An art critic is a person, specialized in analyzing and evaluating art. Their written critiques or reviews contribute to art criticism and they are published in newspapers, books, exhibition brochures and catalogues and on web sites; some of today's art critics use art blogs and other online platforms in order to connect with a wider audience and expand debate about art. Differently from art history, there is not an institutionalized training for art critics. Professional art critics are expected to have a keen eye for art and a thorough knowledge of art history; the art critic views art at exhibitions, museums or artists' studios and they can be members of the International Association of Art Critics which has national sections. Art critics earn their living from writing criticism; the opinions of art critics have the potential to stir debate on art related topics. Due to this the viewpoints of art critics writing for art publications and newspapers adds to public discourse concerning art and culture.
Art collectors and patrons rely on the advice of such critics as a way to enhance their appreciation of the art they are viewing. Many now famous and celebrated artists were not recognized by the art critics of their time because their art was in a style not yet understood or favored. Conversely, some critics, have become important helping to explain and promote new art movements — Roger Fry with the Post-Impressionist movement, Lawrence Alloway with Pop Art as examples. According to James Elkins there is a distinction between art criticism and art history based on institutional and commercial criteria. An experience-related article is Agnieszka Gratza. Always according to James Elkins in smaller and developing countries, newspaper art criticism serves as art history. James Elkins's perspective portraits his personal link to art history and art historians and in What happened to art criticism he furthermore highlights the gap between art historians and art critics by suggesting that the first cite the second as a source and that the second miss an academic discipline to refer to.
Art criticism History of art criticism List of art critics Media related to Art critics at Wikimedia Commons Good audio version of symposium on contemporary art criticism entitled "Empathy and Criticality," sponsored by the Frieze Foundation
Artists' books are works of art that utilize the form of the book. They are published in small editions, though they are sometimes produced as one-of-a-kind objects. Artists' books have employed a wide range of forms, including scrolls, fold-outs, concertinas or loose items contained in a box. Artists have been active in printing and book production for centuries, but the artist's book is a late 20th-century form with roots in earlier avant-garde movements, such as Dada, Constructivism and Fluxus. Artists' books are books or book-like objects over the final appearance of which an artist has had a high degree of control. Artists' books are made for a variety of reasons, they are created to make art, interactive, portable and shared. Many artists books become sculptural objects, they may be created in order to make art accessible to people outside of the formal contexts of galleries or museums. Whilst artists have been involved in the production of books in Europe since the early medieval period, most writers on the subject cite the English visionary artist and poet William Blake as the earliest direct antecedentBooks such as Songs of Innocence and of Experience were written, printed and bound by Blake and his wife Catherine, the merging of handwritten texts and images created intensely vivid, hermetic works without any obvious precedents.
These works would set the tone for artists' books, connecting self-publishing and self-distribution with the integration of text and form. All of these factors have remained key concepts in artists' books up to the present day; as Europe plunged headlong towards World War I, various groups of avant-garde artists across the continent started to focus on pamphlets, posters and books. This was as a way to gain publicity within an increasing print-dominated world, but as a strategy to bypass traditional gallery systems, disseminate ideas and to create affordable work that might be seen by people who would not otherwise enter art galleries; this move toward radicalism was exemplified by the Italian Futurists, by Filippo Marinetti in particular. The publication of the "Futurist Manifesto", 1909, on the front cover of the French daily newspaper Le Figaro was an audacious coup de théâtre that resulted in international notoriety. Marinetti used the ensuing fame to tour Europe, kickstarting movements across the continent that all veered towards book-making and pamphleteering.
In London, for instance, Marinetti's visit directly precipitated Wyndham Lewis' founding of the Vorticist movement, whose literary magazine BLAST is an early example of a modernist periodical, while David Bomberg's book Russian Ballet, with its interspersing of a single spaced text interspersed with abstract colour lithographs, is a landmark in the history of English language artists' books. With regards to the creation of Artists' books, the most influential offshoot of futurist principles, occurred in Russia. Marinetti visited in 1914, proselytizing on behalf of Futurist principles of speed and cacophony. Centred in Moscow, around the Gileia Group of Transrational poets David and Nikolai Burliuk, Elena Guro, Vasili Kamenski and Velimir Khlebnikov, the Russian futurists created a sustained series of artists' books that challenged every assumption of orthodox book production. Whilst some of the books created by this group would be straightforward typeset editions of poetry, many others played with form, structure and content that still seems contemporary.
Key works such as Worldbackwards, by Khlebnikov and Kruchenykh, Natalia Goncharova, Larionov Rogovin and Tatlin, Transrational Boog by Aliagrov and Kruchenykh & Olga Rozanova and Universal War by Kruchenykh used hand-written text, integrated with expressive lithographs and collage elements, creating small editions with dramatic differences between individual copies. Other titles experimented with materials such as wallpaper, printing methods including carbon copying and hectographs, binding methods including the random sequencing of pages, ensuring no two books would have the same contextual meaning. Russian futurism evolved into Constructivism after the Russian Revolution, centred on the key figures of Malevich and Tatlin. Attempting to create a new proletarian art for a new communist epoch, constructivist books would have a huge impact on other European avant-gardes, with design and text-based works such as El Lissitsky's For The Voice having a direct impact on groups inspired by or directly linked to communism.
Dada in Zurich and Berlin, the Bauhaus in Weimar and De Stijl in the Netherlands all printed numerous books and theoretical tracts within the newly emerging International Modernist style. Artist's books from this era include Kurt Schwitters and Kate Steinitz's book The Scarecrow, Theo van Doesburg's periodical De Stijl. Dada was started at the Cabaret Voltaire, by a group of exiled artists in neutral Switzerland during World War I. Influenced by the sound poetry of Wassily Kandinsky, the Blaue Reiter Almanac that Kandinsky had edited with Marc, artists' books, periodicals and absurdist theatre were central to each of Dada's main incarnations. Berlin Dada in particular, started by Richard Huelsenbeck after leaving Zurich in 1917, would publish a number of incendiary artists' books, such as George Grosz's The Face Of The Dominant Class, a series of politically motivated satirical lithographs about the German bourge
A curator is a manager or overseer. Traditionally, a curator or keeper of a cultural heritage institution is a content specialist charged with an institution's collections and involved with the interpretation of heritage material. A traditional curator's concern involves tangible objects of some sort — artwork, historic items, or scientific collections. More new kinds of curators have started to emerge: curators of digital data objects and biocurators. In smaller organizations, a curator may have sole responsibility for acquisitions and for collections care; the curator makes decisions regarding what objects to select, oversees their potential and documentation, conducts research based on the collection and its history, provides proper packaging of art for transportation, shares research with the public and community through exhibitions and publications. In small, volunteer-based museums such as those of local historical societies, a curator may be the only paid staff-member. In larger institutions, the curator's primary function is that of a subject specialist, with the expectation that he or she will conduct original research on objects and guide the organization in its collecting.
Such institutions can have multiple curators, each assigned to a specific collecting area and operating under the direction of a head curator. In such organizations, the physical care of the collection may be overseen by museum collections-managers or by museum conservators, with documentation and administrative matters handled by a museum registrar. In the United Kingdom, the term "curator" applies to government employees who monitor the quality of contract archaeological work under Planning Policy Guidance 16: Archaeology and Planning and manage the cultural resource of a region. In the museum setting, a curator in the United Kingdom may be called a "keeper". In Scotland, the term "curator" is used to mean the guardian of a child, known as curator ad litem. In the US, curators have multifaceted tasks dependent on its mission, but in recent years the role of the curator has evolved alongside the changing role of museums. As US museums have become more digitized, curators find themselves constructing narratives in both the material and digital worlds.
Historian Elaine Gurian has called for museums in which "visitors could comfortably search for answers to their own questions regardless of the importance placed on such questions by others". This would change the role of curator from teacher to "facilitator and assistor". In this sense, the role of curator in the United States is precarious, as digital and interactive exhibits allow members of the public to become their own curators, to choose their own information. Citizens are able to educate themselves on the specific subject they are interested in, rather than spending time listening to information they have no desire to learn. More advances in new technologies have led to a further widening of the role of curator; this has been a focus in major art institutions internationally and has become an object of academic study and research. In contemporary art, the title "curator" identifies a person who selects and interprets works of art. In addition to selecting works, the curator is responsible for writing labels, catalog essays, other content supporting exhibitions.
Such curators may be permanent staff members, "guest curators" from an affiliated organization or university, or "freelance curators" working on a consultancy basis. The late-20th century saw an explosion of artists organizing exhibitions; the artist-curator has a long tradition of influence, notably featuring Sir Joshua Reynolds, inaugural president of the Royal Academy of Arts, founded in 1768. In some US cultural organizations, the term "curator" may designate the head of any given division; this has led to the proliferation of titles such as "Curator of Education" and "Curator of Exhibitions". The term "literary curator" has been used to describe persons who work in the field of poetry, such as former 92nd Street Y poetry-director Karl Kirchwey; this trend has been mirrored in the United Kingdom in such institutions as Ikon, Birmingham, UK and Baltic, Gateshead, UK. In Australia and New Zealand, the term applies to a person who prepares a sports ground for use; this job is equivalent to that of groundsman in some other cricketing nations.
In France, the term curator is translated as conservateur. There are two kinds of curators: heritage curators with five specialities, librarian curators; these curators are selected by competitive examination and attend the INP. The "conservateurs du patrimoine" are civil servants or work in the public service. Curators hold a high academic degree in their subject a Doctor of Philosophy or a master's degree in subjects such as history, history of art, archaeology, anthropology, or classics. Curators are expected to have contributed to their academic field, for example, by delivering public talks, publishing articles, or presenting at specialist academic conferences, it is important that curators have knowledge of the current collecting market for their area of expertise, are aware of current ethical practices and laws that may impact their organisation's collecting. The increa
Otis College of Art and Design
Otis College of Art and Design is a private art and design school in Los Angeles, California. Established in 1918, it was the city's first independent professional school of art; the main campus is located in the former IBM Aerospace Headquarters at 9045 Lincoln Boulevard in Westchester, Los Angeles. The school's programs, accredited by WASC and National Association of Schools of Art and Design, include four-year BFA degrees in illustration, fine arts, graphic design, landscape design, interior design, fashion design, digital media, toy design, product design, it offers MFA degrees in fine arts, graphic design, public practice, writing. Undergraduate students choose a major in their second year, after completing a battery of traditional drawing, painting and construction classes in their first or "Foundation" year. In addition to studio work, standard liberal arts courses are required, although traditional history courses are replaced by art history. Otis, long considered one of the major art institutions in California, began in 1918, when Los Angeles Times founder Harrison Gray Otis bequeathed his Westlake, Los Angeles, property to start the first public, independent professional school of art in Southern California.
The current Otis College main campus is located in the Westchester area of Los Angeles, close to the Los Angeles International Airport. The main building was designed by architect Eliot Noyes for IBM and is famous for its computer "punched card" style windows; the building was extensively remodeled in 1997 by the college when it moved from its original location across the street from MacArthur Park near downtown Los Angeles. The Galef Center, made for the Fine Arts department, was designed by Fredrick Fisher and built in 2001. A ceramics school was begun by Peter Voulkos at Otis in the 1950s and was part of art movements like the Craft-to-Art movement known as the American Clay Revolution, which influenced the Ferus Gallery scene of the 1960s. Many prominent artists associated with Southern California’s Light and Space movement were involved with the school, as well as leaders of the conceptual art world of the 1970s. Moreover, Otis nurtured significant Latino artists, the mural group Los Four originated at Otis in the 1970s.
The school was named Otis Art Institute. From 1978 until 1991, it was affiliated with New York's Parsons School of Design and known as Otis-Parsons; this affiliation allowed students to spend a semester or more at the Parsons schools in New York and Paris. In 1991, it became known as Otis College of Art and Design. Today it is one of the most culturally diverse private schools of design in the country; the Economist ranked Otis College of Art and Design 6th among national universities in its 2015 ranking of the U. S. best colleges for'Value of Education' based on sophisticated evaluation method and by alumni earnings above expectation. Money Magazine ranked Otis fourth for "Best Value Added College." Otis is well known for its BFA degrees offered in fashion design. Under the direction of Rosemary Brantley, this program is considered one of the top fashion design programs of its kind in the U. S. Otis Fashion Design is housed at the California Market Center in downtown Los Angeles. Students benefit from working with design mentors and are trained in all aspects of the design process while emulating a fashion design studio, following the industry’s seasonal schedule.
Visiting critics have included designers such as Bob Mackie, Francisco Costa for Calvin Klein, Vera Wang, Diane von Fürstenberg, Isabel Toledo, Isaac Mizrahi, Todd Oldham. Major designers such as Eduardo Lucero and Rick Owens are alumni of the program. Past: Norman Rockwell 2005: Shahzia Sikander 2006: Masami Teraoka 2007: Nancy Chunn 2008: Mark Dean Veca 1920s: Bob Clampett, Ralston Crawford, Harwell Hamilton Harris, Edith Head, Arthur Hill Gilbert, John Hench, Paul Landacre, Ben H. Lewis, Edward L. Thrasher, Milford Zornes, Wilfred Jackson, Thomas McKimson, George Stanley, Alice Taylor Gafford 1930s: Gladys Aller Philip Guston, Dorothy Jeakins, Tyrus Wong, Hideo Date 1940s: John Altoon, Joseph Mugnaini, George Chann 1950s: John Baldessari, Billy Al Bengston, Robert Irwin, John Mason, Paul Soldner, Tom Van Sant, Stan Bitters, Kenneth Price, Dean Tavoularis, Virginia Jaramillo 1960s: Bas Jan Ader, Barry Le Va, Masami Teraoka, John Lees, Richard Pettibone, Norman Zammitt 1970s: Carlos Almaraz, Alonzo Davis, Dorothy Faison, Kim Gordon, David Hammons, Judithe Hernández, Bryan Hunt, Kerry James Marshall, May Sun, Kent Twitchell, Bruce Yonemoto, Coleen Sterritt, Roberto Gil de Montes, Judithe Hernandez 1980s: Diane Gamboa, Lawrence Gipe, Rebecca Jo Morales, Jim Rygiel, Alison Saar, Michael S. Smith, Patssi Valdez, Jeffrey Vallance, Darren Waterston, Ruben Ochoa, Sandow Birk, Tim Biskup, Rick Owens, Sarah Perry, Steve Roden, Mark Dean Veca, Dawn Baillie 1990s: Abhay Deol, Gajin Fujita, Camille Rose Garcia, Eduardo Lucero, Khoi Vinh, Hideko Takahashi, Emma Ferreira, Garth Trinidad Claire Pettibone.
2000s: David Tai Bornoff, Faris McReynolds, Hana Mae Lee, Mayuka Thaïs 2010s: Kour Pour The Ben Maltz Gallery at Otis College is a professional art space that presents group and solo exhibitions in a variety of media. The Gallery's main focus is showcasing contemporary art that pushes the boundaries of form and subject matter in the context of national and international programming. Serving the local art community, the public, Otis students and faculty, the Maltz Gallery presents emerging and established local as well as international artists; the film Art School Confidential was filmed at Otis. Otis Foundation Prof
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the second half of the 20th century or in the 21st century. Contemporary artists work in a globally influenced, culturally diverse, technologically advancing world, their art is a dynamic combination of materials, methods and subjects that continue the challenging of boundaries, well underway in the 20th century. Diverse and eclectic, contemporary art as a whole is distinguished by the lack of a uniform, organising principle, ideology, or "-ism". Contemporary art is part of a cultural dialogue that concerns larger contextual frameworks such as personal and cultural identity, family and nationality. In vernacular English and contemporary are synonyms, resulting in some conflation of the terms modern art and contemporary art by non-specialists; some define contemporary art as art produced within "our lifetime," recognising that lifetimes and life spans vary. However, there is a recognition; the classification of "contemporary art" as a special type of art, rather than a general adjectival phrase, goes back to the beginnings of Modernism in the English-speaking world.
In London, the Contemporary Art Society was founded in 1910 by the critic Roger Fry and others, as a private society for buying works of art to place in public museums. A number of other institutions using the term were founded in the 1930s, such as in 1938 the Contemporary Art Society of Adelaide, an increasing number after 1945. Many, like the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston changed their names from ones using "Modern art" in this period, as Modernism became defined as a historical art movement, much "modern" art ceased to be "contemporary"; the definition of what is contemporary is always on the move, anchored in the present with a start date that moves forward, the works the Contemporary Art Society bought in 1910 could no longer be described as contemporary. Particular points that have been seen as marking a change in art styles include the end of World War II and the 1960s. There has been a lack of natural break points since the 1960s, definitions of what constitutes "contemporary art" in the 2010s vary, are imprecise.
Art from the past 20 years is likely to be included, definitions include art going back to about 1970. And early 21st cent. Both an outgrowth and a rejection of modern art". Many use the formulation "Contemporary Art", which avoids this problem. Smaller commercial galleries and other sources may use stricter definitions restricting the "contemporary" to work from 2000 onwards. Artists who are still productive after a long career, ongoing art movements, may present a particular issue. Sociologist Nathalie Heinich draws a distinction between modern and contemporary art, describing them as two different paradigms which overlap historically, she found that while "modern art" challenges the conventions of representation, "contemporary art" challenges the notion of an artwork. She regards Duchamp's Fountain as the starting point of contemporary art, which gained momentum after World War II with Gutai's performances, Yves Klein's monochromes and Rauschenberg's Erased de Kooning Drawing. One of the difficulties many people have in approaching contemporary artwork is its diversity—diversity of material, subject matter, time periods.
It is "distinguished by the lack of a uniform organizing principle, ideology, or -ism" that we so see in other, oftentimes more familiar, art periods and movements. Broadly speaking, we see Modernism as looking at modernist principles—the focus of the work is self-referential, investigating its own materials. Impressionism looks at our perception of a moment through light and color as opposed to attempts at stark realism. Contemporary art, on the other hand, does not have single objective or point of view, its view instead is unclear reflective of the world today. It can be, contradictory and open-ended. There are, however, a number of common themes. While these are not exhaustive, notable themes include: identity politics, the body and migration, contemporary society and culture and memory, institutional and political critique. Post-modern, post-structuralist and Marxist theory have played important roles in the development of contemporary theories of art; the functioning of the art world is dependent on art institutions, ranging from major museums to private galleries, non-profit spaces, art schools and publishers, the practices of individual artists, writers and philanthropists.
A major division in the art world is between the for-profit and non-profit sectors, although in recent years the boundaries between for-profit private and non-profit public institutions have become blurred. Most well-known contemporary art is exhibited by professional artists at commercial contemporary art galleries, by private collectors, art auctions, corporation
Abbot Academy was an independent boarding preparatory school for women boarding and day students in grades 9–12 from 1828 to 1973. Located in Andover, Abbot Academy was notable as one of the first incorporated secondary schools for educating young women in New England, it merged with Phillips Academy in 1973 and campus buildings along School Street continue to be used for the combined school. Some Abbot traditions continue at the combined private boarding school such as Parents' Weekend. Since the 40th anniversary in 2013 of the merger of the two schools, there has been renewed interest in Abbot's history and traditions; the school was founded during a time when the prevailing view was that women's education "should always be relative to men", with some believing that study of "higher subjects" such as philosophy and mathematics might render women to be infertile. One of the first formal discussions to propose a school for young women happened on February 19, 1828; the school was incorporated in 1829 with 70 or 85 pupils from eighteen to twenty years of age for the "exclusive work of educating women".
According to one source, the official opening day was May 6, 1829....to regulate the tempers, to improve the taste, to discipline and enlarge the minds and form the morals of youth... The school received financial support from Sarah Abbot who pledged substantial money, which allowed for loans to begin construction. After mid-century, Abbot faced several challenges: the addition of a public high school in Andover, followed by the challenges of coping with the American Civil War. In 1853, the first principalship was offered to a woman, additional monies were raised for the construction of dormitories. In 1859, the "strong-willed" but "ideologically moderate" McKeen sisters — headmistress Philena and Phebe—exerted strong leadership by adopting a "school-home" approach; the years were marked by substantial expansion of buildings. The McKeens fostered the study of French and German and introduced a "systematic oral language program" on a par with that of Harvard University and which "far outdistanced Phillips Academy", which did not offer any modern language instruction until the mid 1870s.
Under their "no-nonsense" leadership, teachers stayed longer, many for ten or more years. Abbot had always promised order, they loved schedules. Up at 6:00, breakfast at 6:30, clean your room——and a teacher's parlor as well. Though four Irish maids helped out at $1.98 a week, the McKeens considered house work part of education... Miss McKeen might ask a girl to help her change guest beds, questioning her the while on Butler's Analogy. Between 8:00 and 9:00 a.m. older students climbed the Hill for a Geology lecture while younger ones did their daily calisthenics, but all must be on hand for the Devotions that formally opened the school day. Before mid-day dinner everyone wore gym suits with pantaloons, skirts ten inches from the ground.... Recitations continued till 3:30 came Recreation Hours, with time for walking in pairs, mending, croquet, or tennis. Supper followed. Evening Devotions might mean anything from a hymn sing to a prayerful scolding. Bed at 10:00, it was during the late 1800s. The campus was visited by luminaries such as Helen Keller and her teacher Anne Sullivan and Amos Bronson Alcott.
The leadership of Philena and Phebe McKeen was characterized by substantial growth. According to Susan McIntosh Lloyd, Abbot's curriculum "may have surpassed that of Phillips" during these years. After 1910, the only structures built were "gates"; the school was like a "family" but commanded by women, in which "women and girls could enjoy one another as persons without self-consciousness or shame." Abbot's women and girls... One thinks of Victorian women as confined, so they were, they could not initiate friendship with boys or men. Because of this relative isolation from men, loving, lasting friendships between women could thrive, modeled on the close mother-daughter or sister-sister relationships that existed apart from men's affairs; the academy emphasized art education. After starting a small art club in 1871 led by Professor E. A. Park, the academy introduced one of the nation's first History of Art courses in 1873. Painting and drawing were taught by professional painter and alumnus Emily A.
Means who had studied with well-known painters in Europe for four years. Means guided the art department from 1877 to 1892 and served as principal from 1898 to 1911; the school went through challenging times during the Great Depression of the 1930s. In the Depression's first five years, the school lost $60,000 annually as well as a sharp drop in its real-estate assets, the school slipped from having 135 boarders in 1929–30 to 71 boarders in 1933–34. Despite financial concerns, the school continued to dismiss "unruly or lazy students" or those who tucked "dummies into their beds" to spend the night at Phillips Academy. Many other schools folded during the Depression years. During these years, the school taught the "basic college preparatory" program of 3 years of English, 5 years of languages, 2 or 3 years of mathematics, 1 year of science and 1 year of history, as well as physical education, an "all school choral class" and Bible study of one hour a w
NSCAD University called the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, is a post-secondary art school in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. It was founded in 1887 by Anna Leonowens and became the first degree-granting art school in Canada; the university opened in the Union Building in 1887. It was founded by Anna Leonowens, it was called the Victoria School of Art and Design to commemorate Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee. It moved to the Halifax Academy in 1890. In 1903 the school moved to the old National School, it was renamed to the Nova Scotia College of Art in 1925 under the leadership of its president Dr. Frederick Sexton. One of the notable artists to be associated with the school in its early years was Arthur Lismer, a member of the Group of Seven and spent several years as the school president. Elizabeth Styring Nutt succeeded Lismar as president in 1919. In 1957 the school moved into the former St. Andrew's United Church on Coburg Road. A modern 5-storey addition was constructed in 1968; the artist Garry Kennedy was appointed president in 1967 at the age of 31, becoming the youngest president of a Canadian university.
He moved to remake the college from a provincial art school into an international centre for artistic activity. He invited notable artists to come to NSCAD as visiting artists those involved in conceptual art. Artists who made significant contributions during this period include Vito Acconci, Sol LeWitt, Dan Graham, Eric Fischl, Lawrence Weiner, Joseph Beuys and Claes Oldenburg; the school was renamed the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design in 1969, the same year it began granting undergraduate degrees. Kennedy is credited with transforming the school into an internationally recognised centre for cutting-edge art, with Art in America suggesting in 1973 that NSCAD was "the best art school in North America"; the school began to offer graduate programs in 1973. It moved to its current location on Granville Mall in 1978 and the former Coburg Road campus was acquired by Dalhousie University. Garry Kennedy retired from the school's presidency in 1990 to focus on making art. In 2002 the school purchased the Granville Street block of heritage buildings it had leased since 1978, known today as the Fountain Campus.
The institution was renamed NSCAD University in 2003. It opened a second campus, the Academy Building, in 2004; this campus houses the film studies faculty. In 2007 the third campus, the Port Campus, opened at the Halifax Seaport. All three campuses are located in downtown Halifax; the construction of the Port Campus brought the school's debt to a high of $19 million in 2011 after funding from the federal government fell through. The province asked the school to draw up a plan to reduce the debt, it was speculated that NSCAD might lose its autonomy. NSCAD students and alumni mounted a "Save NSCAD" campaign in opposition to a merger with a larger institution; the school commissioned a report to study the idea, but the consultant found that a merger would not result in cost savings. The NSCAD board of governors therefore voted on 15 July 2014 to continue as an independent university; the university's financial position subsequently improved, the debt had been reduced to $13 million by 2015. NSCAD offers bachelor's degrees in Fine Art and Art History.
It offers Master of Fine Arts and Master of Design degrees at the graduate level. Craft Design Fine Arts Foundation Historical and Critical Studies Media Arts NSCAD University Press Libraries The NSCAD University Library was founded early in the school's history and is now located in the Fountain Campus, it is the only design library in Atlantic Canada. Its collection includes over 50,000 books and periodicals as well as the Visual Resources Collection, which comprises 140,000 slides, 16mm films, video tapes and other multimedia materials; the library is a member of Novanet, which facilitates inter-library loans between Nova Scotian academic libraries. Historical fine arts and ceramics; the gallery hosts exhibitions of the work of undergraduate and graduate students, faculty members, visiting artists and curators. The Port Campus hosts the Port Loggia Gallery; the university was formerly home to the Seeds Gallery, a non-profit gallery where students and alumni could show and sell their work. This made NSCAD the only art school in Canada to offer a dedicated commercial gallery, helping students tradition from academia to entrepreneurship.
It was founded by SUNSCAD, the students' union, who turned over control of the gallery to the university in 2007. In 2011 the university moved the gallery from Hollis Street to a more peripheral location at the Seaport, where it had to pay rent for the first time; the new space was a 1,000 square feet gallery in the Annex Building, directly across the street from the Port Campus. In September 2013 the university board of governors decided to close the Seeds Gallery on 31 March 2014; the university governance stated that closure was a cost-saving measure in light of the gallery's $40,000 yearly deficit. The students' union criticized the absence of consultation surrounding the decision and blamed the gallery's financial woes on the decision to relocate it to the Seaport, it stated. In January 2016 the Anna Leonowens Gallery founded the Art Bar + Projects, a space for performance art. NSCAD has a long and distinguished history of offering the public the opportunity to study in a visual arts environment.
The School of Extended Studies continues this tradition by offering the public a wide variety of non-credit studio and audit