Not to be confused with Chuchelna, Liberec Region. Chuchelná is a village in Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic, it is part of micro-region Hlučínsko. It has around 1,300 inhabitants. Official website
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
Dolní Životice is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. As of January 1, 2008, the population was 1,150; the first written mention of the village was in 1320. Official website
Chvalíkovice is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. As of March 7, 2006, the population was 687; the first written mention of the village was in 1445. Official website
For a village in Liberec Region see Kravaře. Kravaře is a town in Silesia in the Czech Republic, it has 6,650 inhabitants. It is located between Opava, it is part of the Hlučínsko micro-region. The first historical record of Kravaře is from 1224. For centuries Kravaře was only a village. Being located in the multi-ethnic Hlučín Region of Czech Silesia, Kravaře was a notable exception to the mass Expulsion of the Germans from Czechoslovakia following World War II, retaining a sizeable ethnic German community; as of 2006, ethnic Germans were a majority of one of them being its mayor. There is an ice-hockey venue Buly Aréna, opened in 2003; the town's football team is SK Kravaře. Alois Hadamczik - head coach of Czech national ice hockey team Josef Jařab - the rector of the Palacký University of Olomouc, professor in English and American Studies Pavel Kravař - a Hussite physician burned at the stake for heresy in St Andrews, Scotland in 1433 Erich Šefčík - Silesian historian, founder of the local Museum Ivo Žídek - soloist of National Theatre in Prague Monika Žídková - Miss Europe 1995 Official website
Čermná ve Slezsku
Čermná ve Slezsku is a village in the district of Opava, Czech Republic. As of 2013, there were 380 inhabitants; the village Čermná was founded under the Přemyslid dynasty in the 14th century. The first written mention of the village was in 1377, by which time Moravia was under the control of the House of Luxembourg
Branka u Opavy
Branka u Opavy is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It lies 4 km south of Opava; the village was first mentioned in a written document in 1257. Moravice River flows through the village. Official website