The Early Roman army of the Roman Kingdom and of the early Republic. During this period, when warfare chiefly consisted of small-scale plundering raids, it has suggested that the Roman Army followed Etruscan or Greek models of organisation. The early Roman army was based on an annual levy, the infantry ranks were filled with the lower classes while the cavalry were left to the patricians, because the wealthier could afford horses. Moreover, the authority during the regal period was the high king. Until the establishment of the Republic and the office of consul, from about 508 BC Rome no longer had a king. The commanding position of the army was given to the consuls, the term legion is derived from the Latin word legio, which ultimately means draft or levy. At first there were only four legions and these legions were numbered I to IIII, with the fourth being written as such and not IV. The first legion was seen as the most prestigious, the latter being a recurring theme in many elements of the Roman army.
The bulk of the army was made up of citizens and these citizens could not choose the legion to which they were allocated. Any man from ages 16-46 were selected by ballot and assigned to a legion, until the Roman military disaster of 390 BC at the Battle of the Allia, Romes army was organised similarly to the Greek Phalanx. This was due to Greek influence in Italy by way of their colonies, patricia Southern quotes ancient historians Livy and Dionysius in saying that the phalanx consisted of 3,000 infantry and 300 cavalry. Each man had to provide his equipment in battle, the equipment which he could afford determined which position he took in the battle. Politically they shared the ranking system in the Comitia Centuriata. The Roman army of the mid-Republic was known as the army or the Polybian army after the Greek historian Polybius. The latter were required to roughly the same number of troops to joint forces as the Romans to serve under Roman command. Legions in this phase were always accompanied on campaign by the number of allied alae.
After the 2nd Punic War, the Romans acquired an overseas empire and these volunteers were mainly from the poorest social class, who did not have plots to tend at home and were attracted by the modest military pay and the prospect of a share of war booty. The minimum property requirement for service in the legions, which had been suspended during the 2nd Punic War, was effectively ignored from 201 BC onward in order to recruit sufficient volunteers
Titus Pullo (Rome character)
Titus Pullo is a fictional character from the HBO/BBC original television series Rome, played by Ray Stevenson. He is depicted as a hedonistic, devil-may-care soldier who discovers hidden ideals, the basis for this character is the historical Roman soldier of the same name, who is briefly mentioned in Julius Caesars books De Bello Gallico and Commentarii de Bello Civili. Titus Pullos mother was a slave who died when he was young, prone to fits of violent anger, Pullo on multiple occasions shows emotional depth and a desire to atone for his past sins. The only strong identification he has is that of a soldier, without that, he initially struggles to fit into Roman society, before eventually finding his place. Pullos affable manner, even when confronting adversaries, remains a constant source of levity, Pullo is portrayed as a man who is beneficiary of astounding and repeated strokes of good fortune. Caesar actually declares more than once that he believes that Pullo, although he can be at times very blunt and clearly very barbaric, he portrays nonetheless the good friend and good man.
Pullo is a large and strong man - much taller than Vorenus and he is a fierce fighter - on one occasion biting the tongue out of an opponents mouth - and enjoys fighting, breaking ranks to engage Gallic tribesmen in single combat during the pilot episode. We first see Titus Pullo breaking ranks at the Siege of Alesia to fight the attacking Gauls single-handedly. His superior officer, Lucius Vorenus, restrains him and calls him a drunken fool, as punishment for his brash action, he is scourged and sentenced to death. One day later, Vorenus appears at his cell and frees Pullo so that he can accompany him on the mission to retrieve the stolen eagle of the Legio XIII Gemina. Vorenus reasoning is that since the pair will not find the eagle, he would choose a man who was already disgraced. Through a twist of fate and Vorenus do end up retrieving the eagle and Pullo return Octavian to his mother and go their separate ways, Vorenus to reunite with his wife and Pullo going off to look for wine and brothels.
While partying, he kills a man who cheated in a game of dice, a bar fight breaks out, during which the dead mans good friend escapes and Pullo is seriously injured. In the morning, Pullo comes crashing into Vorenuss house, discovered by his wife Niobe, after recovering, he and Vorenus are escorting Antony to the Senate when Pullo is attacked by the dead mans friend. Pullo kills his attacker and a battle between the Caesarian 13th and the Pompeian crowd ensues, preventing Antony from entering the Senate, Vorenus is wounded during the fight, and Pullo carries him away. Antony and the 13th race up north to Caesars camp, Caesar decides to take his army and march across the Rubicon River to Rome. Pullo and Vorenus lead a party that rides ahead of Caesars army and finds Rome abandoned by Pompey. During this scouting mission, the party come across a wagon which is being guarded by several Pompeian soldiers disguised as civilians
The Nervii were one of the most powerful Belgic tribes, living in northern Gaul at the time of its conquest by Rome. Their territory corresponds to the part of modern Belgium, including Brussels. During their 1st century BC Roman military campaign, Caesars contacts among the Remi stated that the Nervii were the most warlike of the Belgae, in times of war, they were known to trek long distances to take part in battles. Being one of the distant northern Belgic tribes, with the Menapii to the west, the territory of the Nervii had its western and northwestern border on the Scheldt river and stretched in the south through Hainaut to the forests of Arrouaise and Thiérache. To the east, the boundaries are unclear but it is possible that they stretched as far as the Dyle river valley in the north, near Louvain, and the Meuse in the south in modern Wallonia, near Namur. An oppidum found near Asse may have belonged to them but it was isolated, a large population occupied the southern territories, near the river Sambre with the biggest being at Avesnelles, near Avesnes-sur-Helpe.
Caesar mentions smaller tribes who were expected to contribute troops to Nervian forces, Pleumoxii, Ceutrones, the Nervii are counted as one of the northern Belgae, who are often proposed to have been in a transitional zone between Celtic languages and Germanic languages. Others included the Menapii and Morini, to the west of the Nervii on the English channel, Caesar reported hearing from the Remi that the Belgae generally had received immigration from Germanic people from east of the Rhine. The Romanized Greek Strabo wrote that the Nervii were of Germanic origin, the Romans were not precise in their ethnography of northern barbarians, by Germanic Caesar may simply have meant originating east of the Rhine with no distinction of language intended. During Caesars lifetime, Germanic languages east of the Rhine may have been no closer than the river Elbe. Julius Caesar considered the Nervii to be the most warlike of the Belgic tribes, and that the Belgic tribes were the bravest in Gaul. He says that their culture was a Spartan one, they would not partake of alcoholic beverages or any such luxury.
He says they disliked foreign trade and had no merchant class, archaeologists have sought to define the territories of the northern Belgic tribes by looking at the coins they used. The Nervii are associated with a type that uses a Greek epsilon. Remarkably, given the evidence of a Celtic La Tène culture having been present in the pre-Roman past. In fact they established hedges throughout their lands in order to them difficult for cavalry. The Nervii were part of the Belgic alliance that resisted Julius Caesar in 57 BC, after the alliance broke up and some tribes surrendered, the Nervii, under the command of Boduognatus and aided by the Atrebates and Viromandui, came very close to defeating Caesar. In 57 BC at the battle of the Sabis, they concealed themselves in the forests and their attack was so quick and unexpected that some of the Romans didnt have time to take the covers off their shields or even put on their helmets. The element of surprise briefly left the Romans exposed, however Caesar grabbed a shield, made his way to the front line, and quickly organised his forces, at the same time, the commander of the tenth legion, Titus Labienus, attacked the Nervian camp
Niobe of the Voreni
Niobe, wife of Lucius Vorenus, is a fictional character in the HBO/BBC/RAI original television series Rome, played by Indira Varma. Niobe herself was changed into a stone, which was transported in a whirlwind to the top of Sipylus, Niobe married Vorenus when she was thirteen summers old. After the Gallic War took her away for eight years, she was forced to deal with further hardship when she was mistakenly told that Vorenus had been killed. She was astonished to learn that Vorenus was still alive, family tensions did not lessen when Evander mysteriously disappeared—murdered by Titus Pullo and Gaius Octavian when they learned the truth about Niobe and Vorenus grandson. Pullo covered up the murder by claiming that Evander was rumored to have been murdered by members of the underworld due to gambling debts. Niobe devoted her time to helping Lyde adapt, something that Vorenus felt interfered with his attempts to reforge a relationship with his wife, when calamity threatened the family fortunes, Vorenus was forced to re-enlist with the Legion, with the added prestige of being one of the evocati.
This was a step Vorenus did not wish to take, and it was a sacrifice that was not lost on Niobe. Niobe again lost Vorenus to the Legion as Caesars forces clashed with those of the Optimates in Greece, Tunisia, yet again, she was left at home to wonder whether her husband was alive or dead. The Voreni family began to enjoy a measure of prosperity. However, just before Caesars assassination, the plans for which he was unaware, Vorenus learned that his grandson was really Niobes illegitimate child, when Vorenus returned home, he destroyed much of their home in a rage and demanded the truth. Niobe indirectly admitted that Lucius is her son, reminding him she thought he was dead, Vorenus sat down and picked up a kitchen knife. Niobe, believing he planned to kill Lucius, told him that the boy is blameless before throwing herself off the balcony, Niobes son came upon the scene of Vorenus holding the dead Niobe in his arms, his anger driven out by grief. Vorenuss love for Niobe was apparent when many years he dreamed that the prostitutes he frequented in Alexandria were her
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Commentarii de Bello Gallico, simply Bellum Gallicum, is Julius Caesars firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. The Gaul that Caesar refers to is sometimes all of Gaul except for the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, encompassing the rest of modern France and some of Switzerland. On other occasions, he refers only to that territory inhabited by the Celtic peoples known to the Romans as Gauls, the work has been a mainstay in Latin instruction because of its simple, direct prose. It begins with the quoted phrase Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres. The full work is split into eight sections, Book 1 to Book 8, Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesars death. The boni intended to prosecute Caesar for abuse of his authority upon his return, such prosecution would not only see Caesar stripped of his wealth and citizenship, but negate all of the laws he enacted during his term as Consul and his dispositions as pro-consul of Gaul.
To defend himself against these threats, Caesar knew he needed the support of the plebeians, particularly the Tribunes of the Plebs, by winning the support of the people, Caesar sought to make himself unassailable from the boni. The work is a paradigm of proper reporting and stylistic clarity and it is often lauded for its polished, clear Latin. It contains many details and employs many stylistic devices to promote Caesars political interests, the books are valuable for the many geographical and historical claims that can be retrieved from the work. Notable chapters describe Gaulish custom, their religion, and a comparison between Gauls and Germanic peoples, since Caesar is one of the characters in the Astérix and Obélix albums, René Goscinny included gags for French schoolchildren who had the Commentarii as a textbook. One example is having Caesar talk about himself in the person as in the book. Some English editions state that Astérixs village of indomitable Gauls is the part of Gaul. In Book 5, Chapter 44 the Commentarii de Bello Gallico notably mentions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, during World War I the French composer Vincent dIndy wrote his Third Symphony, which bears the title De Bello Gallico.
DIndy was adapting Caesars title to the situation of the current struggle in France against the German army, in which he had a son and nephew fighting, and which the music illustrates to some extent. At Gutenberg Project, Caesars Commentaries, English translation by W. A. MACDEVITT, introduction by THOMAS DE QUINCEY De Bello Gallico, Latin text edition. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar, translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn, IVLI CAESARIS COMMENTARIORVM DE BELLO, TheLatinLibrary. com,2008. Dickinson College Commentaries Selections in Latin with notes, Commentaries on the Gallic War public domain audiobook at LibriVox Wikisource, Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn, Books 1–8
Ides of March
The Ides of March is a day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to March 15. It was marked by several religious observances and became notorious as the date of the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, although March was the third month of the Julian calendar, in the oldest Roman calendar it was the first month of the year. The holidays observed by the Romans from the first through the Ides often reflect their origin as new-year celebrations, the Romans did not number days of a month sequentially from the first through the last day. Instead, they counted back from three fixed points of the month, the Nones, the Ides, and the Kalends, the Ides occurred near the midpoint, on the 13th for most months, but on the 15th for March, May and October. The Ides were supposed to be determined by the full moon, on the earliest calendar, the Ides of March would have been the first full moon of the new year. The Ides of each month were sacred to Jupiter, the Romans supreme deity, the Flamen Dialis, Jupiters high priest, led the Ides sheep in procession along the Via Sacra to the arx, where it was sacrificed.
In addition to the sacrifice, the Ides of March was the occasion of the Feast of Anna Perenna. The day was celebrated among the common people with picnics, drinking. One source from late antiquity places the Mamuralia on the Ides of March and this observance, which has aspects of scapegoat or ancient Greek pharmakos ritual, involved beating an old man dressed in animal skins and perhaps driving him from the city. The ritual may have been a new year festival representing the expulsion of the old year, in the Imperial period, the Ides began a holy week of festivals for Cybele and Attis. The Ides was the day of Canna intrat, when Attis was born and he was discovered—depending on the version of the myth—by either shepherds or the goddess Cybele, who was known as the Magna Mater. A week later, on 22 March, the day of Arbor intrat commemorated the death of Attis under a pine tree. A college of priests called dendrophoroi cut down a tree, suspended from it an image of Attis, the day was formalized as part of the official Roman calendar under Claudius.
A three-day period of mourning followed, culminating with the rebirth of Attis on 25 March, in modern times, the Ides of March is best known as the date on which Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC. Caesar was stabbed to death at a meeting of the Senate, as many as 60 conspirators, led by Brutus and Cassius, were involved. According to Plutarch, a seer had warned that harm would come to Caesar no than the Ides of March and this meeting is famously dramatised in William Shakespeares play Julius Caesar, when Caesar is warned by the soothsayer to beware the Ides of March. The Roman biographer Suetonius identifies the seer as a haruspex named Spurinna, Caesars death was a closing event in the crisis of the Roman Republic, and triggered the civil war that would result in the rise to sole power of his adopted heir Octavian. Writing under Augustus, Ovid portrays the murder as a sacrilege, since Caesar was the Pontifex Maximus of Rome, the executions were one of a series of actions taken by Octavian to avenge Caesars death
A Roman legion was the largest unit of the Roman army involving from 3000 men in early times to over 5200 men in imperial times, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century,10 cohorts made up a Roman Legion and this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size and one cohort, the first cohort, of double strength. In the early Roman Kingdom the legion may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few, Legions included a small ala or cavalry unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have even smaller. The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted mostly of auxiliaries rather than legions, because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, and were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified, toward the end of the 2nd Century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army.
In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions, a legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. The recruitment of non-citizens was rare but appears to have occurred in times of great need, For example, Caesar appears to have recruited the Legio V Alaudae mostly from non-citizen Gauls. In the period before the raising of the legio and the years of the Roman Kingdom. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them, the roles of century leader, second in command and standard bearer are referenced in this early period. Much Roman history of the era is shrouded in legend, but it is believed that during the reign of Servius Tullius, the census was introduced. Joining the army was both a duty and a mark of Roman citizenship, during the entire pre-Marian period the wealthiest land owners performed the most years of military service.
These individuals would have had the most to lose should the state have fallen. The first and wealthiest common class was armed in the fashion of the hoplite with spear, helmet, breast plate and round shield, there were 82 centuries of these, Roman soldiers had to purchase their own equipment. The second and third class acted as spearmen but were heavily armoured and carried a larger oval or rectangular shield. The fourth class could afford no armour, perhaps bearing a shield and armed with spear. All three of the latter made up about 26 centuries
In ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census. From the 4th century BC or earlier, they were known as commoners, literary references to the plebs, usually mean the ordinary citizens of Rome as a whole, as distinguished from the elite—a sense retained by plebeian in English. In the very earliest days of Rome, plebeians were any tribe or clan without advisers to the King, in time, the word – which is related to the Greek word for crowd, plethos – came to mean the common people. In Latin the word plebs is a collective noun. The 19th-century historian Barthold Georg Niebuhr held that plebeians began to appear at Rome during the reign of Ancus Marcius and were possibly foreigners settling in Rome as naturalized citizens. In any case, at the outset of the Roman Republic, Plebeians were excluded from magistracies and religious colleges, and they were not permitted to know the laws by which they were governed. Plebeians served in the army, but rarely became military leaders, from the mid-4th century to the early 3rd century BC, several plebeian–patrician tickets for the consulship repeated joint terms, suggesting a deliberate political strategy of cooperation.
Although nobilitas was not a social rank during the Republican era. Such a man was a homo, a new man or self-made noble and his sons. Marius and Cicero are notable examples of novi homines in the late Republic, when many of Romes richest and most powerful men—such as Lucullus and Pompeius—were plebeian nobles. Some or perhaps many noble plebeians, including Cicero and Lucullus, by contrast, the populares or peoples party, which sought to champion the plebs in the sense of common people, were sometimes led by patricians such as Julius Caesar and Clodius Pulcher. In the U. S. military, Plebes are freshmen at the U. S, Military Academy, U. S. Naval Academy, Valley Forge Military Academy, the Marine Military Academy, the U. S. Merchant Marine Academy, Georgia Military College, California Maritime Academy, the term is used for new cadets at the Philippine Military Academy. Early public schools in the United Kingdom would enroll pupils as plebeians as opposed to sons of gentry, vulgarism Bread and circuses Capite censi Plebeian Council Plebgate – a scandal in the United Kingdom in 2012 Proletariat Roman Republic Jackson J.
Spielvogel. Smiths Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, article Plebs Livius. org, Plebs Texts on Wikisource, Plebeians
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
Rome (TV series)
Rome is a British-American-Italian historical drama television series created by John Milius, William J. MacDonald, and Bruno Heller. The shows two seasons were broadcast on HBO, BBC Two, and RaiDue between 2005 and 2007 and they were released on DVD and Blu-ray. Rome is set in the 1st century BC, during Ancient Romes transition from Republic to Empire, Rome was a ratings success for HBO and the BBC. The series received media attention from the start, and was honored with numerous awards. The series was filmed in locations, but most notably in the Cinecittà studios in Italy. The fictional Vorenus and Pullo manage to witness and often many of the historical events presented in the series. Against the backdrop of these events, we see the early years of the young Octavian, who is destined to become Augustus. After their defeat at the Battle of Actium, Kevin McKidd as Lucius Vorenus – A staunch, traditional Roman officer who struggles to balance his personal beliefs, his duty to his superiors, and the needs of his family and friends.
The basis for this character is the historical Roman soldier of the same name, Ciarán Hinds as Julius Caesar – Caesar is ambitious but his aims and motives are often kept ambiguous to further complicate the plot and test the personal loyalties of other characters. He advertises himself as a reformer who sides with the Plebeians and he is merciful to his beaten enemies, genuinely distressed by their deaths and relieved at their willingness to make peace where a more vindictive individual would have simply killed them. Kenneth Cranham as Pompey Magnus – A legendary general, past the days of his prime, the real Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was a Roman general and politician who was as ambitious as Caesar and just as unorthodox in his youth. He chose to ally himself with the optimates in opposing Caesar, polly Walker as Atia of the Julii – The niece of Julius Caesar and mother of Octavian/Augustus and Octavia. She is depicted as an amoral and opportunistic manipulator. Her family connections and sexual liaisons have brought her into contact with some of the most powerful individuals in Rome, Atia is very loosely based on the historical figure Atia Balba Caesonia about whom little detail is known.
Rome Historical Consultant Jonathan Stamp identifies the historical figure Clodia as the basis for the character of Atia. James Purefoy as Mark Antony – A very popular and cunning Roman general and politician, in Season 2, he fights the power hungry and unaccomplished Octavian. Tobias Menzies as Marcus Junius Brutus – Portrayed as a man torn between what he believes is right, and his loyalty and love of a man who has been like a father to him. The real Marcus Junius Brutus was the most famous of Julius Caesars assassins, lindsay Duncan as Servilia of the Junii – The mother of Marcus Junius Brutus, lover of the married Julius Caesar, and enemy of Atia of the Julii
Legio XIII Gemina
Legio tertia decima Geminia, in English the 13th Twin Legion, known as Legio tertia decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was one of Julius Caesars key units in Gaul and in the civil war, the legion appears to have still been in existence in the 5th century AD. Legio XIII was levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC, before marching against the Belgae, after the end of the Gallic wars, the Roman Senate refused Caesar his second consulship, ordered him to give up his commands, and demanded he return to Rome to face prosecution. Forced to choose either the end of his career or civil war, Caesar brought Legio XIII across the Rubicon river. The legion remained faithful to Caesar during the civil war between Caesar and the conservative Optimates faction of the senate, whose legions were commanded by Pompey. Legio XIII was active throughout the war, fighting at Dyrrhachium. After Munda, Caesar disbanded the legion, retired his veterans, augustus reconstituted the legion once again in 41 BC to deal with the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily.
Legio XIII acquired the cognomen Gemina after being reinforced with legionaries from other legions following the war against Mark Antony. Augustus sent the legion to Burnum, in Illyricum, a Roman province in the Adriatic Sea, in 16 BC, the legion was transferred to Emona in Pannonia, where it dealt with local rebellions. Emperor Claudius sent them back to Pannonia around 45 and the legion built its legionary fortress at Poetovium, in the year of the four emperors, XIII Gemina supported first Otho and Vespasian against Vitellius, fighting in the two Battles of Bedriacum. Under Trajan the legion took part in both Dacian wars, and it was transferred by Trajan in 106 to the conquered province of Dacia to garrison it. Vexillationes of the XIII Gemina fought under Emperor Gallienus in northern Italy, the emperor issued a legionary antoninianus celebrating the legion, and showing the legions lion. Another vexillatio was present in the army of the emperor of the Gallic Empire Victorinus, in 271, the legion was relocated when the Dacia province was evacuated, and restationed in Dacia Aureliana.
- Marco Cornelio Marci filio Galeria Nigrino / Curiatio Materno consuli - / - tribuno militum legionis XIIII Geminae, - Caio Iulio Galeria Lepido Iessonensi primi pilari centurioni legionis XIII Geminae Piae Fidelis centurioni. Roman legion List of Roman legions Dacia Ripensis Notitia Dignitatum, media related to Legio XIII Gemina at Wikimedia Commons LEGIO XIII GEMINA Blog LEG XIII GEM, Austrian re-enactment group Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix
The Aventine Hill is one of the Seven Hills on which ancient Rome was built. It belongs to Ripa, the rione, or ward. The Aventine Hill is the southernmost of Romes seven hills and it has two distinct heights, one greater to the northwest and one lesser to the southeast, divided by a steep cleft that provides the base for an ancient roadway between the heights. During the Republican era, the two hills may have recognized as a single entity. Most Roman sources trace the name of the hill to a legendary king Aventinus, Servius identifies two kings of that name, one ancient Italic, and one Alban, both said to have been buried on the hill in remote antiquity. Servius believes that the hill was named after the ancient Italic king Aventinus, the Aventine was a significant site in Roman mythology. In Virgils Aeneid, a cave on the Aventines rocky slope next the river is home to the monstrous Cacus, killed by Hercules for stealing Geryons cattle. In Romes founding myth, the divinely fathered twins Romulus and Remus hold a contest of augury, whose outcome determines the right to found and lead a new city, and to determine its site.
In most versions of the story, Remus sets up his tent on the Aventine. Each sees a number of birds that signify divine approval. Romulus goes on to found the city of Rome at the site of his successful augury, an earlier variant, found in Ennius and some sources, has Romulus perform his augury on one of the Aventine Hills. Remus performs his elsewhere, perhaps on the height, the lesser of the Aventines two hills, which has been tentatively identified with Ennius Mons Murcus. The less fortunate Remus, who lost not only the contest but later, his life, remained on the Aventine, according to Roman tradition, the Aventine was not included within Romes original foundation, and lay outside the citys ancient sacred boundary. The Roman historian Livy reports that Ancus Marcius, Romes fourth king, defeated the Latins of Politorium, the Roman geographer Strabo credits Ancus with the building of a city wall to incorporate the Aventine. Others credit the same wall to Romes sixth king, Servius Tullius, the remains known as the Servian Wall used stone quarried at Veii, which was not conquered by Rome until c.393 BC, so the Aventine might have been part-walled, or an extramural suburb.
The Aventine appears to have functioned as some kind of staging post for the legitimate ingress of foreign peoples, during the late regal era, Servius Tullius built a temple to Diana on the Aventine, as a Roman focus for the new-founded Latin League. The Aventines outlying position, its association with Latins and plebeians. The temple overlooked the Circus Maximus and the Temple of Vesta and it became an important repository for plebeian and senatorial records