Ludwig Daser

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Ludwig Daser
Born c. 1526
Munich
Died 27 March 1589(1589-03-27) (aged 62–63)
Stuttgart
Occupation kapellmeister, composer

Ludwig Daser (c. 1526 – 27 March 1589) was a German renaissance composer and choirmaster. His career is marked by the Reformation and Counter-Reformation struggles of his time. A noted composer in his day, Daser has been largely overshadowed by Orlande de Lassus, who replaced him in Munich.

Biography[edit]

Daser was born in Munich near the year 1526, the son of fisherman Achacius Daser.[1][2] At an early age he joined the Bavarian Hofkapelle in Munich.[3] There he received formal education in theology and music, the latter as a pupil of Ludwig Senfl.[4][5] An ordained priest,[4] he entered the Bayerische Hofkapelle in 1550 alongside Mattheus Le Maistre.[6] He became the Munich court choirmaster in 1552, replacing Andreas Zauner.[2] Daser earned extra money as a music copyist while he held the Kapellmeister position.[7] In addition to conducting and composing, Daser was responsible for training boys for the choir, and for hiring vocal and instrumental musicians for the chapel.[5] His position afforded him a salary, food and clothing allowances, and monetary bonuses on various occasions, not limited to the New Year.[5] Le Maistre's sudden departure from Munich in 1554 caused Daser to also assume duties as court composer.[2] Although the court of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria was decidedly Catholic, Daser's predilection towards protestantism was stated in his Missa Ave Marie, where in the Credo section he added a word to the confession of faith "Et in unum Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum", at the time a clear signal of intent.[4] In 1556 Orlande de Lassus arrived at the Munich court.[4] The universal acclaim accorded to de Lassus caused discomfiture for Daser, as his role as primary musician became supplanted by de Lassus.[4]

In the 1560s, Albert V began actively pursuing a course of establishing Catholicism at his court.[8] There is some controversy surrounding Daser's activities between 1563 and 1572. Daser was subject to an Inquisition,[8] and was shortly removed from his position of Kapellmeister in 1563 on grounds of "ill health".[8] Iain Fenlon suggests that he was found to be "Lutheran", and that the "ill health" was a pretext upon which allowed the Duke to give Daser a retirement pension of considerate amount.[8] Bernhold Schmid posits that Daser really did suffer from poor health for a period of time.[2] In any case, he was replaced by Orlande de Lassus.[1] Nevertheless, Daser's music continued to be performed at the Munich chapel under de Lassus.[5] Daser moved to Stuttgart in 1572 and became kapellmeister there, openly converting as he found no resistance to his Lutheranism from the Duke of Württemberg.[1][8][4] Daser's "retirement" pension from Bavaria was thus revoked.[8] He remained Kapellmeister at Stuttgart for seventeen years.[8] He died in Stuttgart on 27 March 1589.[3] His son-in-law Balduin Hoyoul succeeded him as Kapellmeister in Stuttgart.[3]

Influences, style, and impact[edit]

Daser's compositional output consisted mainly of masses, of which 22 manuscripts are extant.[1][2] He also wrote motets.[2] His works continued to be performed in a court context as last as 1616.[9]

Daser was significantly influenced by the Franco-Flemish School, demonstrated by his methodology for tying the cantus firmus to the Ordinary.[10] The sources of his melodies often originate from the Netherlands.[2] He employed a variety of methods of treating plainchant melody within his masses, including canon, ornamentation, cantus firmus, and juxtaposition.[10] Daser would move the cantus firmus from the tenor to the highest voicing, in order to highlight the main melody.[11]

Daser was highly respected by his contemporaries, receiving high commendation from Bavarian court chronicler Massimo Troiano.[2] Much of his work is held in manuscript form at the Bavarian State Library.[2] His works are ambitious in nature, notable for their complexity.[2] His contemporaries particularly valued his lyrical abilities.[3] His style was conservative in nature for his time, evidenced by his four-voice masses and his reliance on the cantus firmus technique.[3] However, his style became more "modern" during his time at Stuttgart.[3]

Orlande de Lassus' mass number 40 Ecce nunc benedicite was directly modeled on a work by Daser.[12]

Works[edit]

Masses[edit]

4 voices[edit]

  • Ave Maria
  • De virginibus
  • Dominicalis (i)
  • Dominicalis (ii)
  • Ecce nunc benedicite
  • Grace et vertu (attributed)
  • Mins liefkins braun augen
  • Paschalis
  • Per signum crucis (attributed)
  • Qui habitat
  • Un gay bergier

5 voices[edit]

  • Beati omnes
  • Dixerunt discipuli
  • Ferialis
  • Fors seulement
  • Jerusalem surge
  • In feriis quadragesimae
  • Inviolata
  • Maria Magdalena
  • Pater noster
  • Sexti modi

6 voices[edit]

  • Praeter rerum seriem

Mass Propers[edit]

  • De Sancto Spiritu infra septuagesima (4 voices)
  • De veneratione (4 voices)

In addition to the masses, he composed a work for four voices entitled Patrocinium musices; passionis Domini nostri Jesus Christi historia, a Magnificat for four voices, a Magnificat for eight voices, 24 motets for four to eight voices, and 34 hymns and psalms in German.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Pratt, Waldo Selden (1907). The History of Music. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. p. 135. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Schmid, Bernhold (2007). "Cantus Firmus und Kanon. Anmerkungen zu Ludwig Dasers Missa pater noster". In Schiltz, Katelijne; Blackburn, Bonnie J. Canons and Canonic Techniques, 14th–16th Centuries: Theory, Practice, and Reception History ; Proceedings of the International Conference, Leuven, 4–6 October 2005 (in German). Peeters Publishers. pp. 283–302. ISBN 9789042916814. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Sadie, Stanley, ed. (2001). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 7. Grove Dictionaries, Inc. ISBN 1-56159-239-0. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Groote, Inga Mai; Vendrix, Philippe (2012). "The Renaissance Musician and Theorist Confronted with Religious Fragmentation". In Karremann, Isabel; Zwierlein, Cornel; Groote, Inga Mai. Forgetting Faith?: Negotiating Confessional Conflict in Early Modern Europe. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 172–173. ISBN 978-3-11-027005-1. 
  5. ^ a b c d Fenlon, Iain (1990). The Renaissance: From the 1470s to the end of the 16th century. Springer. pp. 244–255. ISBN 978-1-349-20536-3. 
  6. ^ Crook, David (2014). Orlando di Lasso's Imitation Magnificats for Counter-Reformation Munich. Princeton University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4008-6378-5. 
  7. ^ Lenneberg, Hans (2003). On the Publishing and Dissemination of Music, 1500–1850. Pendragon Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-57647-078-7. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Fenlon, Iain (2002). Early Music History: Volume 20: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Music. Cambridge University Press. pp. 223–225. ISBN 978-0-521-80773-9. 
  9. ^ Kopp, James B. (2012). The Bassoon. Yale University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-300-18364-1. 
  10. ^ a b Schiltz, Katelijne; Blackburn, Bonnie J., eds. (2007). Canons and Canonic Techniques, 14th–16th Centuries: Theory, Practice, and Reception History ; Proceedings of the International Conference, Leuven, 4–6 October 2005. Peeters Publishers. p. 4. ISBN 9789042916814. 
  11. ^ Schiltz, Katelijne; Blackburn, Bonnie J., eds. (2007). Canons and Canonic Techniques, 14th–16th Centuries: Theory, Practice, and Reception History ; Proceedings of the International Conference, Leuven, 4–6 October 2005. Peeters Publishers. p. 231. ISBN 9789042916814. 
  12. ^ Crook, David (2014). Orlando di Lasso's Imitation Magnificats for Counter-Reformation Munich. Princeton University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4008-6378-5.