Ludington is a city in the state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 8,076, it is the county seat of Mason County. Ludington is a harbor town located on Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Pere Marquette River. Many people come to Ludington year round for recreation, including boating and swimming on Lake Michigan, Hamlin Lake, other smaller inland lakes, as well as hunting and camping. Nearby are Ludington State Park, Nordhouse Dunes Wilderness, Manistee National Forest. Ludington is the home port of the SS Badger, a vehicle and passenger ferry with daily service in the summer across Lake Michigan to Manitowoc, Wisconsin. Watching the Badger come into port in the evening from the end of the north breakwall by the Ludington lighthouse is a favorite local pastime. Ludington has multiple disc golf courses, attracting numerous players. In summer, the city hosts quite a few large events. Examples are one of the largest Gus Macker basketball tournaments, the Ludington Area Jaycees Freedom Festival, the Lakestride Half Marathon in June, the West Shore Art League's Art Fair.
As a result of its many attractions, Ludington is the fifth-most-popular tourist city in Michigan, behind Mackinaw City, Traverse City and Sault Ste. Marie. In 1675, Father Jacques Marquette, French missionary and explorer and was laid to rest here. A memorial and large iron cross mark the location. There was a petition to remove this monument due to it involving religion, it is still being considered. In 1845, Burr Caswell moved to the area near the mouth of the Pere Marquette River as a location for trapping and fishing. In July 1847, when he brought his family to live there, they became the first permanent residents of European ancestry. Two years they built a two-story wood-framed house on their farm. After the organization of Mason County in 1855, the first floor of this building was converted into the county's first courthouse. Restored in 1976 by the Mason County Historical Society, the structure stands today as a part of White Pine Village, a museum consisting of several restored and replica Mason County buildings.
The town was named Pere Marquette later named after the industrialist James Ludington, whose logging operations the village developed around. Ludington was incorporated as a City in 1873, the same year that the County seat was moved from the Village of Lincoln to the City of Ludington; the area boom in the late 19th century was due to these sawmills and the discovery of salt deposits. By 1892, 162 million board feet of lumber and 52 million wood shingles had been produced by the Ludington sawmills. With all of this commerce occurring, Ludington became a major Great Lakes shipping port. In 1875, the Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad began cross-lake shipping operations with the sidewheel steamer SS John Sherman, it became apparent quite early that the John Sherman was not large enough to handle the volume of freight and the F&PM Railroad contracted with the Goodrich Line of Steamers to handle the break bulk freight out of the Port of Ludington. In 1897, the F&PM railroad constructed the Pere Marquette.
This was the beginning of the creation of a fleet of ferries to continue the rail cargo across Lake Michigan to Manitowoc, Wisconsin. The fleet was expanded to carry cars and passengers across the lake. By the mid-1950s, Ludington had become the largest car ferry port in the world. Due to disuse and declining industry, this fleet dwindled. Only one carferry, the SS Badger, makes regular trips across the lake from Ludington, one of only two lake-crossing car ferries on Lake Michigan. During the late 1910s and early 1920s, Ludington was the home of the Ludington Mariners minor league baseball team. A team of the same name plays "old time base ball" in historical reenactments of the original version of the game. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.71 square miles, of which 3.37 square miles is land and 0.34 square miles is water. The Ludington North Breakwall Light is at the end of the north pierhead on Lake Michigan. Ludington is part of Northern Michigan.
Ludington has a humid continental climate bordering on the hot-summer subtype Dfa seen further south in Michigan. Winters are cold and snowy, albeit somewhat moderated by Lake Michigan, whereas summers are warm and hot, although records have not ranged in the 100 °F as a result of said lake moderation. US 10 enters the city from the east, connecting with Clare and Bay City, it continues across Lake Michigan into Wisconsin via the SS Badger, providing carferry service to Manitowoc. US 31 is a freeway to the south of a junction with US 10 east of Ludington. US 31 and US 10 run concurrently for about five miles east of Ludington before US 31 turns northerly again at Scottville. Bus. US 31 is a section of the former US 31 along Pere Marquette Highway east of the city. M-116 is a spur route providing access to Ludington State Park, to the north of the city, from US 10 downtown. In addition, U. S. Bicycle Route 20 runs through Ludington ends at south side of the city; as of the 2010 census, there were 8,076 people, 3,549 households, 2,004 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,396.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,432 housing units at an average density of 1,315.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.2% White, 1.1% African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 2.0% from other races, a
A light characteristic is a graphic and text description of a navigational light sequence or colour displayed on a nautical chart or in a Light List with the chart symbol for a lighthouse, buoy or sea mark with a light on it. The graphic indicates how the real light may be identified when looking at its actual light output type or sequence. Different lights use different colours and light patterns, so mariners can identify which light they are seeing. While light characteristics can be described in prose, e.g. "Flashing white every three seconds", lists of lights and navigation chart annotations use abbreviations. The abbreviation notation is different from one light list to another, with dots added or removed, but it follows a pattern similar to the following. An abbreviation of the type of light, e.g. "Fl." for flashing, "F." for fixed. The color of the light, e.g. "W" for white, "G" for green, "R" for red, "Y" for yellow. If no color is given, a white light is implied; the cycle period, e.g. "10s" for ten seconds.
Additional parameters are sometimes added:The height of the light above the chart datum for height. E.g. 15m for 15 metres. The range in which the light is visible, e.g. "10M" for 10 nautical miles. An example of a complete light characteristic is "Gp Oc W 10s 15m 10M"; this indicates that the light is a group occulting light in which a group of three eclipses repeat every 10 seconds. A fixed light, abbreviated "F", is a steady light. A flashing light is a rhythmic light in which the total duration of the light in each period is shorter than the total duration of the darkness and in which the flashes of light are all of equal duration, it is most used for a single-flashing light which exhibits only single flashes which are repeated at regular intervals, in which case it is abbreviated as "Fl". It can be used with a group of flashes which are repeated, in which case the abbreviation is "Fl" or "Gr Fl", for a group of two flashes. Another possibility is a composite group, in which successive groups in the period have different numbers of flashes, e.g. "Fl." indicates a group of two flashes, followed by one flash.
A specific case sometimes used is. Such a light is sometimes denoted "long flashing" with the abbreviation "L. Fl". If the frequency of flashes is large the light is denoted as a "quick light", see below. An occulting light is a rhythmic light in which the duration of light in each period is longer than the total duration of darkness. In other words, it is the opposite to a flashing light where the total duration of darkness is longer than the duration of light, it has the appearance of flashing off, rather than flashing on. Like a flashing light, it can be used for a single occulting light that exhibits only a single period of darkness or the periods of darkness can be grouped and repeated at regular intervals, a group or a composite group; the term occulting is used because the effect was obtained by a mechanism periodically shading the light from view. An isophase light, abbreviated "Iso", is a light which has light periods of equal length; the prefix derives from the Greek iso- meaning "same".
A quick light, abbreviated "Q", is a special case of a flashing light with a large frequency. If the sequence of flashes is interrupted by repeated eclipses of constant and long duration, the light is denoted "interrupted quick", abbreviated "I. Q". Group notation similar to flashing and occulting lights is sometimes used, e.g. Q. Another distinction sometimes made is between quick quick and ultra quick; this can be combined with notations for interruptions, e.g. I. U. Q for interrupted ultra quick, or grouping, e.g. V. Q for a quick group of nine flashes. Quick characteristics can be followed by other characteristics, e.g. VQ LFl for a quick group of six flashes, followed by a long flash. A Morse code light is light in which appearances of light of two different durations are grouped to represent a character or characters in the Morse Code. For example, "Mo" is a light in which in each period light is shown for a short period followed by a long period, the Morse Code for "A". A fixed and flashing light, abbreviated "F. Fl", is a light in which a fixed low intensity light is combined with a flashing high intensity light.
An alternating light, abbreviated "Al", is a light. For example, "Al WG" shows green lights alternately. Lighthouse Pilotage Signal lamp U. S. ATON light characteristic terms illustrated
Big Sable Point Light
The Big Sable Point Light is a lighthouse on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan near Ludington in Mason County, Michigan, at the Ludington State Park. It is an active aid to navigation. On July 28, 1866, Congress appropriated $35,000 for a new lighthouse at Big Sable Point. 933 acres was deeded from the State of Michigan to the U. S. at no cost and in early 1867 construction began. Built in 1867, the 112-foot tower was made of yellow cream brick, it has a focal plane of 106 feet. The building was made of so-called Cream City Brick; the brick deteriorated and was thereafter covered with boiler plate in 1900. Construction materials were brought up by ships; the first road to the site was not completed until 1933. Because the brick deteriorated from exposure to the elements, a steel plate encasement was installed in 1900 at a cost of $3,225; the yellow brick now encased in steel plate was difficult to see and a daymark was needed. Several changes to the daymark over the years were made; the tower is painted white with a black watch tower and a black band around the middle of the tower.
As shown in a historic post card, it was painted white at one time. It was the last Great Lakes Lighthouse to get electricity and plumbing, which came in the late 1940s; the original lens was a third order Fresnel lens, inscribed "Co.. Constructeurs." It was removed in 1985, is now on display at the Rose Hawley Museum at White Pine Village. The lighthouse follows a design first used at New Presque Isle Light, used on several other lights on the Great Lakes. After the light was automated, the keeper's house was vandalized. In 1986, the lighthouse station was leased to the Foundation for Behavioral Research; the foundation has worked with the Big Sable Lighthouse Association to preserve the buildings. Lighthouse keepers were: Alonzo Hyde, Sr. Alonzo W. Hyde, Newton Bird, Burr Caswell, Hans Hansen, James Rich, Tomas Bailey, George Blake, Samuel Gagnon, Joseph Kimmers, Leweilyn Vanatter, George Rogan, David Sauers, Henry Vavrina, Homer Meverden. In the middle of the 20th Century, 1949, Big Sable was electrified.
It was the last Great Lakes light to give up wicks. This paved the elimination of the Lighthouse keeper's job; the fog horn, steam and diesel. Buildings at the lightstation included the tower and dwelling, fog signal building, boat house, three oil houses, two privy's and a Diaphone fog signal; the fog signal building fell into the lake due to erosion in 1943. The site is the subject of constant erosion, so that keeping the foundation in place and the water away from undermining it has been a recurrent and expensive battle. Listed as Big Sable Point Light Station in the National Register of Historic Places in 1983 as reference #83004296, it is on the state inventory list. A historical marker in front of the lighthouse reads: Called Grande Pointe au Sable by French explorers and traders, Big Sable Point was an important landmark for mariners traveling a treacherous stretch of Lake Michigan shoreline between Big Sable Point and present-day Ludington. In 1855 twelve ships wrecked in that area. Commerce linked to the burgeoning lumber industry required Big Sable Point be suitably lighted.
State Senator Charles Mears pressed the legislature to ask the federal government for a light station at Big Sable. In 1866 the U. S. Congress appropriated $35,000 for a lighthouse, built the following year; as the lumbering era waned, steamers carrying coal foodstuffs and tourists continued to rely on the lighthouse for navigation. The Big Sable Point Lighthouse is one of the few Michigan lights with a tower reaching 100 feet. Completed in 1867 Big Sable's tower measured 112 feet high. In 1900 the deteriorating brick tower was encased in steel; the keeper's dwelling, which once housed a single family, has been enlarged over the years, resulting in the present three-family residence. Indoor plumbing and heating and a diesel electric generator were added in 1953. In 1953 power lines were extended to the Point. In 1966 the tradition of light-keeping begun in 1867 by Alonzo A. Hyde and his wife Laura ended when the station was automated. Big Sable Point Light Station is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
The lighthouse was transferred to state ownership on November 1, 2002. The site manager is the Sable Points Light Keepers Association. Take state highway M-116 north from Ludington to Lakeshore Drive. Proceed north for 6.5-mile to Ludington State Park. A vehicle permit is required and a fee collected, it is under the care of the Sable Point Lightkeepers Association, formed in 1986. The organization has been instrumental in restoring associated buildings. A volunteer keeper program makes is possible for volunteers to live and work in the lighthouse for two week periods. There is a waiting list to do this. Tours are available, events do occur. Bus transportation is available June 24, July 13 & 29, August 12 & 26th and September 23, 2017. Buses travel from the State Park Rangers House inside the State Park to the lighthouse is from 12pm to 5pm. Round trip cost is $2.00 for children 12 and under. Otherwise, access requires a 1.5-mile walk up the hiking trail. Big Sable Lighthouse is open daily May 8 through November 2017 from 10 am to 5 pm.
Cost to climb the tower is $5.00 for $2.00 for children 12 and under. Gift shop and video room are open to al
Pere Marquette River
The Pere Marquette River is a river in Michigan in the United States. The main stream of this river is 63.9 miles long, running from Lake County south of Baldwin into the Pere Marquette Lake, from there into Lake Michigan. This river is named after the French Roman Catholic missionary Jacques Marquette, who explored the Great Lakes and Mississippi River areas during the mid-17th century, he died in the vicinity of the river in spring 1675 on his way from Chicago to the French fort at Mackinaw. The upper portion of the Pere Marquette runs 44 miles from the forks of the Little South and Middle Branches downstream to highway M-37. In 1978, 66 miles of the river was designated a National Scenic River; this section begins near Baldwin at the junction of the Little South and Middle Branches and continues until the river meets U. S. Highway 31 in Scottville; the Pere Marquette River is designated a Blue Ribbon fishery. This river's original native fish was the Grayling, but due to deforestation after the great Chicago Fire, they disappeared from the river.
It was stocked with rainbow trout in 1876. In 1884, the Baldwin River, a major tributary, became the first American river to be stocked with European brown trout fish, which were imported from Germany, is why they are referred to by some as German Brown Trout. King Salmon introduced in the 1960s Steelhead Trout Brook trout Western chorus frog Bullfrog Crayfish Northern leopard frog Mudpuppy Eastern tiger salamander and several other species of salamander Northern water snake Copper-bellied water snake Common snapping turtle Red-eared slider Five-lined skink Muskrat Mink Beaver Weasel Wood Duck New Zealand mud snail, an invasive species North American River Otter Pere Marquette River Michigan Department of Natural Resources
Breakwaters are structures constructed near the coasts as part of coastal management or to protect an anchorage from the effects of both weather and longshore drift. Breakwaters reduce the intensity of wave action in inshore waters and thereby reduce coastal erosion or provide safe harbourage. Breakwaters may be small structures designed to protect a sloping beach and placed 100–300 feet offshore in shallow water. An anchorage is only safe if ships anchored there are protected from the force of high winds and powerful waves by some large underwater barrier which they can shelter behind. Natural harbours are formed by such barriers as reefs. Artificial harbours can be created with the help of breakwaters. Mobile harbours, such as the D-Day Mulberry harbours, were floated into position and acted as breakwaters; some natural harbours, such as those in Plymouth Sound, Portland Harbour, Cherbourg, have been enhanced or extended by breakwaters made of rock. The dissipation of energy and relative calm water created in the lee of the breakwaters encourage accretion of sediment.
However, this can lead to excessive salient build up, resulting in tombolo formation, which reduces longshore drift shoreward of the breakwaters. This trapping of sediment can cause adverse effects down-drift of the breakwaters, leading to beach sediment starvation and increased erosion; this may lead to further engineering protection being needed down-drift of the breakwater development. Breakwaters are subject to damage, overtopping in severe storms. Breakwaters can be constructed with one end linked to the shore, otherwise they are positioned offshore 330–1,970 feet from the original shoreline. There are two main types of offshore breakwater and multiple. Length of gap is governed by the interacting wavelengths. Breakwaters may be either fixed or floating, impermeable or permeable to allow sediment transfer shoreward of the structures, the choice depending on tidal range and water depth, they consist of large pieces of rock weighing up to 16 tonnes each, or rubble-mound. Their design is influenced by the angle of other environmental parameters.
Breakwater construction can be either parallel or perpendicular to the coast, depending on the shoreline requirements. Salient formations as a result of breakwaters are a function of the distance the breakwaters are built from the coast, the direction at which the wave hits the breakwater, the angle at which the breakwater is built. Of these three, the angle at which the breakwater is built is most important in the engineered formation of salients; the angle at which the breakwater is built determines the new direction of the waves, in turn the direction that sediment will flow and accumulate over time. A breakwater structure is designed to absorb the energy of the waves that hit it, either by using mass, or by using a revetment slope. In coastal engineering, a revetment is a land backed structure whilst a breakwater is a sea backed structure. Rubble mound breakwaters use structural voids to dissipate the wave energy. Rubble mound breakwaters consist of piles of stones more or less sorted according to their unit weight: smaller stones for the core and larger stones as an armour layer protecting the core from wave attack.
Rock or concrete armour units on the outside of the structure absorb most of the energy, while gravels or sands prevent the wave energy's continuing through the breakwater core. The slopes of the revetment are between 1:1 and 1:2, depending upon the materials used. In shallow water, revetment breakwaters are relatively inexpensive; as water depth increases, the material requirements—and hence costs—increase significantly. Caisson breakwaters have vertical sides and are erected where it is desirable to berth one or more vessels on the inner face of the breakwater, they use the mass of the caisson and the fill within it to resist the overturning forces applied by waves hitting them. They are expensive to construct in shallow water, but in deeper sites they can offer a significant saving over revetment breakwaters. An additional rubble mound is sometimes placed in front of the vertical structure in order to absorb wave energy and thus reduce wave reflection and horizontal wave pressure on the vertical wall.
Such a design provides additional protection on the sea side and a quay wall on the inner side of the breakwater, but it can enhance wave overtopping. A similar but more sophisticated concept is a wave-absorbing caisson, including various types of perforation in the front wall; such structures have been used in the offshore oil-industry, but on coastal projects requiring rather low-crested structures, e.g. on an urban promenade where the sea view is an important aspect like in Beirut and Monaco. In the latter, a project is presently ongoing at the Anse du Portier including 18 wave-absorbing 27 m high caissons. Wave attenuators consist of concrete elements properly dimensioned placed horizontally just one feet under the free surface, positioned along a line parallel to the coast; the wave attenuator has four sea-side slabs, one vertical slab, two rear-side slabs, each separated from the next by a space of 200 millimetres. This row of 4 front side slabs and two rear side slabs
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern
The prow is the forward-most part of a ship's bow that cuts through the water. The prow is the part of the bow above the waterline; the terms prow and bow are used interchangeably to describe the most forward part of a ship and its surrounding parts. In old naval parlance, the prow was the battery of guns placed in the fore gun-deck. Glossary of nautical terms