Kunsthal Charlottenborg in Copenhagen is the official exhibition gallery of the Royal Danish Academy of Art. The palatial residence was constructed in 1672–83 for Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, in the Baroque architectural idiom shared by Holland, the structure contains an extensive library of the fine arts. The dowager queen Charlotte Amalie bought the palace in 1700, the corps de logis was rebuilt facing Kongens Nytorv in 1827 by C. F. Hansen, and contains the Academys Festhall and Antiksalen, the Charlottenborg has become famous for its open spring exhibition, to which anyone may submit work, which is vetted by a jury before a selection is shown. The fall exhibition, Efterårsudstilling, is by invitation
Royal Library, Denmark
The Royal Library in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the national library of Denmark and the university library of the University of Copenhagen. It is the largest library in the Nordic countries and it contains numerous historical treasures, and a copy of all works printed in Denmark since the 17th century are deposited there. Thanks to extensive donations in the past, the library holds nearly all known Danish printed works back to and including the first Danish book, the library was founded in 1648 by King Frederik III, who contributed a comprehensive collection of European works. It was opened to the public in 1793, in 1989, it was merged with the prestigious Copenhagen University Library. In 2005, it was merged with the Danish National Library for Science and Medicine, now the Faculty Library of Natural, the official name of the organization as of 1 January 2006 is The Royal Library, the National Library of Denmark and the Copenhagen University Library. In 2008, the Danish Folklore Archive was merged with the Royal Library and it is open to anyone above the age of 18 with a genuine need to use the collections.
Special rules apply for use of rare and valuable items, the annual circulation is 11,400,000 loans. The members are 32,196 active users, the annual budget, 394M Danish Kroner, including building expenses and maintenance. The old building of the Slotsholmen site was built in 1906 by Hans Jørgen Holm, the central hall is a copy of Charlemagnes Palace chapel in the Aachen Cathedral. In 1999, a new building adjacent to the old one was opened at Slotsholmen, the Black Diamond building was designed by Danish architects schmidt hammer lassen. Named for its cover of black marble and glass, the Black Diamond building houses a concert hall in addition to the library. This new building was opened 1999 and it is formed by two black cubes that are slightly tilted over the street. In the middle of them, there is an eight storey atrium whose walls are white and wave-shaped, the atriums exterior wall is made of glass, so, you can see the sea, and, on the opposite shore, you can see Christianshavns luxury buildings.
Three bridges connect the Black Diamond with the old part of the Royal Library, in the ceiling of the big bridge, there is a huge painting by Danish painter Per Kirkeby. The Royal Library acquires Danish books through legal deposit, the holdings include an almost complete collection of all Danish printed books back from 1482. In 2006, legal deposit was extended to publications and now the library harvests four electronic copies of the Danish Internet each year. Commonly called the Hamburg Bible or the Bible of Bertoldus, a richly illuminated Bible in three large volumes made for the Cathedral of Hamburg in 1255. The 89 illuminated initials in the book are both as expressions of medieval art and as sources to the craft and history of the medieval book
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Amagertorv, today part of the Strøget pedestrian zone, is often described as the most central square in central Copenhagen, Denmark. Second only to Gammeltorv, it is one of the oldest. Now the square is a junction in the heart of Copenhagen, dominated by its Stork Fountain and a number of buildings. The paving is from 1993 and was designed by Bjørn Nørgaard and it consists of a pattern of pentagonal granite stones in five colours. Amagertorv dates back to the Middle Ages when Copenhagen was a fishing village called Havn. In 1449 it is referred to as the Fishmongers Market and in 1472 the name Amagertorv first appears, the name derives from the Amager farmers who came into town to sell their goods. In the 16th and 17th century the square became a setting of festivals, in the same time, Amagertorv continued to be the premier marketplace of the city and from 28 July 1684 all sale of fresh produce was to take place in the square. From 1656 the citys leading inn was located on the square. The adjoining Højbro Plads was established after the Great Fire of 1795, in 1868 the market activities were moved to Christianshavn.
In 1894, the Stork Fountain was constructed and it was a present to Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Louise in connection with their silver wedding. In 1962, the square was closed to traffic with the establishment of the Strøget pedestrian zone, Mathias Hansen House at No.6 was built in 1616 for Mathias Hansen, from 1622 the Mayor of Copenhagen. Typically of the Dutch Renaissance style, the house is built in red bricks with sandstone decorations, has a Dutch gable, the copper drainpipes are decorated with dragons heads. The building was restored in 1898 by Professor Hans Jørgen Holm. The gateway is flanked by two cannon barrels used to protect the gate from entering carts, No.9 was built 1798-1800, for linen merchant J. A. Bechmann. The original shop front at street level was changed in 1830, the tobacco company W. Ø. Larsen has a small pibe museum in the building. 14, Ole Haslunds House, is an example of 19th century Historicism, the current design is from 1867. The windows have mullions executed as small Hermes figures carrying Ionic capitals, klostergården at No.29 is a former convent.
The building is from 1798-00 where it replaced a house designed by Caspar Frederik Harsdorff which was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1795, the convent was founded in 1759. The Illum department store has been located on the corner of Strøget, the Illum Furniture Store is located at Amagertorv
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Portraiture and Architecture in Copenhagen was inaugurated on 31 March 1754 and its name was changed to the Royal Danish Academy of Painting and Architecture in 1771. The building boom resulting from the Great Fire of 1795 greatly profited from this initiative, in 1814 the name was changed again, this time to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It is still situated in its building, the Charlottenborg Palace. The School of Architecture has been situated in former naval buildings on Holmen since 1996, the academy is larger and better funded than the Jutland Art Academy and Funen Art Academy, which offer similar programs. It teaches and conducts research on the subjects of painting, architecture, photography, the academy is under the administration of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The academy’s School of Architecture offers education in the fields of design and restoration and landscape planning and industrial, graphic.
The school has nine departments, four research institutes and six affiliated research centres. The undergraduate course, leading to the Bachelor of Architecture diploma, in 2011, the Wall Street Journal named Ingels the Innovator of the Year for architecture. Hansen Medal Thorvaldsen Medal Eckersberg Medal Thorvald Bindesbøll Medal N. L. Høyen Medal The School of Visual Arts C. C
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Photography in Denmark
Although Denmark was slow to accept photography as an art form, Danish photographers are now increasingly active, participating in key exhibitions around the world. Press photography has prospered too under award-winning contributors such as Jan Grarup and Claus Bjørn Larsen, Christian Tuxen Falbe, a Danish marine officer, was in Paris in January 1839 on behalf of Crown Prince Frederik when Louis Daguerre revealed the art of daguerreotyping. The oldest photograph on record in Denmark is credited to Peter Faber, a songwriter and his daguerreotype of Ulfeldts Plads is in the Copenhagen City Museum. The image of the square is in fact reversed left to right, careful analysis of the photograph suggests that it dates back to July 1840. The exposure time of about 15 minutes in sunlight explains why the figure to be seen is a man sleeping at the foot of the Pillar of Shame towards the left of the picture. This daguerrotype was taken by the French photographer Aymard Charles Théodore Neubourg, an examination of the circumstances under which it was taken reveals that the date was Sunday,26 July 1840.
It has noticed that Thorvaldsen is making the horn sign with what apparently is his left hand although, as a result of the daguerrotype mirror effect. This has been ascribed to the anxiety he must have experienced while facing the new device which could reveal even the slightest detail. Several Danes are remembered for their contributions to daguerreotypy, while in Paris in 1848, Anton Melbye, a marine artist, learnt from Daguerre. Rudolph Striegler, Johan Emilius Bogh and Johan Ludvig Ussing were among those who began to specialize in portrait photography opening studios in Copenhagen, georg Emil Hansen from Næstved came from a family of photographers. When his father, Carl Christian Hansen, opened a studio in Copenhagen and he became one of the most respected photographers of his day, with Christian IX of Denmark and the Danish Royal Family as customers in the early 1860s. He excelled in adopting new techniques and he was the first to use paper prints and to make full-length portrait enlargements.
He received awards for his exhibitions in London and Berlin, in 1867, together with his brother, Niels Christian Hansen, and two other photographers, he set up a photographic firm which became Hansen, Schou & Weller, suppliers to the royal Danish court. The technique of carte de visite photography was brought to Denmark by Rudolph Striegler in 1860, heinrich Tønnies remains to date one of the premier CDV photographers of Denmark. In June 1856 he began his career as a partner under C. Fritsche in Aalborg and by December of the year he bought his partners share of the business. By 1861, Tönnies business boomed requiring a larger studio and the hiring of assistants, his family business spanned three-generations and 75 years. The breadth of his products included, calotypes, photo-lithography, ambrotypes, CDVs
Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland. The main industries on the island include fishing, dairy farming, tourism is important during the summer. There is a large number of Denmarks round churches on the island. The total area according to www. noegletal. dk was 588.36 square kilometres, the island is called solskinsøen because of its weather and klippeøen because of its geology, which consists of granite, except along the southern coast. The heat from the summer is stored in the rock formations, as a result of the climate, a local variety of the common fig, known as Bornholms Diamond, can grow locally on the island. The islands topography consists of rock formations in the north sloping down towards pine and deciduous forests, farmland in the middle. Strategically located in the Baltic Sea, Bornholm has been fought over for centuries and it has usually been ruled by Denmark, but by Lübeck and Sweden.
The ruin of Hammershus, at the tip of the island, is the largest medieval fortress in northern Europe. Bornholm Regional Municipality, established January 2003 by the merger of Bornholm County with 5 municipalities, Bornholm was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county — the others were Copenhagen and Frederiksberg. On 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its county status. The island is situated between 54/59/11 and 55/17/30 northern latitude and 14/45 and 15/11 eastern longitude and it typically takes 3 hours for passengers and freight to travel between Rønne and Copenhagen via Ystad in Sweden. There is a ferry departure mostly reserved for freight of goods between Rønne and Køge, if there is capacity on a departure, normal passengers can come aboard. There are routes to Sassnitz and Świnoujście. Between Bornholm Airport and Copenhagen Airport by airplane it is 25 minutes, the Ertholmene archipelago is located 18 kilometres to the northeast of Bornholm. These islands, which do not belong to a municipality or region, are administered by the Danish Ministry of Defence, many inhabitants speak the Bornholmsk dialect, which is officially a dialect of Danish.
Bornholmsk retains three grammatical genders, like Icelandic and most dialects of Norwegian, but unlike standard Danish and its phonology includes archaisms and innovations. This makes the difficult to understand for some Danish speakers. However, Swedish speakers often consider Bornholmian to be easier to understand than standard Danish, the intonation resembles the Scanian dialect spoken in nearby Scania, the southernmost province of Sweden