Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow was a German physician, pathologist, biologist, writer and politician. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" and as the founder of social medicine, to his colleagues, the "Pope of medicine", he received the Copley Medal in 1892. He was a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences, but he declined to be ennobled as "von Virchow". Virchow studied medicine at the Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute under Johannes Peter Müller, he worked at the Charité hospital under Robert Froriep. His investigation of the 1847–1848 typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia laid the foundation for public health in Germany, paved his political and social careers. From it, he coined a well known aphorism: "Medicine is a social science, politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale", he participated in the Revolution of 1848. He published a newspaper Die medicinische Reform, he took the first Chair of Pathological Anatomy at the University of Würzburg in 1849.
After five years, Charité reinstated him to its new Institute for Pathology. He cofounded the political party Deutsche Fortschrittspartei, was elected to the Prussian House of Representatives and won a seat in the Reichstag, his opposition to Otto von Bismarck's financial policy resulted in an anecdotal "Sausage Duel", although he supported Bismarck in his anti-Catholic campaigns, which he named Kulturkampf. A prolific writer, his scientific writings alone exceeded 2,000. Cellular Pathology, regarded as the root of modern pathology, introduced the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula, he was a co-founder of Physikalisch-Medizinische Gesselschaft in 1849 and Deutsche Pathologische Gesellschaft in 1897. He founded journals such as Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medicin, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie; the latter is published by German Anthropological Association and the Berlin Society for Anthropology and Prehistory, the societies which he founded.
Virchow was the first to describe and christen diseases such as leukemia, ochronosis and thrombosis. He coined biological terms such as "chromatin", "neuroglia", "agenesis", "parenchyma", "osteoid", "amyloid degeneration", "spina bifida", his description of the life cycle of a roundworm Trichinella spiralis influenced the practice of meat inspection. He developed the first systematic method of autopsy, introduced hair analysis in forensic investigation, he was critical of. As an anti-evolutionist, he called Charles Darwin an "ignoramus" and his own student Ernst Haeckel a "fool", he described the original specimen of Neanderthal man as nothing but that of a deformed human. Virchow was born in Schievelbein in Prussia, he was the only child of Johanna Maria née Hesse. His father was the city treasurer. Academically brilliant, he always topped in his classes and was fluent in German, Greek, English, French and Dutch, he progressed to the gymnasium in Köslin in 1835 with the goal to become a pastor. He graduated in 1839 upon a thesis titled A Life Full of Work and Toil is not a Burden but a Benediction.
However, he chose medicine because he considered his voice too weak for preaching. In 1839, he received a military fellowship for studying medicine at Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute in Berlin, he was most influenced by his doctoral advisor. He defended his thesis titled de rheumate praesertim corneae for medical degree on 21 October 1843. On graduation, he became subordinate physician to Müller, but shortly after, he joined the Charité Hospital in Berlin for internship. In 1844, he was appointed as medical assistant to the prosector Robert Froriep, from whom he learned microscopy which interested him in pathology. Froriep was the editor of an abstract journal that specialised in foreign work, which inspired Virchow for scientific ideas of France and England. Virchow published his first scientific paper in 1845 in which he wrote the earliest known pathological descriptions of leukemia, he qualified the medical licensure examination in 1846, succeeded Froriep as hospital prosector at the Charité. In 1847, he was appointed to his first academic position with the rank of privatdozent.
Because his writings did not receive favourable attention from German editors, he founded Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin with a colleague Benno Reinhardt in 1847. He edited alone after Reinhardt's death in 1852 till his own; this journal published critical articles based on the criterion that no papers would be published which contained outdated, dogmatic or speculative ideas. Unlike his German peers, Virchow had great faith in clinical observation, animal experimentation and pathological anatomy at the microscopic le
The Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin is Europe's largest university clinic, affiliated with Humboldt University and Freie University Berlin. With numerous Collaborative Research Centers of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft it is one of Germany's most research-intensive medical institutions. From 2012 to 2019, it was ranked by Focus as the best of over 1000 hospitals in Germany. US Newsweek ranked the Charité as fifth best hospital in best in Europe. More than half of all German Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine, including Emil von Behring, Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich, worked at the Charité. In 2010/11 the medical schools of Humboldt University and Freie Universität Berlin were united under the roof of the Charité; the admission rate of the reorganized medical school was 5% in 2013. QS World University Rankings 2019 ranked the Charité Medical School as number one for medicine in Germany and ninth best in Europe. Complying with an order of King Frederick I of Prussia from 14 November 1709, the hospital was established north of the Berlin city walls in 1710 in anticipation of an outbreak of the bubonic plague that had depopulated East Prussia.
After the plague spared the city, it came to be used as a charity hospital for the poor. On 9 January 1727, Frederick William I of Prussia gave it the name Charité, meaning "charity"; the construction of an anatomical theatre in 1713 marks the beginning of the medical school supervised by the collegium medico-chirurgicum of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. After the University of Berlin was founded in 1810, the dean of the medical college Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland integrated the Charité as a teaching hospital in 1828; the Charité has four different campuses across the city of Berlin: Campus Charité Mitte in Mitte, Berlin Campus Benjamin Franklin in Lichterfelde, Berlin Campus Virchow Klinikum in Wedding, Berlin Campus Berlin Buch in Buch, BerlinIn 2001, the Helios Clinics Group acquired the hospitals in Buch with its 1,200 beds. Still, the Charité continues to use the campus for teaching and research and has more than 300 staff members located there; the Charité encompasses more than 100 clinics and scientific institutes, organized in 17 different departments, referred to as Charité Centers: CC 1: Health and Human Sciences CC 2: Basic Sciences CC 3: Dental and Maxillary Medicine CC 4: Therapy and Research CC 5: Diagnostic Laboratory and Preventative Medicine CC 6: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine CC 7: Anesthesiology, Operating-Room Management and Intensive Care Medicine CC 8: Surgery CC 9: Traumatology and Reconstructive Medicine CC 10: Charité Comprehensive Cancer Center CC 11: Cardiovascular Diseases CC 12: Internal Medicine and Dermatology CC 13: Internal Medicine and Nephrology CC 14: Tumor Medicine CC 15: Neurology, Psychiatry CC 16: Audiology/Phoniatrics and Otolaryngology CC 17: Gynecology, Perinatal and Adolescent Medicine with Perinatal Center & Human GeneticsOverall, 13 of those centers focus on patient care, while the rest focuses on research and teaching.
The Medical History Museum Berlin has a history dating back to 1899. The museum in its current form opened in 1998 and is famous for its pathological and anatomical collection. Many famous physicians and scientists worked or studied at the Charité. Indeed, more than half of the German Nobel Prize winners in medicine and physiology come from the Charité. Forty Nobel laureates are affiliated with Humboldt University of Berlin and five with Freie Universität Berlin. Selmar Aschheim – gynecologist Heinrich Adolf von Bardeleben – surgeon Ernst von Bergmann - surgeon August Bier – surgeon Max Bielschowsky – neuropathologist Theodor Billroth – surgeon Otto Binswanger - psychiatrist and neurologist Karl Bonhoeffer - neurologist Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt – neurologist and neuropathologist Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach – surgeon Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs – pathologist Robert Froriep – anatomist Wilhelm Griesinger – psychiatrist and neurologist Hermann von Helmholtz – physician and physicist Joachim Friedrich Henckel – surgeon Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle – physician and anatomist Eduard Heinrich Henoch – pediatrician Otto Heubner – pediatrician Rahel Hirsch – first female medical professor in Prussia Erich Hoffmann – dermatologist Anton Ludwig Ernst Horn – psychiatrist Gero Hütter – hematologist Friedrich Jolly – neurologist and psychiatrist Friedrich Kraus – internist Bernhard von Langenbeck – surgeon Karl Leonhard – psychiatrist Hugo Karl Liepmann – neurologist and psychiatrist Leonor Michaelis – biochemist and physician Hermann Oppenheim – neurologist Samuel Mitja Rapoport – biochemist and physician Moritz Heinrich Romberg – neurologist Ferdinand Sauerbruch – surgeon Curt Schimmelbusch – physician and pathologist Johann Lukas Schönlein – physician and pathologist Theodor Schwann – zoologist Ludwig Traube – physician and pathologist Rudolf Virchow – physician, founder of cell theory and modern pathology Carl Friedrich Otto Westphal – neurologist and psychiatrist Carl Wernicke – neurologist August von Wassermann – bacteriologist Caspar Friedrich Wolff – physiologist Bernhard Zondek – endocrinologist Emil Adolf von Behring – physiologist Ernst Boris Chain – biochemist Paul Ehrlich – immunologist Hermann Emil Fischer – chemist Werner Forssmann – physician Robert Koch – physician Albrecht Kossel – physician Sir Hans Adolf Krebs – physician and bio
Wilhelm Traube was a German chemist. Traube was born at Ratibor in a son of the famous private scholar Moritz Traube. After studying law for a short time, he studied chemistry in Heidelberg, Breslau and Berlin. Among his tutors were August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Adolf von Baeyer and Karl Friedrich Rammelsberg. In 1888 he received his doctorate "Über die Additionsprodukte der Cyansäure". Since 1897 Traube was assistant at the Pharmakological Institute in Berlin, since 1902 assistant at the Pharmaceutical Institute and "Titularprofessor". In 1911 he became 1929 a full professor. Hermann Emil Fischer nominated Traube to be department head at the Chemical Institute of the University in Berlin. Traube was salts of metal complexes. Traube is well known for a procedure of synthesis of caffeine; the TRAUBEsche Synthese was important for the pharmacological industry. The University of Kiel appointed him full professor. Traube was a board member of the German Chemical Society and became in 1926 a member of the Leopoldina in Halle.
In December 1938 Otto Hahn used an organic salt that Traube had constructed in order to detect barium in the products of nuclear fission. Traube liked to play the piano, he belonged to the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union. In 1935 the Nazis deprived Traube of the right to teach, his property was expropriated, he was arrested on 11 September 1942. Traube had planned to commit suicide with cyanide before deportation, but Hahn had asked him not to do so. Traube died in prison in Berlin as a result of maltreatment. Otto Hahn and Walter Schoeller had knowledge of the forthcoming deportation and tried to rescue him on the same day, only with formal success, they came only hours too late. Traube is buried in Berlin's Weißensee Cemetery. Ute Deichmann. "Chemiker und Biochemiker in der NS-Zeit". Angewandte Chemie. 114: 1364–1383. Doi:10.1002/1521-3757114:8<1364::AID-ANGE1364>3.0. CO. H. Pringsheim. "Wilhelm Traube zum 60. Geburtstage 10. Januar 1926". Angewandte Chemie. 39: 61–61. Doi:10.1002/ange.19260390302.
H. Leuchs. "Organische Arbeiten von W. Traube". Angewandte Chemie. 39: 61–63. Doi:10.1002/ange.19260390303. H. Hahn. "Anorganische Arbeiten von W. Traube". Angewandte Chemie. 39: 63–65. Doi:10.1002/ange.19260390304. W. Lange. "Verzeichnis der Publikationen von W. Traube". Angewandte Chemie. 39: 65–67. Doi:10.1002/ange.19260390305. Promotionsverfahren WILHELM TRAUBE. Personalakte des a.o. Prof. Dr. WILHELM TRAUBE Personalakte des o. Prof. Dr. WILHELM TRAUBE Henrik Franke: MORITZ TRAUBE - Leben und Wirken des universellen Privatgelehrten und Wegbereiters der physiologischen Chemie. Med. Dissertation 1994, Universitätsbibliothek der Humboldt-Universität Berlin Signatur 94 HB 1449. Henrik Franke: Moritz Traube Vom Weinkaufmann zum Akademiemitglied "Studien und Quellen zur Geschichte der Chemie" Band 9 Verlag für Wissenschafts- und Regionalgeschichte Dr. Michael Engel, ISBN 3-929134-21-7--> Wilhelm Traube in the German National Library catalogue Biography of Wilhelm Traube by H. Franke Otto Hahn und die Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Moritz Litten was a German physician, a native of Berlin. He was a son-in-law to pathologist Ludwig Traube, he studied medicine at the Universities of Heidelberg and Berlin, earning his medical doctorate in 1868. From 1872 to 1876 he worked at the Allerheiligen Hospital in Breslau, in the meantime, served as an assistant to Julius Friedrich Cohnheim. From 1876 to 1882 he worked in the clinic of Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs at Berlin-Charité. In 1884 he obtained the title of professor. Litten is remembered for being the first physician to describe vitreous bleeding in correlation with subarachnoid hemorrhage. In 1881 he published his findings in Ueber einige vom allgemein-klinischen Standpunkt aus interessante Augenveränderungen. Several years French ophthalmologist Albert Terson noticed these symptoms in a patient, the condition is now known as "Terson's syndrome". In 1880 Litten documented one of the earliest known cases of a paradoxical embolism in a patient undergoing anaesthesia. Litten's sign: in bacterial endocarditis.
Humboldt University Zeno.org
German National Library
The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, to make them available to the public; the German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards; the cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt. Duties are shared between the facilities in Leipzig and Frankfurt, with each center focusing its work in specific specialty areas.
A third facility has been the Deutsches Musikarchiv Berlin, which deals with all music-related archiving. Since 2010 the Deutsches Musikarchiv is located in Leipzig as an integral part of the facility there. During the German revolutions of 1848 various booksellers and publishers offered their works to the Frankfurt Parliament for a parliamentary library; the library, led by Johann Heinrich Plath, was termed the Reichsbibliothek. After the failure of the revolution the library was abandoned and the stock of books in existence was stored at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. In 1912, the town of Leipzig, seat of the annual Leipzig Book Fair, the Kingdom of Saxony and the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler agreed to found a German National Library in Leipzig. Starting January 1, 1913, all publications in German were systematically collected. In the same year, Dr. Gustav Wahl was elected as the first director. In 1946 Dr. Georg Kurt Schauer, Heinrich Cobet, Vittorio Klostermann and Professor Hanns Wilhelm Eppelsheimer, director of the Frankfurt University Library, initiated the re-establishment of a German archive library based in Frankfurt.
The Federal state representatives of the book trade in the American zone agreed to the proposal. The city of Frankfurt agreed to support the planned archive library with personnel and financial resources; the US military government gave its approval. The Library began its work in the tobacco room of the former Rothschild library, which served the bombed university library as accommodation; as a result, there were two libraries in Germany, which assumed the duties and function of a national library for the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany, respectively. Two national bibliographic catalogues identical in content were published annually. With the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990, the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main were merged into a new institution, The German Library; the "Law regarding the German National Library" came into force on 29 June 2006. The expansion of the collection brief to include online publications set the course for collecting and storing such publications as part of Germany's cultural heritage.
The Library's highest management body, the Administrative Council, was expanded to include two MPs from the Bundestag. The law changed the name of the library and its buildings in Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main and Berlin to "Deutsche Nationalbibliothek". In July 2000, the DMA assumed the role as repository for GEMA, Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte, a German music copyright organization. Since music publishers only have to submit copies to DMA, which covers both national archiving and copyright registration; the 210,000 works of printed music held by GEMA were transferred to DMA. One of the special activities of the German National Library involves the collection and processing of printed and non-printed documents of German-speaking emigrants and exiles during the period from 1933 to 1945; the German National Library maintains two exile collections: the Collection of Exile Literature 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Leipzig and the German Exile Archive 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Frankfurt am Main.
Both collections contain printed works written or published abroad by German-speaking emigrants as well as leaflets and other materials produced or in part by German-speaking exiles. In 1998 the German National Library and the German Research Foundation began a publicly funded project to digitise the “Jewish Periodicals in Nazi Germany” collection of 30,000 pages, which were published between 1933 and 1943. Additionally included in the project were 30 German-language emigrant publications "German-language exile journals 1933–1945", consisting of around 100,000 pages; these collections were put online in 2004 and were some of the most visited sites of the German National Library. In June 2012 the German National Library discontinued access to both collections on its website for legal reasons; the digitised versions are since available for use in the reading rooms of the German National Library in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main only, which caused harsh criticism. The German National Library cited concerns over copyright as the reason, claiming that although the Library and the German Research Foundation had permission from the owners of the publication to put them online, the owners
Carl von Rokitansky
Baron Carl von Rokitansky, was a Bohemian Physician, humanist philosopher and liberal politician. Carl von Rokitansky was born in Bohemia, he studied at the Charles University in Prague and attained a doctorate in medicine on 6 March 1828 at the University of Vienna. In 1830, he became assistant to Johann Wagner, the professor of pathological anatomy, succeeded him in 1834 as prosector, being at the same time made extraordinary professor, he became a full professor ten years later. In 1847, to his duties as a teacher, Rokitansky added the onerous office of medico-legal anatomist to the city of Vienna. In 1863, Rokitansky was appointed by Anton von Schmerling as medical adviser to the Ministry of the Interior, wherein he advised on all routine matters of medical teaching, including patronage; as a young professor, Rokitansky recognized that the still little noted discipline of pathological anatomy could be of great service to clinical work in the hospital, because it could offer new diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities to the bed-side physician.
Ludwig Freiherr Baron von Türkheim established the Second Vienna Medical School in 1836. Around Rokitansky's autopsies the school began "one of the most fruitful and brilliant epochs of Viennese medicine". A paradigm shift occurred, led by Rokitansky, Josef Škoda, Ferdinand von Hebra, moving from the notion of medicine as a branch of natural philosophy, to the more modern notion of it as a science. Rokitansky's name is associated with the following diseases/morphologic features of disease: Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome Müllerian agenesis Rokitansky's diverticulum Rokitansky's triad Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses Rokitansky-Cushing ulcer Rokitansky-Maude Abbott syndrome Von Rokitansky's syndrome Rokitansky nodule – teratomas Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries he first described about endometriosis in 1860Rokitansky developed a method of autopsy which consisted of in situ dissection. Rokitansky is said "to have supervised 70,000 autopsies, performed over 30,000, averaging two a day, seven days a week, for 45 years".
Although Rokitansky defended the "materialistic method" in scientific research, he rejected materialism as a philosophical world view. In his commemorative speech on the occasion of the opening of the Institute of Pathological Anatomy at the General Hospital of Vienna, he warned against the abuse of "natural science liberties". Scientists should first regard humans as "conscious and free-willing subjects" and only follow their urge toward knowledge; the feeling of humanity would be lost if physicians regarded human beings purely as research objects. Thus Rokitansky brought up for the first time the question of ethics in medicine. In another speech about the "solidarity of all animal life", delivered at the Imperial Academy of Sciences, Rokitansky showed his proximity to Arthur Schopenhauer's writings on compassion: "if we preserve and practice compassion", he explained "we are able to alleviate part of the load of suffering" of patients. Human generosity will be shown by our capability to accept the greatest sufferings by voluntarily renouncing aggression.
Those who succeed in this should be our greatest ethical role models. In 1845, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. On 17 July 1848 Rokitansky was elected as an effective member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. In 1866, he became its vice-president and from 1869 until his death in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, on 23 July 1878, its president. Rokitansky felt that this "was the largest honour which I could enjoy". By way of his leading positions in the most diverse academic and political institutions of the Austrian Empire, Rokitansky helped to shape the era of Austrian high liberalism, he represented liberalism among the educated middle class and strove for "freedom and progress", both to the university reform and to the substantial improvement of health sciences. Rokitansky was several times the dean of the medical school, and, in 1853, the first elected rector of the medical congregation of the University of Vienna and president of the Superior Medical Council.
From 1850 until his death, he presided the Physician's Society of Vienna. On 25 November 1867 he was "unexpectedly and unprepared" nominated by Franz Joseph I to the upper house of the Royal Council in recognition of his public service, he was elected in 1870 to the presidency of the Anthropological Society. Two of Rokitansky's sons became professors at Vienna, one of astronomy and another of medicine, while a third gained distinction on the lyric stage, another as a composer: Hans von Rokitansky, became an opera singer. Victor von Rokitansky, became a composer. Prokop Rokitansky, became a doctor, his published works include: Handbuch der pathologischen Anatomie This is his principal work. It was redone and issued under the title of Lehrbuch der pathologischen Anatomie Die Defecte der Scheidewände des Herzens Footnotes Citations This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Rokitansky, Freiherr von". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University
For the community in Saxony, see Radibor. For the village in northern Poland, see Racibórz, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. Racibórz is a town in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, it is the administrative seat of Racibórz County. With Opole, Racibórz is one of the historic capitals of Upper Silesia, being the residence of the Dukes of Racibórz from 1172 to 1521; the town is situated in the southwest of the voivodeship on the upper Oder river, near the border with the Polish Opole Voivodeship and the Czech Republic. The Racibórz Basin forms the southeastern extension of the Silesian Lowlands, surrounded by the Opawskie Mountains in the west, the Silesian Upland in the north, the Moravian Gate in the south; the town centre is located about 75 kilometres southwest of Katowice and about 160 kilometres southeast of the regional capital Wrocław. As of 2014, the town has a population of 56,000 inhabitants. From 1975 to 1998, it belonged to Katowice Voivodeship; until the end of the 5th century AD, the lands of the Racibórz settlement were inhabited by East Germanic Silinger tribes.
The town is one of the oldest in Upper Silesia, the site of a hill fort where the old trade route from the Moravian Gate down to Kraków crossed the Oder river. There is a possibility that Racibórz was mentioned in a work of the "Bavarian Geographer" in 845; the name Racibórz is of Slavic origin and is derived from the name of one Duke Racibor, the city's founder. However, the first confirmed mention of Racibórz was made in 1108 in the Gesta principum Polonorum chronicle by the Benedictine monk Gallus Anonymus, at a time when the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth had to ward off the attacks by the forces of Duke Svatopluk of Bohemia invading from the Moravian lands in the south; the Polish rule over the Racibórz area was confirmed in 1137, it was incorporated into the Duchy of Silesia according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty in the following year. From 1155, Racibórz was the seat of a castellany; the town became the first historical capital of Upper Silesia, when the Duchy of Racibórz was established by the Piast duke Mieszko I Tanglefoot upon the first partition of Silesia in 1172.
From 1202 onwards, Duke Mieszko ruled over whole Upper Silesia as Duke of Racibórz. He had the settlement beneath his residence laid out and the area colonized by Flemish merchants, the first coin with the Polish description "MILOST" was issued in Racibórz in 1211. Mieszko's son and successor Duke Casimir I granted the Racibórz citizens municipal privileges in 1217. Under the rule of Mieszko II the Fat, the town resisted the Mongol invasion of 1241 and the Duke founded a Dominican monastery in the city, where he was buried in 1246; the first Polish national anthem Gaude Mater Polonia was written ca. 1260–70 in Latin by the Dominican brother Wincenty of Kielcza. In 1285 Duke Przemysław of Racibórz granted the Wrocław bishop Thomas II Zaremba asylum during his fierce struggle with the Silesian duke Henry IV Probus. In turn, Bishop Thomas donated a college of canons at Racibórz Castle, dedicated to Saint Thomas of Canterbury. Duke Przemysław founded a Dominican nunnery and his daughter Euphemia became its first prioress in 1313.
Around 1300, the Dominican friar Peregrine of Opole compiled his Sermones de tempore and Sermones de sanctis collections. From 1299 onwards, Racibórz was ruled by an autonomous city council according to Magdeburg town law; when in 1327 Duke Leszek of Racibórz paid homage to the Luxembourg king John of Bohemia, his duchy became a Bohemian fiefdom. The Bohemian feudal suzerainty, confirmed in the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin, led to the seizure of Racibórz as a reverted fief, when the line of the Silesian Piasts became extinct upon Duke Leszek's death in 1336; the next year King John enfeoffed Leszek's brother-in-law Duke Nicholas II of Opava with the duchy, which from that time on was ruled by the Opava cadet branch of the Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty and incorporated into the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. The Racibórz citizens retained their autonomy and the town developed to an important commercial centre for the region with significant cloth and brewing industries; when the last Přemyslid duke Valentin died and was buried in the Dominican church in 1521, Racibórz according to a 1512 inheritance treaty fell to the Opole dukes Jan II the Good a vassal of Bohemian king.
As he himself left no male heirs, his lands fell back to the Habsburg king Ferdinand I. With Opole, Racibórz was temporarily given in pawn to the Hohenzollern margraves of Ansbach and to the royal Polish House of Vasa; the town's economy suffered from the devastations in the Thirty Years' War. After the First Silesian War in 1742, Racibórz was ceded to the Kingdom of Prussia under Frederick the Great. With most of the Silesian territory it was incorporated into the Province of Silesia in 1815 and the town became the administrative seat of a Landkreis; the mediate Lordship of Ratibor was acquired by Elector William I of Hesse in 1812, succeeded by Landgrave Victor Amadeus of Hesse-Rotenburg in 1821 and Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst in 1834, vested with the title of a "Duke of Ratibor" by King Frederick William IV of Prussia in 1840. At that time, Ratibor had lost its status as a residential town, while the princes held court in the secularised monastery of Rausen. In the 19th century, Prussian policies increased the Germanisation.
Ratibor became part of the German Empire in 1871. The famous German Romantic poet Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff, a Roman Catholic