Noise rock is a noise-oriented style of experimental rock that spun off from punk rock in the 1980s. Drawing on movements such as minimalism, industrial music, New York hardcore, artists indulge in extreme levels of distortion through the use of electric guitars and, less electronic instrumentation, either to provide percussive sounds or to contribute to the overall arrangement; some groups are tied to song structures, such as Sonic Youth. Although they are not representative of the entire genre, they helped popularize noise rock among alternative rock audiences by incorporating melodies into their droning textures of sound, which set a template that numerous other groups followed. Noise rock fuses rock to noise with recognizable "rock" instrumentation, but with greater use of distortion and electronic effects, varying degrees of atonality and white noise. One notable band of this genre is Sonic Youth who took inspiration from the no wave composers Glenn Branca and Rhys Chatham. Sonic Youth's Thurston Moore has stated: "Noise has taken the place of punk rock.
People who play noise have no real aspirations to being part of the mainstream culture. Punk has been co-opted, this subterranean noise music and the avant-garde folk scene have replaced it." While the music had been around for some time, the term "noise rock" was coined in the 1980s to describe an offshoot of punk groups with an abrasive approach. An archetypal album is the Velvet Underground's White Light/White Heat. Treblezine's Joe Gross credits the "cult classic" with being the first noise rock album, accordingly, "perhaps it’s an obvious starting point, but it’s the starting point. Period."While noise rock has never had any mainstream popularity, the raw and feedback-intensive sound of some noise rock bands had an influence on grunge. Among them are Wisconsin's Killdozer, most notably San Francisco's Flipper, a band known for its slowed-down and murky "noise punk"; the Butthole Surfers' mix of punk, heavy metal and noise rock was a major influence on the early work of Soundgarden. Starting in the 1990s, noise punk developed as a form of party music, with the band Lightning Bolt serving as key players in the 2000s noise punk scene in Providence, Rhode Island.
List of noise rock bands List of noise musicians
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
Adult Swim is the adult-oriented nighttime programming block of the American children's cable network Cartoon Network and its own television production studio Williams Street Productions. It broadcasts every night from 8 p.m.-6 a.m.. Williams Street produces Toonami, block-within-a-block, on Adult Swim and produced Miguzi. Debuting in 2001, Adult Swim serves as the nighttime identity of Cartoon Network, was established as alternative programming during the late night hours when Cartoon Network's primary target audience, children between the ages of 6–15, would be sleeping. Much of Adult Swim's general content is known for their experimental, risqué, crude and improvisational humor, along with purposefully cheap-looking animation, bizarre presentation. In 2005, the block was granted its own Nielsen ratings report from Cartoon Network due to targeting a separate demographic; the block features stylistically varied animated and live-action shows including original programming, syndicated series consisting of Fox animated programming, short films, original video animation, anime with minimal or no editing for content.
In the United States, Adult Swim has aired adult animation features, mockumentaries, sketch comedy, live action, pilots. Shows may have sexual themes, frank sexual discussion, strong language, graphic violence. While the network features comedic and dramatic programs of all types, many of its programs are aesthetically experimental, transgressive and surrealist in nature. Thus, Adult Swim has become a source of conflict, with some saying that it is too controversial, while others noting that its ability to question the norm brings a level of surrealism and experimentalism, welcome. Adult Swim has contracted with various studios known for their productions in absurd and shock comedy; as with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim's reach through various services totals 94 million American households. Cartoon Network's original head programmer, Mike Lazzo, conceived Adult Swim; the block grew out of Cartoon Network's previous attempts at airing content appropriate for teenagers and young adults who might be watching the channel after 11 pm.
The network began experimenting with its late night programming by airing anthology shows like ToonHeads, The Bob Clampett Show, The Tex Avery Show, Late Night Black and White, O Canada, which all presented uncensored classic cartoon shorts, as well as blocks such as Toonami Midnight Run. In numerous interviews, it had been stated that at the time, one third of Cartoon Network's audience were adults. During the 1990s, prime time animation geared at adults started growing popular due to the success of Fox's hit show The Simpsons; this was followed by a trend of other adult-oriented animated shows throughout the decade, such as: Liquid Television and Butt-Head, Aeon Flux, The Brothers Grunt, The Critic, The Maxx, King of the Hill, South Park, Space Ghost Coast to Coast, Dr. Katz, Professional Therapist, The Oblongs, Clerks: The Animated Series, Mission Hill, Home Movies, Family Guy, more. Space Ghost Coast to Coast, Cartoon Network's first foray into original programming, was created in 1994 for late night adult audiences.
The series was created by Mike Lazzo's Ghost Planet Industries, which became Williams Street Studios, the eventual producers and programmers of Adult Swim. Between 4:00 am and 5:00 am on December 21, December 30, 2000, several new Williams Street series made unannounced "stealth" premieres. Sealab 2021, Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law, Aqua Teen Hunger Force and The Brak Show all premiered unannounced. Prior to that, in Entertainment Weekly, it was stated that Michael Ouweleen's next project was working on the Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law Pilot with J. J. Sedelmaier. In a 1999 interview, the indie pop rock band Calamine stated they had recorded the theme song for Sealab 2021. While entertaining pitches for a variety of adult cartoons, Lazzo realized the potential for packaging them as a complete adult-focused block. Different names were considered, including “ibiso”, said to be Spanish for “stop”, “Parental Warning", but he settled on "Adult Swim". In June 2001, TV Guide had recorded an interview with Cartoon Network's former president, Betty Cohen.
She stated there was a new programming block coming out in September, aimed for an adult audience. During this month at the Cartoon Network Confidential, "Cartoon Network's best originals and outrageous animated shorts for discriminating adults" in New York City, an upcoming episode of Space Ghost Coast to Coast titled "Kentucky Nightmare", the stealth pilots from December, Captain Linger, an episode of Home Movies were screened for free; the screening was part of the Toyota Comedy Festival. On Saturday, July 21, 2001, the Space Ghost Coast to Coast panel at San Diego Comic Con had a trivia game in which the winners won a promotional CD that had the theme songs to the upcoming Adult Swim Shows. Everybody who attended got a free Adult
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Dødheimsgard is a Norwegian extreme metal band formed in 1994. Dødheimsgard was a black metal band, but 1999's 666 International saw them change into an experimental and avant-garde / industrial metal band. In 2000, they shortened their name to DHG, their name,"Dødheimsgard" is a contraction of three words: Død which means'death', heim which means'home' and gard which means'realm'. A natural translation into English would be "Realm of Death"; the band was founded in the year 1994, the band at the time consisted of three members: Vicotnik, Fenriz & Aldrahn This line up recorded a promotional demo before releasing their debut album Kronet til Konge on Malicious Records in 1995. After the release of the album they recorded another promotional demo. Sometime after the release of their second promo Fenriz had left the band, in his place Alver, Apollyon, joined the band; this line up recorded the album Monumental Possession in December 1995, released it in 1996. For their follow up effort, an Extended Play named Satanic Art released in 1998, the band was joined by new members Galder, whom at the time was a member of Old Man's Child and would go on to join Dimmu Borgir, Cerberus, who replaced Alver, & Zweizz.
On this release, Apollyon switched to playing the drums instead of guitar. Sometime after the release of the EP, Galder & Cerberus would depart from the band; the following year Dødheimsgard recorded the next album in their catalogue entitled 666 International, released in 1999. For this album the band had a new member, Czral, on Drums, as Apollyon once again switched instruments and played bass. Sometime after the band had released their previous album, Zweizz & Apollyon had departed from the band's ranks; the band had been working on new material & featured new members Kvohst, Thrawn Hellspawn & Clandestine. When recording the new album the band featured Czral & Bliss. Aldrahn made a guest appearance on the album as well. In 2006, they completed the new album Supervillain Outcast, released in April 2007 by Moonfog Productions and The End Records. On January 4, 2008, it was announced. However, in October 2010, he had new members Terghl & Blargh had joined the band. Sometime during 2011, the band announced.
In the period following Kvhost's departure it appeared that members Blargh, Thrawn Hellspawn & Clandestine had departed from the group. In 2013, original vocalist, was announced to have made his return to the group & that the band were working on a new album; the band released their fifth studio album, A Umbra Omega, on March 16, 2015. After the release of the album new members Thunberg & L. E. Måløy had joined the group. In June 2016 Vicotnik announced that Aldrahn had once again left the band due to strains on their personal relationship; the band continued to tour despite Aldrahn's absence with Vitcotnik performing lead vocals for the entirety of the shows during their arranged performance dates. As of January 2018, Dødheimsgard has been working on a new album. Vicotnik - Drums, Vocals Guitar Sekaran - Drums Thunberg - Guitars L. E. Måløy - Bass Aldrahn - Guitar Lead Vocals Alver - Bass Apollyon - Guitars, Drums, Bass Cerberus - Bass Czral - Drums Fenriz - Vocals, Bass Galder - Guitar Kvohst - Vocals Mr. Magic Logic/Hologram/Zweizz - Keyboards, Effects Thrawn Hellspawn - Guitar Blargh - Guitar Clandestine - Bass Jormundgand - Synthesizer, Keyboards Void - Bass Czral - Drums on Supervillain Outcast Mort - Samples on Supervillain Outcast Bliss - Programming on Supervillian Outcast Inflabitan - Guitar, Bass Øyvind Myrvoll - Drums Kronet Til Konge Monumental Possession Satanic Art 666 International Supervillain Outcast A Umbra Omega Dødheimsgard official website Dødheimsgard discography at MusicBrainz DHG Interview 2007 Interview with Bjørn Dencker aka ALDRAHN 2008 on avantgarde-metal.com
Avant-garde metal is a subgenre of heavy metal music loosely defined by use of experimentation and innovative, avant-garde elements, including non-standard and unconventional sounds, song structures, playing styles, vocal techniques. Avant-garde metal is influenced by progressive rock and extreme metal death metal, is related to progressive metal; some local scenes include Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area and Seattle in the United States, Oslo in Norway, Tokyo in Japan. "Avant-garde metal" is interchangeable with "experimental metal" and "avant-metal", may refer to a separate genre of "atmospheric metal" or "post-metal", named in reference to post-rock. Avant-garde metal is related to progressive metal, but avant-garde metal has more experimentation, while progressive metal has a tighter focus on traditional metal instrumentation and higher levels of technical complexity. Avant-garde metal uses unusual sounds, breaks conventions, includes new elements; the lyrics and visual presentation of the genre are eclectic as well.
According to Jeff Wagner in Mean Deviation, electronic percussion and drum machines see widespread use by avant-garde metal bands, along with female vocals and operatic elements, all of which he attributes to the influence of the band Celtic Frost. The Canadian group Voivod influenced future bands in the genre, pioneering technique such as robotic vocal effects, unusual time signatures, fractured, unorthodox guitar sounds. According to Ian Christe, avant-garde metal emerged from death metal as a number of musicians "abandoned the wound structure of the music and experimented with abstractions of its founding elements". Progressive rock has been cited as an influence; some early examples are the King Crimson releases Larks' Tongues in Aspic and Red in 1973 and 1974 with the latter album's title track defining an "avant-metal style" that Robert Fripp would revisit years later. Another early example is the 1976 Led Zeppelin album Presence. Pioneers of avant-garde metal include Celtic Frost, Boris, Helmet, maudlin of the Well, Sunn O))), Mr. Bungle, Today is the Day, Voivod.
In the late 1990s, Misanthropy Records emerged as a promoter of Norwegian avant-garde metal until it folded in 2000, according to Jeff Wagner, in the late 1990s and early 2000s, a so-called "new wave of avant-garde metal" was spearheaded by The End Records. Wagner states that "with the support of and other specialty labels, metal's new avant-garde had arrived." Some other record labels which promote avant-garde metal are Aurora Borealis, The Flenser, Holy Records, Hydra Head Records, Ipecac Recordings, Napalm Records, the Release Entertainment imprint of Relapse Records, Seventh Rule Recordings, Southern Lord Records. In the United States, local avant-garde metal scenes have emerged in the San Francisco Bay Area with bands such as Giant Squid and Ludicra, in Boston, with bands such as Isis, Kayo Dot, maudlin of the Well, in Seattle. According to The New York Times, some regional scenes that developed in the mid-1990s included the cities of Tokyo, Los Angeles, Oslo. List of avant-garde metal artists Category:Avant-garde metal albums Wagner, Jeff.
Mean Deviation. Bazillion Points Books. ISBN 0979616336. Avantgarde-Metal.com – website for avant-garde metal