University of Tübingen
The University of Tübingen the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, is a public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is a German Excellence University, Tübingen is ranked as one of the best universities in Germany and is known as a centre for the study of medicine and theology and religion; the university's noted alumni include numerous presidents, ministers, EU Commissioners and judges of the Federal Constitutional Court. The university is associated with eleven Nobel laureates in the fields of medicine and chemistry; the University of Tübingen was founded in 1477 by Count Eberhard V the first Duke of Württemberg, a civic and ecclesiastic reformer who established the school after becoming absorbed in the Renaissance revival of learning during his travels to Italy. Its first rector was Johannes Nauclerus, its present name was conferred on it in 1769 by Duke Karl Eugen who appended his first name to that of the founder. The university became the principal university of the kingdom of Württemberg.
Today, it is one of nine state universities funded by the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg. The University of Tübingen has a history of innovative thought in theology, in which the university and the Tübinger Stift are famous to this day. Philipp Melanchthon, the prime mover in building the German school system and a chief figure in the Protestant Reformation, helped establish its direction. Among Tübingen's eminent students have been the astronomer Johannes Kepler. "The Tübingen Three" refers to Hölderlin and Schelling, who were roommates at the Tübinger Stift. Theologian Helmut Thielicke revived postwar Tübingen when he took over a professorship at the reopened theological faculty in 1947, being made administrative head of the university and President of the Chancellor's Conference in 1951; the university rose to the height of its prominence in the middle of the 19th century with the teachings of poet and civic leader Ludwig Uhland and the Protestant theologian Ferdinand Christian Baur, whose circle and students became known as the "Tübingen School", which pioneered the historical-critical analysis of biblical and early Christian texts, an approach referred to as "higher criticism."
The University of Tübingen was the first German university to establish a faculty of natural sciences, in 1863. DNA was discovered in 1868 at the University of Tübingen by Friedrich Miescher. Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, the first female Nobel Prize winner in medicine in Germany works at Tübingen; the faculty for economics and business was founded in 1817 as the "Staatswissenschaftliche Fakultät" and was the first of its kind in Germany. The University played a leading role in efforts to legitimize the policies of the Third Reich as "scientific". Before the victory of the Nazi Party in the general election in March 1933, there were hardly any Jewish faculty and a few Jewish students. Physicist Hans Bethe was dismissed on 20 April 1933 because of "non-Aryan" origin. Religion professor Traugott Konstantin Oesterreich and the mathematician Erich Kamke were forced to take early retirement in both cases the "non-Aryan" origin of their wives. At least 1158 people were sterilized at the University Hospital.
In 1966, Joseph Ratzinger, who would become Pope Benedict XVI, was appointed to a chair in dogmatic theology in the Faculty of Catholic Theology at Tübingen, where he was a colleague of Hans Küng. In 1967, Jürgen Moltmann, one of the most influential Protestant theologians of the 20th century, was appointed Professor of Systematic Theology in the Faculty of Protestant Theology. Drafted in 1944 by Nazi Germany, he was an Allied prisoner of war 1945-1948, he was influenced by friend Ernst Bloch, the Marxist philosopher. In 1970, the university was restructured into a series of faculties as independent departments of study and research after the manner of French universities; the university made the headlines in November 2009 when a group of left-leaning students occupied one of the main lecture halls, the Kupferbau, for several days. The students' goal was to protest tuition fees and maintain that education should be free for everyone. In May 2010, Tübingen joined the Matariki Network of Universities together with Dartmouth College, Durham University, Queen’s University, University of Otago, University of Western Australia and Uppsala University.
The University of Tübingen undertakes a broad range of research projects in various fields. Among the more prominent ones in the natural sciences are the Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, which focuses on general and cellular neurology as well as neurodegeneration, the Centre for Interdisciplinary Clinical Research, which deals with cell biology in diagnostics and therapy of organ system diseases. In the liberal arts, the University of Tübingen is noteworthy for having the only faculty of rhetoric in Germany – the department was founded by Walter Jens, an important intellectual and literary critic; the university boasts continued pre-eminence in its centuries-old traditions of research in the fields of philosophy and philology. Since at least the nineteenth century, Tübingen has been the home of world-class research in prehistoric studies and the study of antiquity, including the study of the ancient Near East.
Armand Borel was a Swiss mathematician, born in La Chaux-de-Fonds, was a permanent professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, United States from 1957 to 1993. He worked in algebraic topology, in the theory of Lie groups, was one of the creators of the contemporary theory of linear algebraic groups, he studied at the ETH Zürich, where he came under the influence of the topologist Heinz Hopf and Lie-group theorist Eduard Stiefel. He was in Paris from 1949: he applied the Leray spectral sequence to the topology of Lie groups and their classifying spaces, under the influence of Jean Leray and Henri Cartan, he collaborated with Jacques Tits in fundamental work on algebraic groups, with Harish-Chandra on their arithmetic subgroups. In an algebraic group G a Borel subgroup H is one minimal with respect to the property that the homogeneous space G/H is a projective variety. For example, if G is GLn we can take H to be the subgroup of upper triangular matrices. In this case it turns out that H is a maximal solvable subgroup, that the parabolic subgroups P between H and G have a combinatorial structure.
Both those aspects generalize, play a central role in the theory. The Borel−Moore homology theory applies to general locally compact spaces, is related to sheaf theory, he published a number of books, including a work on the history of Lie groups. In 1978 he received the Brouwer Medal and in 1992 he was awarded the Balzan Prize "For his fundamental contributions to the theory of Lie groups, algebraic groups and arithmetic groups, for his indefatigable action in favour of high quality in mathematical research and the propagation of new ideas", he died in Princeton. He used to answer the question of whether he was related to Émile Borel alternately by saying he was a nephew, no relation. "I feel that what mathematics needs least are pundits who issue prescriptions or guidelines for less enlightened mortals." Borel–Weil–Bott theorem Borel conjecture Borel fixed-point theorem Borel's theorem Borel, Seminar on transformation groups, With contributions by G. Bredon, E. E. Floyd, D. Montgomery, R. Palais.
Annals of Mathematics Studies, No. 46, Princeton University Press, MR 0116341 Borel, Cohomologie des espaces localement compacts d'après J. Leray. Exposés faits au séminaire de Topologie algébrique de l'École Polytechnique Fédérale, printemps 1951, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 2, New York: Springer-Verlag, doi:10.1007/BFb0097851, MR 0174045 Borel, Halpern, Edward, ed. Topics in the homology theory of fibre bundles, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 36, New York: Springer-Verlag, doi:10.1007/BFb0096867, MR 0221507 Borel, Introduction aux groupes arithmétiques, Publications de l'Institut de Mathématique de l'Université de Strasbourg, XV. Actualités Scientifiques et Industrielles, No. 1341, Paris: Hermann, MR 0244260 Borel, Représentations de groupes localement compacts, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 276, New York: Springer-Verlag, doi:10.1007/BFb0058407, MR 0414779 Borel, Linear algebraic groups, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 126, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-97370-8, MR 1102012 Borel, Intersection cohomology, Modern Birkhäuser Classics, Boston, MA: Birkhäuser Boston, ISBN 978-0-8176-4764-3, MR 0788171 Borel, Armand.
I.: American Mathematical Society, ISBN 978-0-8218-0851-1, MR 1721403 Borel, Essays in the History of Lie Groups and Algebraic Groups, Providence, R. I.: American Mathematical Society, ISBN 978-0-8218-0288-5, MR 1847105 Borel, Armand, Œuvres: collected papers, I, II, III, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-12126-8, MR 0725852 Borel, Armand, Œuvres: collected papers, IV, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-67640-9, MR 1829820 Borel, Armand. Springer, Tonny A. "Armand Borel's work in the theory of linear algebraic groups", Algebraic groups and homogeneous spaces, Tata Inst. Fund. Res. Stud. Mat
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, quantity, space and change. One of the earliest known mathematicians was Thales of Miletus, he is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. The number of known mathematicians grew when Pythagoras of Samos established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was "All is number", it was the Pythagoreans who coined the term "mathematics", with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins. The first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria, she succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote many works on applied mathematics. Because of a political dispute, the Christian community in Alexandria punished her, presuming she was involved, by stripping her naked and scraping off her skin with clamshells.
Science and mathematics in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages followed various models and modes of funding varied based on scholars. It was extensive patronage and strong intellectual policies implemented by specific rulers that allowed scientific knowledge to develop in many areas. Funding for translation of scientific texts in other languages was ongoing throughout the reign of certain caliphs, it turned out that certain scholars became experts in the works they translated and in turn received further support for continuing to develop certain sciences; as these sciences received wider attention from the elite, more scholars were invited and funded to study particular sciences. An example of a translator and mathematician who benefited from this type of support was al-Khawarizmi. A notable feature of many scholars working under Muslim rule in medieval times is that they were polymaths. Examples include the work on optics and astronomy of Ibn al-Haytham; the Renaissance brought an increased emphasis on science to Europe.
During this period of transition from a feudal and ecclesiastical culture to a predominantly secular one, many notable mathematicians had other occupations: Luca Pacioli. As time passed, many mathematicians gravitated towards universities. An emphasis on free thinking and experimentation had begun in Britain's oldest universities beginning in the seventeenth century at Oxford with the scientists Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle, at Cambridge where Isaac Newton was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics & Physics. Moving into the 19th century, the objective of universities all across Europe evolved from teaching the “regurgitation of knowledge” to “encourag productive thinking.” In 1810, Humboldt convinced the King of Prussia to build a university in Berlin based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas. Thus and laboratories started to evolve. British universities of this period adopted some approaches familiar to the Italian and German universities, but as they enjoyed substantial freedoms and autonomy the changes there had begun with the Age of Enlightenment, the same influences that inspired Humboldt.
The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge emphasized the importance of research, arguably more authentically implementing Humboldt’s idea of a university than German universities, which were subject to state authority. Overall, science became the focus of universities in the 20th centuries. Students could conduct research in seminars or laboratories and began to produce doctoral theses with more scientific content. According to Humboldt, the mission of the University of Berlin was to pursue scientific knowledge; the German university system fostered professional, bureaucratically regulated scientific research performed in well-equipped laboratories, instead of the kind of research done by private and individual scholars in Great Britain and France. In fact, Rüegg asserts that the German system is responsible for the development of the modern research university because it focused on the idea of “freedom of scientific research and study.” Mathematicians cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate level.
In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of a student's understanding of mathematics. Mathematicians involved with solving problems with applications in real life are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their specialized knowledge and professional methodology, approach many of the imposing problems presented in related scientific fields. With professional focus on a wide variety of problems, theoretical systems, localized constructs, applied mathematicians work in the study and formulation of mathematical models. Mathematicians and applied mathematicians are considered to be two of the STEM careers; the discipline of applied mathematics concerns
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Konrad Maurer, since 1876 Konrad von Maurer was a German legal historian. He was the son of statesman Georg Ludwig von Maurer. Maurer is considered one of the most significant researchers of Nordic legal and constitutional history. Konrad Heinrich Maurer was born in 1823 in Frankenthal, as the only son of Georg Ludwig von Maurer und Friederike Maurer née Heydweiller. In 1826 the family moved to Munich, where his father was appointed professor of German legal history. Here, Konrad Maurer's mother died, his father never remarried. Konrad Maurer spent two years of his childhood in Greece where his father was appointed a member of the council of regency of king Otto of Greece. Afterwards the family returned to Munich. Bowing to his father's wish, Konrad Maurer studied law at the Universities of Munich and Berlin, earning his doctorate in 1845. In 1847 he became an associate professor, in 1855 a full professor of legal history at the University of Munich. Maurer was a leading authority of Germanic/Nordic constitutional history.
He had a special interest in Icelandic literature, history and culture and was an outspoken advocate for Icelandic political independence from Danish rule, supporting Jón Sigurðsson in his cause. In 1858, Maurer undertook a personal travel to Iceland. Inspired by his contacts to Jacob Grimm, he used the opportunity to collect Icelandic folk tales and published them after his return under the title Isländische Volkssagen der Gegenwart; this was the first detailed publication of Icelandic folk tales in German. Maurer read lectures in Munich and Kopenhagen. In 1865, he was appointed a member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, in 1876 he was awarded knighthood of the Merit Order of the Bavarian Crown. By this he was given the title " von Maurer". In the same year, Maurer was offered his own chair at the University of Christiania, which he declined. Throughout his life Maurer was a close friend to the Icelandic scholar Guðbrandur Vigfússon, the Norwegian folklorist Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, playwright Henrik Ibsen and writer Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson.
He died 1902 in Munich, where he was buried in Alter Südfriedhof. His considerable library, which he had inherited from his father and expanded to over 9000 volumes, was sold in 1904, for the major part to Harvard University and the rest to the bar association of New York. A part of it is today in the libraries of Yale Law School and George Washington University Law School. Maurer had eight children, his eldest son Ludwig Maurer became a mathematician. 1865 member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities 1876 knight of the Merit Order of the Bavarian Crown 1876 honorary doctor of University of Christiania 1882 honorary doctor of University of Edinburgh 1882 honorary doctor of University of Würzburg Knight 1st Class of the Order of St. Michael Knight of the Bayerischer Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst Honorary Cross of the Ludwigsorden Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav Commander First Class of the Order of the Polar Star Commander First Class of the Order of the Dannebrog Ueber das Wesen des ältesten Adels der deutschen Stämme in seinem Verhältniß zur gemeinen Freiheit, 1846.
Die Bekehrung des Norwegischen Stammes zum Christenthume, in ihrem geschichtlichen Verlaufe quellenmäßig geschildert, 1855/56. Die Gull-Þóris Saga oder Þorskfirðínga Saga, 1858. Isländische Volkssagen der Gegenwart. Vorwiegend nach mündlicher Überlieferung gesammelt und verdeutscht, 1860. Island, von seiner ersten Entdeckung bis zum Untergange des Freistaats, 1874. Vorlesungen über altnordische Rechtsgeschichte, 5 volumes, 1907-1910; this article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia