire. The title was used in other European city states through antiquity and the Middle Ages revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic; the related adjective is consular, from the Latin consularis. This usage contrasts with modern terminology. A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum. Consuls were held power for one year. There were always two consuls in power at any time. Chronological listings of Roman consuls: List of Roman consuls List of topics related to ancient Rome Pauly–Wissowa Political institutions of Rome Hypatos It was not uncommon for an organization under Roman private law to copy the terminology of state and city institutions for its own statutory agents; the founding statute, or contract, of such an organisation was called lex,'law'.
The people elected each year were members of the upper class. While many cities had a double-headed chief magistracy another title was used, such as Duumvir or native styles such as Meddix, but consul was used in some. Throughout most of southern France, a consul was an office equivalent to the échevins of the north and similar with English aldermen; the most prominent were those of Bordeaux and Toulouse, which came to be known as jurats and capitouls, respectively. The capitouls of Toulouse were granted transmittable nobility. In many other smaller towns the first consul, was the equivalent of a mayor today, assisted by a variable number of secondary consuls and jurats, his main task was to collect tax. The Dukes of Gaeta used the title of "consul" in its Greek form "Hypatos"; the city-state of Genoa, unlike ancient Rome, bestowed the title of consul on various state officials, not restricted to the highest. Among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities.
This institution, with its name, was emulated by other powers and is reflected in the modern usage of the word. After Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup against the Directory government in November 1799, the French Republic adopted a constitution which conferred executive powers upon three consuls, elected for a period of ten years. In reality, the first consul, dominated his two colleagues and held supreme power, soon making himself consul for life and in 1804, emperor; the office was held by: Napoleon Bonaparte, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, Roger Ducos, provisional consuls Napoleon Bonaparte, Jean-Jacques Cambacérès, Charles-François Lebrun, consuls The short-lived Bolognese Republic, proclaimed in 1796 as a French client republic in the Central Italian city of Bologna, had a government consisting of nine consuls and its head of state was the Presidente del Magistrato, i.e. chief magistrate, a presiding office held for four months by one of the consuls. Bologna had consuls at some parts of its Medieval history.
The French-sponsored Roman Republic was headed by multiple consuls: Francesco Riganti, Carlo Luigi Costantini, Duke Bonelli-Crescenzi, Antonio Bassi, Gioacchino Pessuti, Angelo Stampa, Domenico Maggi, provisional consuls Liborio Angelucci, Giacomo De Mattheis, Reppi, Ennio Quirino Visconti, consuls Brigi, Francesco Pierelli, Giuseppe Rey, Federico Maria Domenico Michele, consuls Consular rule was interrupted by the Neapolitan occupation, which installed a Provisional Government: Prince Giambattista Borghese, Prince Paolo-Maria Aldobrandini, Prince Gibrielli, Marchese Camillo Massimo, Giovanni Ricci Rome was occupied by France and again by Naples, bringing an end to the Roman Republic. Among the many petty local republics that were formed during the first year of the Greek Revolution, prior to the creation of a unified Provisional Government at the First National Assembly at Epidaurus, were: The Consulate of Argos had a single head of state, styled consul, 28 March 1821 – 26 May 1821: Stamatellos Antonopoulos The Consulate of East Greece was headed 1 April 1821 – 15 November 1821 by three consuls: Lambros Nakos, Ioannis Logothetis & Ioannis FilonNote: in Greek, the term for "consul" is "hypatos", which translates as "supreme one", hence does not imply a joint office.
In between a series of juntas and various other short-lived regimes, the young republic was governed by "consuls of the republic", with two consuls alternating in power every 4 months: 12 October 1813 – 12 February 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco 12 February 1814 – 12 June 1814, Fulgencio Yegros y Franco de Torres 12 June 1814 – 3 October 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco.
Velletri is an Italian comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, on the Alban Hills, in Lazio, central Italy. Neighbouring communes are Rocca di Papa, Cisterna di Latina, Aprilia, Genzano di Roma, Lanuvio, its motto is: imperialis. Velletri was an ancient city of the Volsci tribe, it came into conflict with the Romans during the reign of Ancus Marcius, the fourth king of Rome, in the fifth and fourth centuries BCE, during the early Roman Republic. In the Middle Ages it was one of the few "free cities" in central Italy, it was the site of two historic battles in 1744 and 1849. During the Second World War, it was at the centre of fierce fighting between the Germans and the allies in 1944 after the Anglo-American landing at Anzio. Today, Velletri is home to a circuit court and a prison, in addition to several colleges and high schools, it is the terminus of the Rome-Velletri railway, inaugurated by Pius IX in 1863, is one of the centers the Via Appia Nuova passes through. The territory of Velletri stretches between two distinct areas.
The northern part is situated on the southern foothills of the Colli Albani range and was geologically formed about 150,000 years ago, after the collapse of the Volcano Laziale. The southern boundary forms around Pontine Marshes, whose reclamation started at the time of Pope Pius VI and was accomplished during the regime of Benito Mussolini. According to the classification given by the Geological Survey of Italy, much of the territory consists of ground-type LPS, or paleosols, the rest is composed of soils lp, argillificate and leucite analcimizzata; the Seismic classification of Velletri's territory is Zone 2 The territory of Velletri collects water run off from many streams. These streams, most of them torrential in character or small in scale, are known as fossi. Main fossi include: Fosso Minella at the edge of the municipal area to Genzano di Roma, near the Velletri frazione of Sant'Eurosia; this stream originates from Monte Spina, elevation 731 metres above sea level, in the territory of Nemi, with the name of Acqua Lucia.
Its named after the Minella bridge on State Road 7, Via Appia Nuova and originates at 405 metres above sea level, at the foot of Colle degli Olmi. Minella runs parallel to the fosso delle Tre Armi, which connects to it. Fossa Sant'Eurosia, originating from Colle degli Olmi. Fossa Paganica, which originates from springs on Colle Caldaro, on Colle Tondo. Fosso di Ponte Veloce, which arises from Colle Tondo, on Maschio dell'Artemisio and in the Faccialone forest; this watercourse near Villa Borgia, superseded the old town of Velletri, changes name to Fossa Farina near the iron bridge of the Roma-Velletri railway. Fossa Anatolia: originating from Colle Bello, it flows at the foot of old town Velletri, until it joins the Fossa Farina. Other water sources include the Acqua de Ferrari, at 650 metres, underlying Monte de Ferrari at Rocca di Papa, from, part of the municipal water supply; the old town's altitude is uniform from the elevation of Piazza Giuseppe Garibaldi at 339 m above sea level, the square of the Trivium at 332 metres above sea level, Napoletana at 329 metres above sea level.
The area west of the walled city is a bit higher at San Lorenzo reaching 372 m above sea level. The remainder of the territory to the south and west is flat except for small hills that do not exceed 300 m above sea level; the climate of Velletri is mild, due to the Tyrrhenian Sea not being far, to the protection offered by the Alban Hills and Mount Artemisio in the north. The climate is rainy, with an annual average of 1,400 to 1,500 mm precipitation, making it the rainiest city of Lazio and one of the most rainy cities in Italy. Humid currents from the southwest facing the Mont Artemisio condense all the rain on Velletri, leaving clouds restricted to the northern side of the Colli Albani, it snows rarely. Climate classification: Zone D, 1544 GR / G Atmospheric Diffusivity: average The Latin term for "swamp" was Velia, corresponding to the Greek "ουελια". From this root came the place name Velestrom, the place next to a swamp or marsh, was used by Volsci to call old Velletri; the Romans named it after the same city Velitrae, hence the Greek Ουελιτραι, Ουελιτρα or Βελιτρα.
In the Middle Ages, at least six naming variants are attested by various official acts until the 11th century. Until the 18th century, Velletri survived as parallel forms of Belitri. During his reign, Ancus Marcius, the fourth king of Rome, came into conflict with the Volsci because the latter plundered Roman territory, he besieged the Velitrae, a Volscian town. The elders of the town surrendered and promised "to make good the damage they had done" and "agreed to deliver up the guilty to be punished". Ancus Marcius "concluded a treaty of peace and friendship". In 494 BC, a war between Rome and the Volsci broke out; the Roman consul Aulus Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus was sent to fight the Volsci. He defeated them and " pursued their enemies beyond it to Velitrae, where vanquished and victors burst into the city in one body. More blood was shed there, in the promiscuous slaughter of all sorts of people, than had been in the battle itself. A few were granted quarter, having come wit
The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
Secessio plebis was an informal exercise of power by Rome's plebeian citizens, similar to a general strike taken to the extreme. During a secessio plebis, the plebs would abandon the city en masse and leave the patrician order to themselves. Therefore, a secessio meant that all shops and workshops would shut down and commercial transactions would cease; this was an effective strategy in the Conflict of the Orders due to strength in numbers. Authors report different numbers for. Cary & Scullard state there were five between 494 BC and 287 BC. Beginning in 495 BC, culminating in 494–493 BC, as a result of concerns about debt and the failure of the senate to provide for plebeian welfare, the plebeians on the advice of Lucius Sicinius Vellutus seceded to the Mons Sacer; as part of a negotiated resolution, the patricians freed some of the plebs from their debts and conceded some of their power by creating the office of the Tribune of the Plebs. This office was the first government position held by the plebs, since at this time the office of consul was held by patricians solely.
Plebeian Tribunes were made sacrosanct during their period in office. The Second Secessio Plebis of 449 BC was caused by the abuses of a commission of the decemviri and involved demands for the restoration of the plebeian tribunes and of the right to appeal, suspended. In 450 BC Rome decided to appoint the commission of the decemviri, tasked with compiling a law code; the commission was given a term of one year. The decemviri were exempted from appeal. In 450 BC they issued a set of laws, but became abusive, they killed a soldier, a plebeian tribune and who criticised them. One of the decemviri, Appius Claudius Crassus, tried to force Verginia, to marry him. To prevent this, her father cursed Appius Claudius Crassus; this sparked riots which started with the crowd which witnessed the incident and spread to the army, encamped outside the city. The people went to the Aventine Hill; the senate tried to get the decemviri to resign. The people decided to withdraw en masse to Mons Sacer like in the first secession.
The senate managed to force them to resign. It sent two senators, Lucius Valerus Potitus and Marcus Horatius Barbatus, to Mons Sacer to negotiate; the people demanded the restoration of the plebeian tribunes and the right to appeal, suspended during the term of the decemviri. This was agreed and they returned to the Aventine Hill and elected their tribunes. Lucius Valerius Potitus and Marcus Horatius Barbatus became the consuls for 449 BC, they introduced new laws. The lex Valeria Horatia de plebiscìtis provided that the laws passed by the Plebeian Council were binding of all Roman citizens despite patrician opposition to laws passed by this assembly being binding on them. However, after being passed, these laws had to receive the approval of the senate; this meant. Lex Valeria Horatia de senatus consulta ordered that the senatus consulta had to be kept in the temple of Ceres by the plebeian aediles, the assistants of the plebeian tribunes; this meant that the plebeian aediles had knowledge of these decrees.
This put them in the public domain. The consuls had been in the habit of suppressing or altering them; the lex Valeria Horatia de provocatio forbade the creation of offices of state which were not subject to appeal. The third secession is alluded to by Florus; this fourth secession is noted by Livy. The Oxford Classical Dictionary calls this an "obscure military revolt". In 287 BC, the plebs seceded a final time to the Janiculum to force the patricians to adopt the Lex Hortensia, which gave plebiscites the force of law
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty. All other magistrates were subordinate to his imperium, the right of the plebeian tribunes to veto his actions or of the people to appeal from them was limited. However, in order to prevent the dictatorship from threatening the state itself, severe limitations were placed upon its powers: a dictator could only act within his intended sphere of authority. Dictators were appointed from the earliest period of the Republic down to the Second Punic War, but the magistracy went into abeyance for over a century, until it was revived in a modified form, first by Sulla, by Julius Caesar; the office was formally abolished after the death of Caesar, not revived under the Empire. With the abolition of the Roman monarchy in 509 BC, the imperium, or executive power, of the king was divided between two annually-elected magistrates, known as praetors.
In time they would come to be known as consuls, although not until the creation of a third, junior praetor in 367 BC. Neither consul was superior to the other, the decisions of one could be appealed to the other, their insignia were the toga praetexta and the sella curulis, each was attended by an escort of twelve lictors, each of whom bore the fasces, a bundle of rods topped by an axe. After several years, the fear of impending war with both the Sabines and the Latin League, combined with widespread suspicion that one or both of the consuls favoured the restoration of the monarchy, led to the call for a praetor maximus, or dictator, akin to the supreme magistrate of other Latin towns. According to most authorities, the first dictator was Titus Lartius in 501 BC, who appointed Spurius Cassius his magister equitum. Although there are indications that the term praetor maximus may have been used in the earliest period, the official title of the dictator throughout the history of the Republic was magister populi, or "master of the infantry".
His lieutenant, the magister equitum, was the "master of the horse". However, the use of dictator to refer to the magister populi seems to have been widespread from a early period; the appointment of a dictator involved three steps: first, the Senate would issue a decree known as a senatus consultum, authorizing one of the consuls to nominate a dictator. Technically, a senatus consultum was advisory, did not have the force of law, but in practice it was nearly always followed. Either consul could nominate a dictator. If both consuls were available, the dictator was chosen by agreement; the Comitia Curiata would be called upon to confer imperium on the dictator through the passage of a law known as a lex curiata de imperio. A dictator could be nominated for causa; the three most common were rei gerundae causa, "for the matter to be done", used in the case of dictators appointed to hold a military command against a specific enemy. Other reasons included seditionis sedandae causa; these reasons could be combined, but are not always recorded or stated in ancient authorities, must instead be inferred.
In the earlier period it was customary to nominate someone whom the consul considered the best available military commander. However, from 360 BC onward, the dictators were consulares. There was only one dictator at a time, although a new dictator could be appointed following the resignation of another. A dictator could be compelled to resign his office without accomplishing his task or serving out his term if there were found to be a fault in the auspices under which he had been nominated. Like other curule magistrates, the dictator was entitled to the toga praetexta and the sella curulis, he received a ceremonial bodyguard, unique in Roman tradition: "wenty-four lictors indicated his quasi-regal power, however, was rather a concentration of the consular authority than a limited revival of the kingship."In a notable exception to the Roman reluctance to reconstitute the symbols of the kings, the lictors of the dictator never removed the axes from their fasces within the pomerium. Symbolizing their power over life and death, the axes of a dictator's lictors set him apart from all other magistrates.
In an extraordinary sign of deference, the lictors of other magistrates could not bear fasces at all when appearing before the dictator. As the kings had been accustomed to appear on horseback, this right was forbidden to the dictator, unless he first received permission from the
The Concilium Plebis was the principal assembly of the ancient Roman Republic. It functioned as a legislative assembly, through which the plebeians could pass laws, elect magistrates, try judicial cases; the Plebeian Council was organized on the basis of the Curia. Thus, it was a "Plebeian Curiate Assembly"; the Plebeian Council met in the well of the comitium and could only be convoked by the Tribune of the Plebs. The assembly elected the Tribunes of the Plebs and the plebeian aediles, only the plebeians were allowed to vote; when the Roman Republic was founded in 509 BC, the Roman people were divided into a total of thirty curiae. The curiae were organized on the basis of the family, thus the ethnic structure of early Rome; each curia had its own festivals and religious rites. The thirty curiae gathered into a legislative assembly known as the Comitia Curiata or Curiate Assembly; this assembly was created shortly after the legendary founding of the city in 753 BC, it formally elected new Roman kings.
During this time, plebeians had no political rights. Each plebeian family was dependent on a particular patrician family. Thus, each plebeian family belonged to the same curia. While the plebeians each belonged to a particular curia, only patricians could vote in the Curiate Assembly. Before the first plebeian secession in 494 BC, the plebeians met in their own assembly on the basis of the curiae. However, this assembly had no political role until the offices of plebeian tribune and plebeian aedile were created that year, in order to end the secession; as a result of the plebeian movement, the patrician aristocracy formally recognized the political power of the plebeian tribune, thus legitimized the power of the assembly over which the plebeian tribune presided. This "Plebeian Curiate Assembly" was the original Plebeian Council. After 494 BC, a plebeian tribune always presided over the Plebeian Curiate Assembly; this assembly elected the plebeian tribunes and the plebeian aediles, passed legislation that applied only to the plebeians.
During the years of the Roman Kingdom, King Servius Tullius enacted a series of constitutional reforms. One of these reforms resulted in the creation of a new organizational unit, the tribe, to assist in the reorganization of the army, its divisions were rather geographical. Tullius divided the city into four geographical districts, each encompassing a single tribe. Between the reign of Tullius and the late 3rd century BC, the number of tribes expanded from 4 to 35. By 471 BC, the plebeians decided that organization by tribe granted them a level of political independence from their patrician patrons that the curiae did not. Therefore, around 471 BC, a law was passed to allow the plebeians to begin organizing by tribe. Thus, the "Plebeian Curiate Assembly" began to use tribes, rather than curiae, as its basis for organization; as such, the Plebeian Council changed from a "Plebeian Curiate Assembly" to a "Plebeian Tribal Assembly". The only difference between the Plebeian Council after 471 BC and the ordinary Tribal Assembly was that the tribes of the Plebeian Council included only plebeians, whereas the tribes of the Tribal Assembly included both plebeians and patricians.
However, most Romans were plebeians. Therefore, the principal differences between the Plebeian Council and the Tribal Assembly were legal rather than demographic; these legal differences derived from the fact that Roman law did not recognize an assembly consisting only of one group of people from an assembly consisting of all of the People of Rome. Over time, these legal differences were mitigated with legislation; the Plebeian Council elected two plebeian officers, the tribunes and the aediles, thus Roman law classified these two officers as the elected representatives of the plebeians. As such, they acted as the presiding officers of this assembly; the creation of the office of plebeian tribune and plebeian aedile marked the end of the first phase of the struggle between the plebeians and the patricians. The next major development in this conflict occurred through the Plebeian Council. During a modification of the original Valerian law in 449 BC, plebiscites acquired the full force of law, thus applied to all Romans.
Before this time, plebiscites had applied only to plebeians. By the early 4th century BC, the plebeians, who still lacked any real political power, had become exhausted and bitter. In 339 BC they facilitated the passage of a law, which brought the Conflict of the Orders closer to a conclusion. Before this time, a bill passed by any assembly could become law only after the patrician senators gave their approval, which came in the form of a decree called the auctoritas patrum; the lex Publilia required the auctoritas patrum to be passed before a law could be voted on by one of the assemblies, rather than afterward. This modification seems to have made the auctoritas patrum irrelevant. Thus, the Plebeian Council became independent of the patrician aristocracy in everything but name. By 287 BC, the economic condition of the average plebeian had deteriorated further; the problem appears to have centered on widespread indebtedness. The plebeians demanded relief, but the senators, most of whom belonged to the creditor class, refused to abide by the plebeians' demands.
The plebeians withdrew en masse to the Janiculum hill. To end this movement, a plebeian dictator (Quintus Hortensiu