A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played. It comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, a fairway, the rough and other hazards, a green with a flagstick and hole. A standard round of golf consists of 18 holes. Most courses contain 18 holes. Par-3 courses consist of 18 holes all of which have a par of three strokes. Many older courses are links coastal. Courses are private and municipally owned, feature a pro shop. Many private courses are found at country clubs. Although a specialty within landscape design or landscape architecture, golf course architecture is considered a separate field of study; some golf course architects become celebrities in their own right, such as Robert Trent Jones, Jr.. The field is represented by the American Society of Golf Course Architects, the European Institute of Golf Course Architects, the Society of Australian Golf Course Architects, although many of the finest golf course architects in the world choose not to become members of any such group, as associations of architects are not government-sanctioned licensing bodies, but private groups.
While golf courses follow the original landscape, some modification is unavoidable. This is the case as new courses are more to be sited on less optimal land. Bunkers and sand traps are always artificial, although other hazards may be natural; the layout of a course follows certain traditional principles, such as the number of holes, their par values, the number of holes of each par value per course. It is preferable to arrange greens to be close to the tee box of the next playable hole, to minimize travel distance while playing a round, to vary the mix of shorter and longer holes. Combined with the need to package all the fairways within what is a compact square or rectangular plot of land, the fairways of a course tend to form an oppositional tiling pattern. In complex areas, two holes may share the same tee box, fairway, or green, it is common for separate tee-off points to be positioned for men and amateurs, each one lying closer to the green. Eighteen-hole courses are traditionally broken down into a "front 9" and a "back 9".
On older courses, the holes may be laid out in one long loop and ending at the clubhouse, thus the front 9 is referred to on the scorecard as "out" and the back 9 as "in". More recent courses tend to be designed with the front 9 and the back 9 each constituting a separate loop beginning and ending at the clubhouse; this is for the convenience of the players and the club, as it is easier to play just a 9-hole round, if preferred, or stop at the clubhouse for a snack between the front 9 and the back 9. A successful design is as visually pleasing. With golf being a form of outdoor recreation, the strong designer is an adept student of natural landscaping who understands the aesthetic cohesion of vegetation, water bodies, grasses and woodwork, among other elements. Most golf courses have only par-3, −4, −5 holes, although some courses include par-6 holes; the Ananti CC and the Satsuki golf course in Sano, Japan are the only courses with par 7 holes. Typical distances for the various holes from standard tees are as follows.
Men Par 3 – 250 yards and below Par 4 – 251–450 yards Par 5 – 451–690 yards Women Par 3 – 210 yards and below Par 4 – 211–400 yards Par 5 – 401–575 yards Harder or easier courses may have longer- or shorter-distance holes, respectively. Terrain can be a factor, so that a long downhill hole might be rated par 4, but a shorter uphill or treacherous hole might be rated par 5. Tournament players will play from a longer-distance tee box, behind the standard men's tee, which increases the typical distance of each par; this compensates for the longer distance pro players can put on tee and fairway shots as compared to the average "bogey golfer". The game of golf is played in what is called a "round"; this consists of playing a set number of holes in an order predetermined by the course. When playing on an 18-hole course, each hole is played once. To begin a hole, players start by striking the ball off a tee. Playing the ball off a tee can only be used on the first shot of every hole although it is not required to use a tee on the first shot.
Tees are a small wooden or plastic peg used to hold the ball up, so that when hit by the club the ball travels as far as possible. The first section of every hole consists of tee-box. There is more than one available box where a player places his ball, each one a different distance from the hole to provide differing difficulty; the teeing ground is as level as feasible, with mown grass similar to that of a putting green, most are raised from the surrounding fairway. Each tee box has
Henry Shapland "Harry" Colt was a golf course architect born in Highgate, England. He worked predominantly with Charles Alison, John Morrison, Alister MacKenzie, in 1928 forming Colt, Alison & Morrison Ltd, he participated in the design of over 300 golf courses in North America, South America, Australia and Africa. Colt's courses of note in the UK include: St George's Hill, Rye, Swinley Forest, Brancepeth Castle, Brokenhurst Manor, Camberley Heath, Stoke Park Club, Calcot Park and Streatley Golf Club, Grimsby Golf Club, Hendon Golf Club and the East & West Courses at Wentworth Club, he performed extensive redesigns of Sunningdale, Woodhall Spa, of Muirfield, Royal Liverpool Golf Club and Royal Portrush, three of the courses on the rota for the Open Championship. In Canada, his courses for the Hamilton Golf and Country Club and the Toronto Golf Club are respected, he designed in 1914 the first Spanish course bigger than 4.300 yards, the Club de Golf Sant Cugat, promoted by the Barcelona Traction Light and Power Company Ltd.
While it is joked that "the sun never sets" on a course designed by architect Robert Trent Jones, this is true for the works of Colt and his collaborators. H. S Colt teamed up with George Crump in 1918 to design Pine Valley Golf Club, ranked the #1 Golf Course in the United States, as of April 2017; the classic Plum Hollow Country Club in Southfield, Michigan was designed by Colt and Alison in 1921. The course played host to the 1947 PGA Championship, the 1957 Western Open, Ryder Cup Challenge Matches in 1943. Colt was educated at Monkton Combe School near Bath before taking a law degree at Clare College, where he captained the Cambridge University Golf Club in 1890. In 1897 he became a Founder Member of the Ancient Rules of Golf Committee. Note: Colt played in only The Open Championship and The Amateur Championship. DNP = Did not play "T" indicates a tie for a place R128, R64, R32, R16, QF, SF = Round in which player lost in match play Yellow background for top-10 Source for 1895 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 8 May 1895, pg. 8.
Source for 1896 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 21 May 1896, pg. 11. Source for 1898 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 25 May 1898, pg. 10. Source for 1899 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 25 May 1899, pg. 11. Source for 1900 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 10 May 1900, pg. 13. Source for 1901 British Amateur: Golf, June 1901, pg. 413. Source for 1902 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 30 April 1902, pg. 10. Source for 1904 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 1 June 1904, pg. 11. Source for 1906 British Amateur: Golf, July 1906, pg. 30. Source for 1907 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 29 May 1907, pg. 12. Source for 1908 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 29 May 1908, pg. 14. Source for 1909 British Amateur: The American Golfer, July 1909, pg. 11. Source for 1910 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 2 June 1910, pg. 8. Source for 1911 British Amateur: The Glasgow Herald, 2 June 1911, pg. 9. Source for 1912 British Amateur: The American Golfer, July 1912, pg. 198. England–Scotland Amateur Match: 1908 Colt Association Official Site Oxford Dictionary of National Biography article by Mark Pottle, ‘Colt, Henry Shapland ’ accessed 2 March 2007 Bath Golf Club Official Site
South Luffenham is a village in the county of Rutland in the East Midlands of England. The population of the civil parish at the 2001 census was 432; the village lies on the north side of the A6121 road from Uppingham to Stamford. It is divided into two by a small stream, the Foss, a tributary of the River Chater; the village has two pubs, the Boot and Shoe and the Coach House, as well as the parish church and the village hall. South Luffenham Hall stands a short distance to the south-east of St Mary's church. There is a ruined windmill to the east of the village. Luffenham railway station was located to the north of the village and served the neighbouring village of North Luffenham; the railway station opened in 1848 and closed in 1966. In fact there were two railway stations in the parish, since Morcott station lay just within the South Luffenham parish boundary. Before the Second World War, the Earls of Ancaster owned all the farms and most of the cottages, except Church Farm, which belonged to the Conants.
The estate was split up and sold off. In those early days, the village was self-sufficient, having one baker. In addition, Bates' carrier journeyed from Barrowden each Friday to convey goods, but no passengers, to Stamford. Joe Kirby came from Barrowden each Saturday afternoon in a covered wagon selling haberdashery; the post came from Stamford by horse and cart, subsequently by rail to Luffenham station, whoever kept the village post office was obliged to take the letters round the village. The last blacksmith was Mr Pepper from Barrowden who visited twice weekly until 1910. To the south of the smithy, in Back Lane in a shed, was a general grocers store. In November 1904, as Edward Berridge of Ketton was delivering bread in South Luffenham, Charles Louth stole a loaf of bread to the value of 2½d, from the cart, he was sentenced to 14 days' hard labour. Around the village are a number of old lanes little used now as they were of old. Cannonball Lane leads up to Morcott Spinney, so called because it is handed down that Cromwell's men set up his cannons in this spinney from which to fire on North Luffenham.
Shocky Balke leads southwards from the top of Pinfold Lane on to the common. From this point, the track became Hangman's Lane up to the gallows, sited there, it is said, to discourage the poor who would collect their wood and feed their geese on the common; the point is marked today by some fir trees. The common stretched from Barrowden Lane to Foster's Bridge; the Earl of Ancaster exchanged his fields, on which the allotments and recreation field now stand, for the 400 acres of common on which he built Luffenham Heath golf course which opened in 1911. In January 1921, fire destroyed the workshop and caddy's hut at the Golf Cub, having been started by a spark from a stove in the workshop. At Christmas 1793, a tribe of gypsies were camping at the'Follies' near Foster's Bridge; the gypsy king, named Edward Boswell, had a beautiful daughter, the Princess. She was just dying of consumption; when the time came to move on, she was too ill to travel in a jolting caravan, so the gypsies stayed a further two months on the cold bleak heath.
When she died, the churchwardens of South Luffenham would not have her buried in the parish because she was not a Christian. The curate, the Rev. Bateman over-ruled his parishioners and she was buried in the south aisle. A few weeks a marble slab arrived from London, was placed over her remains, subscribed by the many gypsies who converged from afar to express sympathy with their king; the slab is still faintly discernible in the church: “In memory of Rose Boswell, daughter of Edward and Sarah Boswell, who died February 19th, 1794, aged 17 years. What grief can vent this loss, or praises tell, how much, how good, how beautiful she fell.” Of other road tracks, Clay Lane leads to the fields below the cemetery, for those following the main road to Morcott, there used to be a footpath along the north side, but some years ago, the Council widened the road and absorbed the path. On the south side of this road stands a brick barn, this being built in Victorian times to serve as a dance hall for the two villages.
The village green was once surrounded with a seat in the middle. The fence was put up so that the children could play within without being disturbed by wandering cattle; the posts were removed in the 1930s. In the 1920s, the Asphaltic Slag & Stone Co. Ltd set up a quarry and erected an office on the Stamford road, opposite the entrance to the recreation ground. Twenty men were employed but not from the village; the quarry business only lasted some four years. Nothing survives. In 1919, ironstone pits were opened on the road to Pilton. Another quarry opened up at the north east of the parish and was served by a rail line connecting with the main line near Foster's Bridge. In October 1920, Arthur Waterfield was killed by a fall of earth while engaged at the Luffenham Ironstone Works. Tunnels are said to run from the church to the Foss, from the Old Hall site in Tailby's field to the church. One villager recollects in 1912 going down the latter tunnel to rescue a terrier dog; the tunnel was some five feet high, ten feet down and built of rough stone.
Having travelled five yards in the direction of the Hall he gave up and returned because of the crumbling condition of the tunnel walls. There are various theories regarding the mounds in
Luffenham Heath Golf Course
Luffenham Heath Golf Course is a 75.1 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of South Luffenham in Rutland. It is the course of Luffenham Heath Golf Club; the course is located on several soil types, including calcareous grassland on Jurassic Lower Lincolnshire Limestone, together with acid heath and broad-leaved woodland. The dominant grasses are tor-grass and upright brome, the site is notable for its butterflies its diverse insect species
Common land is land owned collectively by a number of persons, or by one person, but over which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel. A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner; this article deals with common land in Great Britain. Although the extent there is much reduced due to enclosure of common land from the millions of acres that existed until the 17th century, a considerable amount of common land still exists in upland areas, there are over 7,000 registered commons in England alone. Common land or former common land is referred to as a common. In medieval England the common was an integral part of the manor, was thus part of the estate held by the lord of the manor under a feudal grant from the Crown or a superior peer, who in turn held his land from the Crown which owned all land; this manorial system, founded on feudalism, granted rights of land use to different classes.
These would be appurtenant rights, the ownership of rights belonged to tenancies of particular plots of land held within a manor. A commoner would be the person who, for the time being, was the occupier of a particular plot of land; some rights of common were said to be in gross. This was more usual in regions where commons are more extensive, such as in the high ground of Northern England or on the Fens, but included many village greens across England and Wales. Most land with appurtenant commons rights is adjacent to the common or surrounded by it, but in a few cases it may be some considerable distance away. Manorial courts defined the details of many of the rights of common allowed to manorial tenants, such rights formed part of the copyhold tenancy whose terms were defined in the manorial court roll. Example rights of common are: Pasture. Right to pasture cattle, sheep or other animals on the common land; the most widespread right. Piscary. Right to fish. Turbary. Right to take sods of turf for fuel.
Common in the Soil. This is a general term used for rights to extract minerals such as sands, marl, walling stone and lime from common land. Mast or pannage. Right to turn out pigs for a period in autumn to eat mast. Estovers. Right to take sufficient wood for the commoner's holding. On most commons, rights of pasture and pannage for each commoner are defined by number and type of animal, by the time of year when certain rights could be exercised. For example, the occupier of a particular cottage might be allowed to graze fifteen cattle, four horses, ponies or donkeys, fifty geese, whilst the numbers allowed for their neighbours would be different. On some commons, the rights are not limited by numbers, instead a marking fee is paid each year for each animal turned out. However, if excessive use was made of the common, for example, in overgrazing, a common would be stinted, that is, a limit would be put on the number of animals each commoner was allowed to graze; these regulations were responsive to economic pressure.
Thus rather than let a common become degraded, access was restricted further. The Lord of the Manor must only exercise his rights so far as to leave a "sufficiency" of resource for commoners; this was at Issue in 1889 when the Lord of the Manor and owner of Banstead Downs and Heath, a Mr Hartopp, excavated gravel and threatened to reduce the available pasture. The meaning of sufficiency was challenged in court, Expert winesses stated that the grazing capacity was 1200 animals, the commoners rights totalled 1440 animals, 600 animals were turned out, it was decided sufficiency was whether enough grazing would be available for all the animals that could be turned out. The judgement was that "The Lord is bound to leave pasture enough to satisfy the commoners rights whether such rights are to be exercised or not". Commoners have the right to "peaceful enjoyment" of their rights, so that they cannot be hindered by the Lord of the Manor; this was first proposed in 1500 and became case law in 1827. Pasture commons are those.
In the uplands, they are moorland, on the coast they may be salt marsh, sand dunes or cliffs, on inland lowlands they may be downland, heathland or wood pasture, depending on the soil and history. These habitats are of high nature conservation value, because of their long continuity of management extending in some cases over many hundreds of years. In the past, most pasture commons would have been grazed by mixtures of cattle and ponies; the modern survival of grazing on pasture commons over the past century is uneven. Surviving commons are all pasture, but in earlier times, arable farming and haymaking were significant, with strips of land in the common arable fields and common haymeadows assigned annually by lot; when not in use for those purposes, such commons were grazed. Examples include the common arable fields around the village of Laxton in Nottinghamshire, a common meadow at North Meadow, Cricklade. Lammas rights entitled commoners to pasture following the harvest, between Lammas day, 12 August, to 6 April if they did not have other rights to the land.
Such rights sometimes had the effect of preventing enclosure and building development on agricultural land. Most of the medieval common land of England was lost due to enclosure. In English social
Rutland is a landlocked county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire. Its greatest length north to south is only 18 miles and its greatest breadth east to west is 17 miles, it is the fourth smallest in the UK as a whole. Because of this, the Latin motto Multum in Parvo or "much in little" was adopted by the county council in 1950, it has the smallest population of any normal unitary authority in England. Among the current ceremonial counties, the Isle of Wight, City of London and City of Bristol are smaller in area; the former County of London, in existence 1889 to 1965 had a smaller area. It is 323rd of the 326 districts in population; the only towns in Rutland are Oakham, the county town, Uppingham. At the centre of the county is Rutland Water, a large artificial reservoir, an important nature reserve serving as an overwintering site for wildfowl and a breeding site for ospreys. Rutland's older cottages are built from limestone or ironstone and many have roofs of Collyweston stone slate or thatch.
The origin of the name of the county is unclear. In a 1909 edition of Notes and Queries Harriot Tabor suggested "that the name should be Ruthland, that there is a part of Essex called the Ruth, that the ancient holders of it were called Ruthlanders, since altered to Rutland", its first mention, as "Roteland", occurs in the will of Edward the Confessor. The northwestern part of the county was recorded as Rutland, a detached part of Nottinghamshire, in Domesday Book, it was first mentioned as a separate county in 1159, but as late as the 14th century it was referred to as the'Soke of Rutland'. It was known as Rutlandshire, but in recent times only the shorter name is common. Rutland may be from Old English hryþr or hrythr "cattle" and land "land", as a record from 1128 as Ritelanede shows. However, A Dictionary of British Place-Names by A D Mills gives an alternative etymology, "Rota's land", from the Old English personal name and land land, it is from the alternative interpretation of red land that the traditional nickname for a male person from Rutland, a "Raddle Man", derives.
Earl of Rutland and Duke of Rutland are titles in the peerage of England held in the Manners family, derived from the historic county of Rutland. The Earl of Rutland was elevated to the status of Duke in 1703 and the titles were merged; the family seat is Leicestershire. The office of High Sheriff of Rutland was instituted in 1129, there has been a Lord Lieutenant of Rutland since at least 1559. By the time of the 19th century it had been divided into the hundreds of Alstoe, Martinsley and Wrandike. Rutland covered parts of three poor law unions and rural sanitary districts: those of Oakham and Stamford; the registration county of Rutland contained the entirety of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs, which included several parishes in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire – the eastern part in Stamford RSD was included in the Lincolnshire registration county. Under the Poor Laws, Oakham Union workhouse was built in 1836–37 at a site to the north-east of the town, with room for 100 paupers; the building operated as the Catmose Vale Hospital, now forms part of the Oakham School.
In 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894 the rural sanitary districts were partitioned along county boundaries to form three rural districts. The part of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs in Rutland formed the Oakham Rural District and Uppingham Rural District, with the two parishes from Oakham RSD in Leicestershire becoming part of the Melton Mowbray Rural District, the nine parishes of Uppingham RSD in Leicestershire becoming the Hallaton Rural District, the six parishes of Uppingham RSD in Northamptonshire becoming Gretton Rural District. Meanwhile, that part of Stamford RSD in Rutland became the Ketton Rural District. Oakham Urban District was created from Oakham Rural District in 1911, it was subsequently abolished in 1974. Rutland was included in the "East Midlands General Review Area" of the 1958–67 Local Government Commission for England. Draft recommendations would have seen Rutland split, with Ketton Rural District going along with Stamford to a new administrative county of Cambridgeshire, the western part added to Leicestershire.
The final proposals were less radical and instead proposed that Rutland become a single rural district within the administrative county of Leicestershire. Rutland became a non-metropolitan district of Leicestershire under the Local Government Act 1972, which took effect on 1 April 1974; the original proposal was for Rutland to be merged with what is now the Melton borough, as Rutland did not meet the requirement of having a population of at least 40,000. The revised and implemented proposals allowed Rutland to be exempt from this. In 1994, the Local Government Commission for England, conducting a structural review of English local government, recommended that Rutland become a unitary authority; this was implemented on 1 April 1997, when Rutland County Council became responsible for all local services in Rutland, with the exception of the Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service and Leicestershire Police, which are run by joint boards with Leicestershire County Council and Leicester City Council.
Rutland regained a separate Lieutenancy and shrievalty, thus regained status as a ceremonial county. Rutland wa
Edward VIII was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor. Edward was the eldest son of King George Queen Mary, he was created Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, he served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father. Edward became king on his father's death in early 1936. However, he showed impatience with court protocol, caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing to Wallis Simpson, an American who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second; the prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands was politically and unacceptable as a prospective queen consort.
Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as the titular head of the Church of England, which at the time disapproved of remarriage after divorce if a former spouse was still alive. Edward knew the British government, led by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have forced a general election and would ruin his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch; when it became apparent he could not marry Wallis and remain on the throne, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother, George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward is one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history. After his abdication, he was created Duke of Windsor, he married Wallis in France on 3 June 1937. That year, the couple toured Germany. During the Second World War, he was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France, but after private accusations that he held Nazi sympathies he was appointed Governor of the Bahamas.
After the war, Edward spent the rest of his life in retirement in France. Edward and Wallis remained married until his death in 1972. Edward was born on 23 June 1894 at White Lodge, Richmond Park, on the outskirts of London during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, he was the eldest son of the Duchess of York. His father was the son of the Princess of Wales, his mother was the eldest daughter of the Duchess of Teck. At the time of his birth, he was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind his grandfather and father, he was baptised Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David in the Green Drawing Room of White Lodge on 16 July 1894 by Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury. The names were chosen in honour of Edward's late uncle, known to his family as "Eddy" or Edward, his great-grandfather King Christian IX of Denmark; the name Albert was included at the behest of Queen Victoria for her late husband Albert, Prince Consort, the last four names – George, Andrew and David – came from the patron saints of England, Scotland and Wales.
He was always known to his close friends by his last given name, David. As was common practice with upper-class children of the time and his younger siblings were brought up by nannies rather than directly by their parents. One of Edward's early nannies abused him by pinching him before he was due to be presented to his parents, his subsequent crying and wailing would lead the Duchess to send him and the nanny away. The nanny was discharged. Edward's father, though a harsh disciplinarian, was demonstrably affectionate, his mother displayed a frolicsome side with her children that belied her austere public image, she was amused by the children making tadpoles on toast for their French master, encouraged them to confide in her. Edward was tutored at home by Helen Bricka; when his parents travelled the British Empire for nine months following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, young Edward and his siblings stayed in Britain with their grandparents, Queen Alexandra and King Edward VII, who showered their grandchildren with affection.
Upon his parents' return, Edward was placed under the care of two men, Frederick Finch and Henry Hansell, who brought up Edward and his brothers and sister for their remaining nursery years. Edward was kept under the strict tutorship of Hansell until thirteen years old. Private tutors taught him French. Edward took the examination to enter the Royal Naval College and began there in 1907. Hansell had wanted Edward to enter school earlier. Following two years at Osborne College, which he did not enjoy, Edward moved on to the Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. A course of two years, followed by entry into the Royal Navy, was planned. A bout of mumps may have made him infertile. Edward automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay on 6 May 1910 when his father ascended the throne as George V on the death of Edward VII, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester a month on 23 June 1910, his 16th birthday. Preparations for his future as king began in earnest, he was withdrawn from his naval course before his formal graduation, served as midshipman for three months aboard the battleship Hindustan immediately entered Magdalen College, for which, in the opinion of his biogra