Montefiascone is a town and comune of the province of Viterbo, in Lazio, central Italy. It stands on a hill on the southeast side of Lake Bolsena, about 100 km north of Rome; the name of the city derives from that of the Falisci. It was controlled by the Etruscans, it was suggested that Montefiascone occupies the site of the Etruscan Temple called Fanum Voltumnae, at which the representatives of the twelve chief cities of Etruria met in the days of their independence. Under the Empire, the festival was held near Volsinii; the first documents mentioning Montefiascone are from 853 CE, when it belonged to the bishop of Tuscania. In 1058 and 1074 the Popes Stephen IX and Gregory VII stopped here. In 1093 the fortress was besieged by Emperor Henry IV; the importance of the fortress was confirmed by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa's visit in 1185. In the following two centuries, as a Papal possession, Montefiascone lived its period of highest splendour; the Castle was residence of Popes, was enlarged and embellished.
During Avignon Papacy, it was the main residence of the Papal legate Cardinal Albornoz. In 1463, however, it was decaying, as in the words of by Pope Pius II; the decline increased after the plague of 1657 and the earthquake of 1697. It became part of the new Kingdom of Italy in 1870, it was damaged by two Allied bombings in May 1944. Montefiascone Cathedral is one of the earliest structures by Michele Sanmicheli. Dedicated to Saint Margaret, the cathedral took three centuries to rebuild. Subsequently, in 1670, it suffered a serious fire, with repairs taking a further decade; the interior was elaborately restored in 1893. Santa Maria delle Grazie: church by Sanmicheli. San Flaviano: church built in 1032, repaired and enlarged in the Gothic style late in the 14th century, a curious double church of importance in the history of architecture. In the crypt is the grave of a traveler who succumbed to excessive drinking of the local wine known as Est! Est!! Est!!!. The story is that his valet, who preceded him, wrote "est" on the doors of all the inns where good wine was to be had, that here the inscription was thrice repeated.
Santa Maria di Montedoro: church Sant'Andrea Rocca dei Papi, formed by the remains of the old Papal summer residence. At the top of the hill it provides a view of Lago Bolsena. Falesco winery is located there; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Montefiascone". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 765. Blog-y tourist information Montefiascone Comune web site
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, dedicated to a specific deity, hero, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines contain idols, relics, or other such objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which votive offerings are made is called an altar. Shrines are found in many of the world's religions, including Christianity, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion and Asatru as well as in secular and non-religious settings such as a war memorial. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches, cemeteries, museums, or in the home, although portable shrines are found in some cultures. A shrine may become a focus of a cult image. Many shrines are located within buildings and in the temples designed for worship, such as a church in Christianity, or a mandir in Hinduism. A shrine here is the centre of attention in the building, is given a place of prominence. In such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine.
In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella. In Hinduism and Roman Catholicism, in modern faiths, such as Neopaganism, a shrine can be found within the home or shop; this shrine is a small structure or a setup of pictures and figurines dedicated to a deity, part of the official religion, to ancestors or to a localised household deity. Small household shrines are common among the Chinese and people from South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu, Buddhist or Christian. A small lamp and small offerings are kept daily by the shrine. Buddhist household shrines must be on a shelf above the head. Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many peoples' gardens, following various religions, including Christianity. Many consist of a statue of Christ or a saint, on a pedestal or in an alcove, while others may be elaborate booths without ceilings, some include paintings and architectural elements, such as walls, glass doors and ironwork fences, etc. In the United States, some Christians have small yard shrines.
Religious images in some sort of small shelter, placed by a road or pathway, sometimes in a settlement or at a crossroads. Shrines are found in many religions; as distinguished from a temple, a shrine houses a particular relic or cult image, the object of worship or veneration. A shrine may be constructed to set apart a site, thought to be holy, as opposed to being placed for the convenience of worshippers. Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage. Shrines are found in many, forms of Christianity. Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism. In the Roman Catholic Code of Canon law, canons 1230 and 1231 read: "The term shrine means a church or other sacred place which, with the approval of the local Ordinary, is by reason of special devotion frequented by the faithful as pilgrims. For a shrine to be described as national, the approval of the Episcopal Conference is necessary. For it to be described as international, the approval of the Holy See is required."Another use of the term "shrine" in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – larger – churches used by parishioners when praying in the church.
They were called Devotional Altars, since they could look like small Side Altars or bye-altars. Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ or a saint – for instance, a statue, mural or mosaic, may have had a reredos behind them. However, Mass would not be celebrated at them. Side altars, where Mass could be celebrated, were used in a similar way to shrines by parishioners. Side altars were dedicated to The Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph as well as other saints. A nativity set could be viewed as a shrine, as the definition of a shrine is any holy or sacred place. Islam's holiest structure, the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, though an ancient temple, may be seen as a shrine due to it housing a venerated relic called the Hajar al-Aswad and being the focus of the world's largest pilgrimage practice, the Hajj. A few yards away, the mosque houses the Maqam Ibrahim shrine containing a petrosomatoglyph associated with the patriarch and his son Ishmael's building of the Kaaba in Islamic tradition; the Green Dome sepulcher of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Medina, housed in the Masjid an-Nabawi, occurs as a venerated place and important as a site of pilgrimage among Muslims.
Two of the oldest and notable Islamic shrines are the Dome of the Rock and the smaller Dome of the Chain built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The former was built over the rock that marked the site of the Jewish Temple and according to Islamic tradition, was the point of departure of Muhammad's legendary ascent heavenwards. More than any other shrines in the Muslim world, the tomb of Muhammad is considered a source of blessings for the visitor. Among sayings attributed to
An orphan is someone whose parents have died, are unknown, or have permanently abandoned them. In common usage, only a child who has lost both parents due to death is called an orphan; when referring to animals, only the mother's condition is relevant. Various groups use different definitions to identify orphans. One legal definition used in the United States is a minor bereft through "death or disappearance of, abandonment or desertion by, or separation or loss from, both parents". In the common use, an orphan does not have any surviving parent to care for them. However, the United Nations Children's Fund, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, other groups label any child who has lost one parent as an orphan. In this approach, a maternal orphan is a child whose mother has died, a paternal orphan is a child whose father has died, a double orphan is a child who has lost both parents; this contrasts with the older use of half-orphan to describe children. Orphans are rare in developed countries, because most children can expect both of their parents to survive their childhood.
Much higher numbers of orphans exist in war-torn nations such as Afghanistan. 2001 figures from 2002 UNICEF/UNAIDS report China: A survey conducted by the Ministry of Civil Affairs in 2005 showed that China has about 573,000 orphans below 18 years old. Russia: According to Russian reports from 2002 cited in the New York Times, 650,000 children are housed in orphanages, they are released at age 16, 40% become homeless, while 30% become criminals or commit suicide. Latin America: Street children have a major presence in Latin America. Although not all street children are orphans, all street children work and many do not have significant family support. Famous orphans include world leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Andrew Jackson; the American orphan Henry Darger portrayed the horrible conditions of his orphanage in his art work. Other notable orphans include entertainment greats such as Louis Armstrong, Marilyn Monroe, Babe Ruth, Ray Charles and Frances McDormand, innumerable fictional characters in literature and comics.
Wars and great epidemics, such as AIDS, have created many orphans. The Second World War, with its massive numbers of deaths and population movements, created large numbers of orphans in many countries—with estimates for Europe ranging from 1,000,000 to 13,000,000. Judt estimates there were 9,000 orphaned children in Czechoslovakia, 60,000 in the Netherlands 300,000 in Poland and 200,000 in Yugoslavia, plus many more in the Soviet Union, Germany and elsewhere. Orphaned characters are common as literary protagonists in children's and fantasy literature; the lack of parents leaves the characters to pursue more interesting and adventurous lives, by freeing them from familial obligations and controls, depriving them of more prosaic lives. It creates characters who strive for affection. Orphans can metaphorically search for self-understanding through attempting to know their roots. Parents can be allies and sources of aid for children, removing the parents makes the character's difficulties more severe.
Parents, can be irrelevant to the theme a writer is trying to develop, orphaning the character frees the writer from the necessity to depict such an irrelevant relationship. All these characteristics make orphans attractive characters for authors. Orphans are common in fairy tales, such as most variants of Cinderella. A number of well-known authors have written books featuring orphans. Examples from classic literature include Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, Charles Dickens's Oliver Twist, Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer, L. M. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables, Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Among more recent authors, A. J. Cronin, Lemony Snicket, A. F. Coniglio, Roald Dahl and J. K. Rowling, as well as some less well-known authors of famous orphans like Little Orphan Annie have used orphans as major characters. One recurring storyline has been the relationship that the orphan can have with an adult from outside their immediate family as seen in Lyle Kessler's play Orphans.
Orphans are common as characters in comic books. All the most popular heroes are orphans: Superman, Spider-Man, The Flash, Captain Marvel, Captain America, Green Arrow were all orphaned. Orphans are very common among villains: Bane and Magneto are examples. Lex Luthor and Carnage can be included on this list, though they killed one or both of their parents. Supporting characters befriended by the heroes are often orphans, including the Newsboy Legion and Rick Jones. All of the orphan children from the 1936 Color Classic, Christmas Comes But Once a Year produced by Fleischer Studios, were voiced by Mae Questel. Many religious texts, including the Bible and the Quran, contain the idea that helping and defending orphans is a important and God-pleasing matter; the religious leaders Moses and Muhammad were orphaned as children. Several scriptural citations describe how orphans should be treated: Bible "Do not take advantage of a widow or an orphan." "Leav
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Beatification is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name. Beati is the plural form. Local bishops had the power of beatifying until 1634, when Pope Urban VIII, in the apostolic constitution Cœlestis Jerusalem of 6 July, reserved the power of beatifying to the Holy See. Since the reforms of 1983, one miracle must be believed to have taken place through the intercession of the person to be beatified, though the medical investigations of the Church are conducted and are therefore subject to speculation about their methods; the requirement of a miracle for beatification is waived in the case of someone who died as a martyr. The feast day for a Blessed person is not universal, but is celebrated only in regions where the person receives particular veneration. For instance, Saint Kateri Tekakwitha was honored in the United States and Canada during her time as Blessed; the person may be honored in a particular religious order, diocese, or organization, such as John Duns Scotus among the Franciscans, the Archdiocese of Cologne and other places.
Veneration of Blessed Chiara Badano is particular to the Focolare movement. Pope John Paul II markedly changed previous Catholic practice of beatification. By October 2004, he had beatified 1,340 people, more than the sum of all of his predecessors since Pope Sixtus V, who established a beatification procedure similar to that used today. John Paul II's successor, Pope Benedict XVI, removed the custom of holding beatification rites in the Vatican with the Pope presiding; the Pope himself still can preside, as happened on 19 September 2010, when Benedict XVI beatified John Henry Newman in Cofton Park, Birmingham, on the last day of his visit to the United Kingdom. Benedict XVI personally celebrated the Beatification Mass for his predecessor, John Paul II, at St. Peter's Basilica, on the Second Sunday of Easter, or Divine Mercy Sunday, on 1 May 2011, an event that drew more than one million people. Cultus confirmation is a somewhat different procedure, wherein the church recognizes a local cult of a person, asserting that veneration of that person is acceptable.
Such a confirmation is more an official sanctioning of folk Catholicism than an active step in a canonization procedure, but the object of the cult may be addressed as "Blessed". Chronological list of saints and blesseds List of beatified people List of people beatified by Pope John Paul II List of saints List of Servants of God Lists of venerable people List of all Blesseds in the Catholic Church by GCatholic.org
Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI, born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939. He was the first sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929, he took as his papal motto, "Pax Christi in Regno Christi," translated "The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ." Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, social justice issues, Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism. The encyclical Studiorum ducem, promulgated 29 June 1923, was written on the occasion of the 6th centenary of the canonization of Thomas Aquinas, whose thought is acclaimed as central to Catholic philosophy and theology; the encyclical singles out the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum as the preeminent institution for the teaching of Aquinas: "ante omnia Pontificium Collegium Angelicum, ubi Thomam tamquam domi suae habitare dixeris".
To establish or maintain the position of the Catholic Church, Pius XI concluded a record number of concordats, including the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany, whose betrayals of which he condemned four years in the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge. During his pontificate, the longstanding hostility with the Italian government over the status of the papacy and the Church in Italy was resolved in the Lateran Treaty of 1929, he was unable to stop the persecution of the Church and the killing of clergy in Mexico and the Soviet Union. He canonized important saints, including Thomas More, Peter Canisius, Bernadette of Lourdes and Don Bosco, he beatified and canonized Thérèse de Lisieux, for whom he held special reverence, gave equivalent canonization to Albertus Magnus, naming him a Doctor of the Church due to the spiritual power of his writings. He took a strong interest in fostering the participation of lay people throughout the Catholic Church in the Catholic Action movement; the end of his pontificate was dominated by speaking out against Hitler and Mussolini and defending the Catholic Church from intrusions into Catholic life and education.
Pius XI died on 10 February 1939 in the Apostolic Palace and is buried in the Papal Grotto of Saint Peter's Basilica. In the course of excavating space for his tomb, two levels of burial grounds were uncovered which revealed bones now venerated as the bones of St. Peter. Achille Ratti was born in Desio, in the province of Milan, in 1857, the son of an owner of a silk factory, his parents were Teresa. He was embarked on an academic career within the Church, he obtained three doctorates at the Gregorian University in Rome, from 1882 to 1888 was a professor at the seminary in Padua. His scholarly specialty was as an expert paleographer, a student of ancient and medieval Church manuscripts, he left seminary teaching to work full-time at the Ambrosian Library in Milan, from 1888 to 1911. During this time, Ratti edited and published an edition of the Ambrosian Missal, researched and wrote much on the life and works of St. Charles Borromeo, he became chief of the Library in 1907 and undertook a thorough programme of restoration and re-classification of the Ambrosian's collection.
He was an avid mountaineer in his spare time, reaching the summits of Monte Rosa, the Matterhorn, Mont Blanc and Presolana. The combination of a scholar-athlete pope would not be seen again until the pontificate of John Paul II. In 1911, at Pope Pius X's invitation, he moved to the Vatican to become Vice-Prefect of the Vatican Library, in 1914 was promoted to Prefect. In 1918, Pope Benedict XV asked Ratti to change careers and take a diplomatic post: apostolic visitor in Poland, a state newly restored to existence, but still under effective German and Austro-Hungarian control. In October 1918, Benedict was the first head of state to congratulate the Polish people on the occasion of the restoration of their independence. In March 1919, he nominated ten new bishops and, soon after, upgraded Ratti's position in Warsaw to the official position of papal nuncio. Ratti was consecrated as a titular archbishop in October 1919. Benedict XV and Ratti cautioned Polish authorities against persecuting the Lithuanian and Ruthenian clergy.
During the Bolshevik advance against Warsaw, the Pope asked for worldwide public prayers for Poland, while Ratti was the only foreign diplomat who refused to flee Warsaw when the Red Army was approaching the city in August 1920. On 11 June 1921, Benedict XV asked Ratti to deliver his message to the Polish episcopate, warning against political misuses of spiritual power, urging again peaceful coexistence with neighbouring people, stating that "love of country has its limits in justice and obligations". Ratti intended to work for Poland by building bridges to men of goodwill in the Soviet Union to shedding his blood for Russia. Benedict, needed Ratti as a diplomat, not as a martyr, forbade his traveling into the USSR despite his being the official papal delegate for Russia; the nuncio's continued contacts with Russians did not generate much sympathy for him within Poland at the time. After Pope Benedic