Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region and was the first capital city of Italy. The city is located mainly on the bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 892,649 while the population of the area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million, in 1997 a part of the historical center of Torino was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, many of Turins public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. This was after the capital of the Duchy of Savoy was moved to Turin from Chambery as part of the urban expansion, the city used to be a major European political center.
Turin was Italys first capital city in 1861 and home to the House of Savoy, from 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of the unified Italy. Turin is sometimes called the cradle of Italian liberty for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour. The city currently hosts some of Italys best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, in addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana. Turins attractions make it one of the worlds top 250 tourist destinations, Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the worlds 78th richest city by purchasing power, as of 2010, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry, the Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont.
In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibals forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum, both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurinis country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times. In the 1st century BC, the Romans created a military camp, the typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the path of the Roman citys decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani. The Porta Palatina, on the side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford.
Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research
Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars. The team ran cars in motorsport series, including Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Ford, Formula Junior, IndyCar. The Lotus name returned to Formula One in 2010, as the name of Tony Fernandess Lotus Racing team. In 2011, Team Lotuss iconic black-and-gold livery returned to F1 as the livery of the Lotus Renault GP team, sponsored by Lotus Cars, colin Chapman established Lotus Engineering Ltd in 1952 at Hornsey, UK. Lotus achieved rapid success with the 1953 Mk 6 and the 1954 Mk 8 sports cars, Team Lotus was split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954. A new Formula Two regulation was announced for 1957, and in Britain, the following year, the Lotus 12 appeared. Driving one in 1958, Allison won the F2 class in the International Trophy at Silverstone, beating Stuart Lewis-Evanss Cooper. As the Coventry Climax engines were enlarged in 1952 to 2. 2-litres, Chapman decided to enter Grand Prix racing, running a pair of Lotus 12s at Monaco in 1958 for Graham Hill and these were replaced that year by Lotus 16s.
By then, the success had caused it to expand to such an extent that it had to move to new premises at Cheshunt. The first Formula One victory for Team Lotus came when Innes Ireland won the 1961 United States Grand Prix, a year earlier, Stirling Moss had recorded the first victory for a Lotus car at Monaco in his Lotus 18 entered by the independent Rob Walker Racing Team. There were successes in Formula Two and Formula Junior, the road car business was doing well with the Lotus Seven and the Lotus Elite and this was followed by the Lotus Elan in 1962. In 1963 Clark drove the Lotus 25 to a remarkable seven wins in a season and won the World Championship. The 1964 title was still for the taking by the time of the last race in Mexico but problems with Clarks Lotus, however, in 1965, Clark dominated again, six wins in his Lotus 33 gave him the championship. While very innovative, Chapman came under criticism for the fragility of his designs. In Dave Friedmans book Indianapolis Memories 1961–1969, Dan Gurney is quoted as saying and we had several structural failures in those cars.
But at the time, I felt it was the price you paid for getting something significantly better, a switch to the new Ford Cosworth DFV, designed by former Lotus employee Keith Duckworth, in 1967 returned the team to winning form. Although they failed to win the title in 1967, by the end of the season, the Lotus 49, for 1968 Lotus had lost its exclusive right to use the DFV. The season-opening 1968 South African Grand Prix confirmed Lotuss superiority, with Jim Clark and it would be Clarks last win
Chaparral Cars was a pioneering American automobile racing team and race car developer that engineered and raced cars from 1963 through 1970. Founded in 1962 by American Formula One racers Hap Sharp and Jim Hall, it was named after the roadrunner and Barnes were builders of the original Chaparral race cars. Jim Hall purchased two Chaparral 1s to race, when Hall and Sharp began building their own cars, they asked Troutman and Barnes if they could continue to use the Chaparral name. That is why the Hall/Sharp cars are all named Chaparral 2s, despite winning the Indianapolis 500 in 1980, they left motor racing in 1982. Chaparral cars featured in the SCCA/CASC Can-Am series and Endurance racing, Jim Hall was a leader in the innovation and design of spoilers and ground effects. A high point was the 1966 2E Can-Am car, the 2J CanAm sucker car was the first ground-effects car. The development of the Chaparral chronicles the key changes in race cars in the 1960s and 1970s in both aerodynamics and tires, the embryonic data acquisition systems created by the GM research and development group aided these efforts.
An interview with Hall by Paul Haney illustrates many of these developments, in 1957, Hall raced the front-engined Chaparral through 1962, bought from Troutman and Barnes. Hall and Hap Sharp extensively modified their Chaparral, and eventually decided to build their own car and they obtained permission from Trouman and Barnes to use the Chaparral name, which is why all of Halls cars are called Chaparral 2s. Hall had significant under the assistance from GM, including engineering and technical support in the development of the car. First raced in late 1963, the Chaparral 2 developed into a dominant car in the CanAm series in 1966 and 1967, designed for the 200 mile races of the CanAm series, it was a winner in longer endurance races. In 1965 it shocked the world by winning the 12 Hours of Sebring in a pouring rain storm. The Chaparral 2 featured the use of fiberglass as a chassis material. The Chaparral 2C had an aluminum chassis. It is very difficult to identify all iterations of the car as new ideas were being tested continually, the 2A is the car as originally raced, featuring a very conventional sharp edge to cut through the air.
It featured a concave tail reminiscent of the theories of Wunibald Kamm, as the car evolved, it grew and changed shape. Most call these 2Bs, as raced through the end of 1965, the 2C was the next car with the innovative in-car adjustable rear wing. The integrated spoiler-wing was designed to lie flat for low drag on the straights and this was a direct benefit of the clutchless semi-automatic transmission which kept the drivers left foot free to operate the wing mechanism
John Surtees, CBE was an English Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and Formula One driver. He founded the Surtees Racing Organisation team that competed as a constructor in Formula One, Formula 2 and he was the ambassador of the Racing Steps Foundation. Surtees was the son of a south London motorcycle dealer and he had his first professional outing, which they won, in the sidecar of his fathers Vincent. However, when officials discovered Surteess age, they were disqualified. He entered his first race at 15 in a grasstrack competition, in 1950, at the age of 16, he went to work for the Vincent factory as an apprentice. He made his first headlines in 1951 when he gave Norton star Geoff Duke a strong challenge in an ACU race at the Thruxton Circuit, in 1955, Norton race chief Joe Craig gave Surtees his first factory sponsored ride aboard the Nortons. He finished the year by beating reigning world champion Duke at Silverstone, in 1956 Surtees won the 500cc world championship, MV Agustas first in the senior class.
In this Surtees was assisted by the FIMs decision to ban the defending champion, Geoff Duke, in the 1957 season, the MV Agustas were no match for the Gileras and Surtees battled to a third-place finish aboard a 1957 MV Agusta 500 Quattro. When Gilera and Moto Guzzi pulled out of Grand Prix racing at the end of 1957, Surtees and MV Agusta went on to dominate the competition in the two larger displacement classes. In 1958,1959 and 1960, he won 32 out of 39 races, in 1960, at the age of 26, Surtees switched from motorcycles to cars full-time, making his Formula 1 debut racing in the 1960 BRDC International Trophy at Silverstone for Team Lotus. On 25 September 1965, Surtees had an accident at the Mosport Circuit while practising in a Lola T70 sports racing car. A front upright casting had broken, baime in his book Go Like Hell says Surtees came out of the crash with one side of his body four inches shorter than the other. Doctors set most of the breaks nonsurgically, in part by physically stretching his body until the right-left discrepancy was under an inch –.
The 1966 season saw the introduction of new, larger 3-litre engines to Formula One, Surteess debut with Ferraris new F1 car was at the 1966 BRDC International Trophy at Silverstone, where he qualified and finished a close second behind Jack Brabhams 3-litre Brabham BT19. A few weeks later, Surtees led the Monaco Grand Prix, pulling away from Jackie Stewarts 2-litre BRM on the straights, a fortnight Surtees survived the first lap rainstorm which eliminated half the field and won the Belgian Grand Prix. Due to perennial strikes in Italy, Ferrari could afford to enter two cars for the 196624 Hours of Le Mans instead of its usual entry of three prototypes. Under Le Mans rules in 1966 each car was allowed only two drivers, Surtees was omitted from the line-up and one team Ferrari was to be driven by Mike Parkes and Ludovico Scarfiotti and the other by Jean Guichet and Lorenzo Bandini. This excuse was deeply upsetting to Surtees, and he quit the team
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947
All American Racers
All American Racers is an American auto racing team and constructor based in Santa Ana, California. The Formula One team, based in the United Kingdom and using British-built Weslake engines was named Anglo American Racers, under team manager Bill Dunne they set up shop in Rye, East Sussex. The team were adjacent to Harry Weslakes engine development plant and half a mile from Elva cars and they participated in 25 Grands Prix, entering a total of 34 cars. The first Eagles were created after AAR entered a Goodyear-backed Lotus 38 in the 1965 Indianapolis 500, the resulting Ford-powered Eagle T2G was codeveloped with the Eagle T1G for Formula 1. The company built the Ben Bowlby-designed DeltaWing that was run by Highcroft Racing at the 201224 Hours of Le Mans, in order to run the Formula 1 operations, Gurney established Anglo American Racers. The Eagle T1G, powered by an obsolete Coventry Climax engine, debuted at the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix, in 1967 Richie Ginther was signed as a second driver.
The Climax engine was replaced by a new 3-liter Weslake V12 designed by Aubrey Woods, at Spa-Francorchamps in June of that same year Gurney got a victory, the first all-American victory in a Grand Prix since Jimmy Murphy in 1921. Excluding the Indianapolis 500, this is the win for a USA-built car in Formula One. The Eagle-Weslake was a beautiful and efficient car, one example of which was constructed in titanium, more than this, the Eagle was designed to make the tall Gurney fit comfortably at the wheel. Their efforts produced a V12 that was smooth and powerful, at Monza, an insight into the future of engine design was seen for the first time. The engine had four valves per cylinder at a narrow included angle that allowed a cover to enclose both the close-spaced camshafts on each bank. Had a larger bore than stroke, during the USAC years, the Eagle chassis was very successful in the late 1960s and 1970s, especially with driver Bobby Unser. Eagles won 51 Champ Car races, including the 1968 and 1975 Indy 500s won by Unser, the All American Racers team was inactive in single seaters from 1987 to 1995 and returned in 1996 again building their own chassis and using new Toyota engines.
However, this new effort, a combination of new and untested equipment, did not prove to be successful, never winning a race, the team ceased active racing after the 1999 CART season. Alex Barron Raul Boesel Geoff Brabham Mike Chandler Kevin Cogan Juan Manuel Fangio II Pete Halsmer P. J, in 1988, the team moved up to the GTP category with two chassis - a modified Toyota 88C Group C car and a team-designed Eagle HF89 purpose-built for IMSA competition. AAR experienced its greatest success in GTP competition with the Eagle MkIII, AAR created a special Trans-Am Series version of the Plymouth Barracuda, running in the 1970 season with drivers Dan Gurney and Swede Savage. A homologation special production edition was offered in 1970, * 4th place in the 1968 United States Grand Prix was scored in a McLaren-Ford, therefore the points did not count towards Eagle-Weslakes points total
Cooper Car Company
The Cooper Car Company was founded in December 1947 by Charles Cooper and his son John Cooper. Together with Johns boyhood friend, Eric Brandon, they began by building racing cars in Charless small garage in Surbiton, England, in 1946. The first cars built by the Coopers were single-seat 500-cc Formula Three racing cars driven by John Cooper and Eric Brandon, since materials were in short supply immediately after World War II, the prototypes were constructed by joining two old Fiat Topolino front-ends together. According to John Cooper, the stroke of genius that would make the Coopers an automotive legend—the location of the engine behind the driver—was merely a matter at the time. Because the car was powered by an engine, they believed it was more convenient to have the engine in the back. In fact there was nothing new about mid engined racing cars, Cooper built up to 300 single-and twin-cylinder cars during the 1940s and 1950s, and dominated the F3 category, winning 64 of 78 major races between 1951 and 1954.
Though Schell retired in the first lap, this marked the first appearance of a racer at a Grand Prix event since the end of WWII. The front-engined Formula Two Cooper Bristol model was introduced in 1952, until the company began building rear-engined sports cars in 1955, they really had not become aware of the benefits of having the engine behind the driver. Based on the 500-cc cars and powered by a modified Coventry Climax fire-pump engine, jack Brabham raised some eyebrows when he took sixth place at the 1957 Monaco Grand Prix in a rear-engined Formula 1 Cooper. The next year,1959, Brabham and the Cooper works team became the first to win the Formula One World Championship in a rear-engined car, both team and driver repeated the feat in 1960, and every World Champion since has been sitting in front of his engine. The little-known designer behind the car was Owen Maddock, who was employed by Cooper Car Company, Maddock was known as The Beard by his workmates, and Whiskers to Charles Cooper.
Describing how the revolutionary rear-engined Cooper chassis came to be, Maddock explained and he kept saying Nah, thats not it, try again. Finally, I got so fed up I sketched a frame in which every tube was bent, meant just as a joke, I showed it to Charlie and to my astonishment he grabbed it and said, Thats it. Maddock pioneered one of the first designs for a monocoque stressed skin composite chassis. Arriving at the Speedway 5 May 1961, the little car from Europe was mocked by the other teams. It took a few years, but the Indianapolis establishment gradually realized the writing was on the wall, beginning with Jim Clark, who drove a rear-engined Lotus in 1965, every winner of the Indianapolis 500 has had the engine in the back. The revolution begun by the little chain-driven Cooper 500 was complete, the Cooper teams decline was accelerated when John Cooper was seriously injured in a road accident in 1963 driving a twin-engined Mini, and Charles Cooper died in 1964. After the death of his father, John Cooper sold the Cooper Formula One team to the Chipstead Motor Group in April 1965
Lorenzo Bandini was an Italian motor racing driver who raced in Formula One for the Scuderia Centro Sud and Ferrari teams. Bandini was born in Marj, Libya, an Italian colony, the family returned to Italy in 1939 and resided near Florence. When he was 15 his father died, Bandini left home and found a job as an apprentice mechanic in the Freddi workshop in Milan. He made his way into auto racing from competing on motorcycles and he started racing cars in 1957 in a borrowed Fiat 1100. Goliardo Freddi, acknowledging Bandinis talent, decided to support him, Bandini would marry Fredis daughter, Margherita, in 1963, and remained involved with the familys garage in Milan. He achieved a first class victory at the Mille Miglia, in a Lancia Appia Zagato, in 1958, and he raced in Formula Junior until 1961. Bandini purchased a Volpini Formula Junior car and placed third in his first race in Sicily, in 1959 and 1960 he drove a Formula Junior Stanguellini. In 1960 he placed fourth in the Formula Junior World Championship, in 1961 Bandini and fellow Italian driver Giancarlo Baghetti were both in contention for a seat at Ferrari.
Ferrari opted for Baghetti, and Bandini went to drive for Guglielmo Mimmo Deis Scuderia Centro Sud, at a non-championship race, he finished third at Pau. Bandini drove his first world championship race at Spa in 1961, during the winter of 1961-1962 he drove in the Tasman races in Australia and New Zealand. In 1962 Bandini was hired by Ferrari for the 1962 and 1963 seasons and his debut in a works Ferrari at the Monaco Grand Prix, finishing third. For 1963 Bandini was retained by Ferrari for sports car races only, along with Ludovico Scarfiotti, he won the Le Mans 24 Hours race and placed second in the Targa Florio that year, occasionally racing in Formula One for Scuderia Centro Sud. His string of results, including a fifth place at the British Grand Prix. In 1964 Bandini had his best Formula One season and he won the first Austrian Grand Prix at the Zeltweg circuit and scored two more podiums in Germany and Italy. At the Mexican Grand Prix, Bandini was running second when he decided to let his team mate John Surtees pass, in 1965 Bandini won the Targa Florio.
In 1966 Surtees left Ferrari in mid-season, Bandini was promoted to team leader. He was unlucky not to win the French and U. S. Grands Prix that year which he dominated before mechanical problems intervened while he was holding a huge lead. Bandinis best finish was a place at the Monaco Grand Prix in a 2.4 liter V-6 Ferrari behind Jackie Stewarts BRM
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race held in the mountains of Sicily near Palermo. Founded in 1906, it was the oldest sports car racing event, after 1973, it was a national sports car event until it was discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns. It has since run as a rallying event, and is part of the Italian Rally Championship. The race was created in 1906 by the wealthy pioneer race driver and automobile enthusiast, Vincenzo Florio, alessandro Cagno won the inaugural 1906 race in nine hours, averaging 30 miles per hour. By the mid-1920s, the Targa Florio had become one of Europes most important races, Grand Prix races were still isolated events, not a series like todays F1. The wins of Mercedes in the 1920s made a big impression in Germany, especially that of German Christian Werner in 1924, rudolf Caracciola repeated a similar upset win at the Mille Miglia a couple of years later. In 1926, Eliska Junkova, one of the female drivers in Grand Prix motor racing history.
In 1953, the FIA World Sportscar Championship was introduced, the Targa became part of it in 1955, when Mercedes had to win 1-2 with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR in order to beat Ferrari for the title. They had missed the first two of the 6 events, Buenos Aires and the 12 Hours of Sebring, where Ferrari, Jaguar and Porsche scored. Mercedes appeared at and won in the Mille Miglia, pulled out of Le Mans as a sign of respect for the victims of the 1955 Le Mans disaster, stirling Moss/Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio/Karl Kling finished minutes ahead of the best Ferrari and secured the title. Several versions of the track were used and it started with a single lap of a 148 km circuit from 1906-1911 and 1931. From 1912 to 1914 a tour around the perimeter of Sicily was used, with a lap of 975 kilometres. The 148 km Grande circuit was shortened twice, the first time to 108 km, the version used from 1919-1930. From 1951-1958, the coastal island tour variant was used for a separate event called the Giro di Sicilia.
The start and finish took place at Cerda, the second version of the track went south through Caltavuturo and took a shortcut starting right before Castellana to Collesano via the town of Polizzi Generosa. There was a circuit called Favorita Park used from 1937-1940. To put that in perspective, most purpose built circuits have between 12 and 18 corners, and the longest purpose built circuit in the world, the 13-mile Nurburgring, has about 180 corners. Like a rally event, the cars were started one by one every 15 seconds for a time trial, as a start from a full grid was not possible on the tight
Sir John Arthur Jack Brabham, AO, OBE was an Australian racing driver who was Formula One champion in 1959,1960, and 1966. He was a founder of the Brabham racing team and race car constructor that bore his name, Brabham was a Royal Australian Air Force flight mechanic and ran a small engineering workshop before he started racing midget cars in 1948. His successes with midgets in Australian and New Zealand road racing led to his going to Britain to further his racing career. There he became part of the Cooper Car Companys racing team and he contributed to the design of the mid-engined cars that Cooper introduced to Formula One and the Indianapolis 500, and won the Formula One world championship in 1959 and 1960. In 1962 he established his own Brabham marque with fellow Australian Ron Tauranac, in the 1966 Formula One season Brabham became the first – and still the only – man to win the Formula One world championship driving one of his own cars. He was the last surviving World Champion of the 1950s, John Arthur Jack Brabham was born on 2 April 1926 in Hurstville, New South Wales, a commuter town outside Sydney.
Brabham was involved with cars and mechanics from an early age, at the age of 12, he learned to drive the family car and the trucks of his fathers grocery business. Brabham attended technical college, studying metalwork and technical drawing, Brabhams early career continued the engineering theme. At the age of 15 he left school to work, combining a job at a garage with an evening course in mechanical engineering. Brabham soon branched out into his own business selling motorbikes, which he bought and repaired for sale, One month after his 18th birthday on 19 May 1944 Brabham enlisted into the Royal Australian Air Force. He was based at RAAF Station Williamtown, where he maintained Bristol Beaufighters at No.5 Operational Training Unit, on his 20th birthday,2 April 1946, Brabham was discharged from the RAAF with the rank of leading aircraftman. He started a service and machining business in a workshop built by his uncle on a plot of land behind his grandfathers house. Brabham started racing after an American friend, Johnny Schonberg, persuaded him to watch a car race.
Midget racing was a category for small open-wheel cars racing on dirt ovals and it was popular in Australia, attracting crowds of up to 40,000. Brabham records that he was not taken with the idea of driving, being convinced that the drivers were all lunatics, at first Schonberg drove the homemade device, powered by a modified JAP motorcycle engine built by Brabham in his workshop. In 1948, Schonbergs wife persuaded him to racing and on his suggestion Brabham took over. He almost immediately found that he had a knack for the sport, Brabham has since said that it was terrific driver training. You had to have quick reflexes, in effect you lived—or possibly died—on them, due to the time required to prepare the car, the sport became his living
James Clark, Jr OBE, known as Jim Clark, was a British Formula One racing driver from Scotland, who won two World Championships, in 1963 and 1965. Clark was a driver who competed in sports cars, touring cars and in the Indianapolis 500. He was particularly associated with the Lotus marque and he was killed in a Formula Two motor racing accident in Hockenheim, Germany in 1968. At the time of his death, he had won more Grand Prix races, in 2009, The Times placed Clark at the top of a list of the greatest-ever Formula One drivers. James Clark Jr was born into a family at Kilmany House Farm, the youngest child of five. In 1942 the family moved to Edington Mains Farm, near Duns, Berwickshire, on 16 June 1956, in his very first event, he was behind the wheel of a DKW sonderklasse at Crimond, Scotland. By 1958, Clark was driving for the local Border Reivers team, racing Jaguar D-types and Porsches in national events, on Boxing Day 1958, Clark raced against the man who would launch him to superstardom.
Driving a Lotus Elite, he finished second to Colin Chapman in a 10-lap GT race at Brands Hatch, in 1959 he drove a Lotus Elite, finishing tenth at Le Mans partnered with John Whitmore, and the ex-Bruce Halford Lister Jaguar, winning the Boness Hill Climb. Chapman was sufficiently impressed to give Clark a ride in one of his Formula Junior cars, in March 1960, the first race for the newly introduced Formula Junior took place at Goodwood. The winner was J. Clark, from J. Surtees with T. Taylor third. Clark had made an earlier FJ appearance in a race at Brands Hatch on Boxing Day,1959, driving a Gemini-B. M. C. for Graham Warner of the Chequered Flag garage. Jim Clark made his F1 Grand Prix debut, part-way through the season, Lotus had lost Surtees, as he had gone to the Isle of Man to do some serious motorcycle racing, so they had Ireland and Clark, the last-named being an acceptable substitute. He retired on lap 49 with final drive failure, Clark was quoted as saying in a 1964 interview, I was driving scared stiff pretty much all through the race, even though he finished 5th and scored his first points finish.
The next year, Jim Clark was involved in one of the worst accidents in the history of Formula 1 racing, in the 1961 Italian Grand Prix on 10 September at Monza, Wolfgang von Trips in his Ferrari collided with Jim Clarks Lotus. Trips car became airborne and crashed into a barrier, fatally throwing von Trips out of the car. His first Drivers World Championship came driving the Lotus 25 in 1963, winning seven out of the ten races, Clarks record of seven wins in a season would not be equalled until 1984 when Frenchman Alain Prost won seven races for McLaren. The record would not be broken until Brazilian Ayrton Senna won eight races in the 1988 season, in 1963 he competed in the Indianapolis 500 for the first time, and he finished in second position behind Parnelli Jones and won Rookie of the Year honours. The 1963 Indy 500 result remains controversial, before the race United States Auto Club officials had told the drivers that they would black flag any car that was seen to be leaking oil onto the track