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The Ganda language or Luganda is a Bantu language spoken in the African Great Lakes region. It is one of the major languages in Uganda, spoken by more than eight million Baganda and other people principally in central Uganda, including the capital Kampala of Uganda, it belongs to the Bantu branch of the Niger–Congo language family. Typologically, it is a highly-agglutinating language with subject–verb–object, word order and nominative–accusative morphosyntactic alignment. With about six million first-language-speakers in the Buganda region and a million others fluent elsewhere, it is the most spoken Ugandan language; as a second language, it follows precedes Swahili. Luganda is used in some primary schools in Buganda as pupils begin to learn English, the primary official language of Uganda; until the 1960s, Luganda was the official language of instruction in primary schools in Eastern Uganda. A notable feature of Luganda phonology is its geminate consonants and distinctions between long and short vowels.

Speakers consider consonantal gemination and vowel lengthening to be two manifestations of the same effect, which they call "doubling" or "stressing". Luganda is a tonal language. For example, the word kabaka means ` king'. If the first syllable is high the meaning changes to'the little one catches'; this feature makes Luganda a difficult language for speakers of non-tonal languages to learn. A non-native speaker has to learn the variations of pitch by prolonged listening. Unlike some other Bantu languages, there is no tendency in Luganda for penultimate vowels to become long. All five vowels have two forms: short; the distinction can occur only in certain positions. After two consonants, the latter being a semivowel, all vowels are long; the quality of a vowel is not affected by its length. Long vowels in Luganda are long, more than twice the length of a short vowel. A vowel before a prenasalised consonant, as in Bugáńda'Buganda' is lengthened, although it is not as long as a long vowel. Before a geminate, all vowels are short.

A segment such as tugg, where a short vowel is followed by a geminate consonant, is slightly shorter than tuuk or tung. The table below gives the consonant set of Luganda, grouping voiceless and voiced consonants together in a cell where appropriate, in that order. Apart from /l~r/, all these consonants can be geminated at the start of a word: bbiri /bːíri/'two', kitto /cítːo/'cold'; the approximants /w/ and /j/ are geminated as /ɡːw/ and /ɟː/: eggwanga /eɡːwáːŋɡa/'country'. Geminated consonants appear to have arisen when a close between two consonants dropped out. Apart from /l~r/, /w/ and /j/, all consonants can be prenasalised; this consonant will be, or according to the place of articulation of the consonant which follows, belongs to the same syllable as that consonant. The liquid /l~r/ becomes /d/ when geminated or prenasalised. For example, ndaba /n̩dába/'I see'. A consonant can not be both prenasalised; when morphological processes require this, the gemination is dropped and the syllable /zi/ is inserted, which can be prenasalised.

For example, when the prefix en- is added to the adjective -ddugavu'black' the result is enzirugavu /eːnzíruɡavu/. The nasals /m/, /n/, /ɲ/ and /ŋ/ can be syllabic at the start of a word: nkima /ɲ̩címa/'monkey', mpa /m̩pá/'I give', nnyinyonnyola /ɲ̩ɲiɲóɲːola/ or /ɲːiɲóɲːola/'I explain'. Note that this last example can be analysed in two ways, reflecting the fact that there is no distinction between prenasalisation and gemination when applied to nasal stops. Luganda is a tonal language, with three tones: high and falling. There are, however, no syllables in Luganda with rising tone. According to one analysis, tones are carried on morae. In Luganda, a short vowel has one mora and a long vowel has two morae. A geminate or prenasalised consonant has one mora. A consonant + semivowel has one mora. A vowel followed by a prenasalised consonant has two morae including the one belonging to the prenasalised consonant; the initial vowel of words like ekitabo'book' is considered to have one mora though such vowels are pronounced long.

No syllable can have more than two morae. Falling tones can be heard in syllables which have two morae, e.g. those with a long vowel, those with a short vowel followed by a geminate consonant, those with a vowel followed by a prenasalised consonant, those following a consonant plus semivowel. They can be heard on final vowels, e.g. ensî'country'. Words in Luganda belong to one of three patterns: toneless, e.g. ekitabo'book'.


Moriagaro is the 10th studio album by Japanese R&B musician Ai, released on July 17, 2013. This is her second album with EMI, but the first since it became EMI Records Japan, a sublabel of Universal Music Japan; the album was written by Ai, collaborating with Japanese producers. Ai collaborated with four singers: American R&B singers Jeremih and Bridget Kelly, as well as Malaysian Australian R&B singer Che'Nelle, who has based her career in Japan since 2011. Five of the songs are sung in Japanese, three in English. "Moriagaro," "Don't Turn Me Off" and "Got ta Get Mine" are sung in a mix of Japanese. Album recording took place in Tokyo, as well as in West Hollywood and New York City. Ai worked with Japanese producer Uta on the songs "Hanabi," "My Place," "Sogood" and "Voice." This is the first time. Ai worked with five American producers on the remaining songs. Fifty 1 Fifty produced three songs, "For You," "Top of the World" and "After the Storm." De-Capo Music Group worked on "Moriagaro," C3prod on "Mama e" and Wonda Music on "Gotta Get Mine."

Ai worked together with producer D. Clax and The Exclusives on the song "My Baby." The first single released from the album was "Voice" in February 2013. The song was used as the theme song for the drama Yakō Kanransha, starring Kyōka Suzuki and Yuriko Ishida; the single became a big hit. It is her fourth most sold physical single since her debut, it is her last release under the then-independent EMI Music Japan. Ai followed up the single with two digital singles; the first was "Mama e," used in a Lotte chocolate commercial campaign for Mother's Day, "After the Storm," used as the theme for the Japanese release of the Hong Kong martial arts film The Grandmaster. Three other songs were used for TV commercials. "Sogood" was used for KFC Japan commercials, "For You" for Kubota commercials, "My Place" for Japan Rail in promotion of the Kyushu Shinkansen. "Gotta Get Mine" was used as the July opening theme for the TV Tokyo R&B/dance program Chōryūha. "Top of the World" was used as the opening theme for the TBS drama Higanjima in October 2013.

Music videos were produced for the album songs "Gotta Get Mine," "Hanabi," "My Place," and "Sogood."The album was re-released on November 20, 2013, as Motto Moriagaro, featuring five additional tracks and a DJ mix CD by DJ Hirakatsu. Two of the five tracks are unpublished songs. "Get Your Hands Up" was used as the Ya-man Dancing EMS CM song and "Run Free" was used as a song promoting Reebok Reebok Classic. Ai's Moriagaro Tour began in October in Kanagawa and included 33 dates; the final concert will be held on December 2013, at the Nippon Budokan in Tokyo. Credits adapted from the liner notes of Moriagaro. Personnel details were sourced from Moriagaro's liner notes booklet. Managerial Performance credits Visuals and imagery Technical and production

List of state leaders in 1151

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1151. Byzantine EmpireManuel I Comnenus China - Prince of Hailing China - Emperor Gaozong Japan Monarch – Emperor Konoe Regent - Fujiwara no Tadamichi Kara-Khitan Khanate - Emperor Renzong Khmer EmpireDharanindravarman II Korea – Euijong Western Xia – Emperor Renzong Duchy of Aquitaine – Eleanor Kingdom of Aragon – Petronilla Kingdom of Denmark Sweyn III, rival King of Denmark Canute V, rival King of Denmark Valdemar I The Great, rival King of Denmark Kingdom of England – Stephen Kingdom of FranceLouis VII Holy Roman EmpireConrad III, King of Germany Duchy of AustriaHenry II Jasomirgott Duchy of BavariaHenry XI Duchy of BohemiaVladislav II County of HollandDirk VI Duchy of SaxonyHenry III the Lion Duchy of SwabiaFrederick III Kingdom of HungaryGéza II Ireland - Tairrdelbach mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, High King of Ireland Kingdom of NavarreSancho VI the Wise Kingdom of Norway Eystein II, joint King of Norway Inge I, joint King of Norway Papal StatesPope Eugene III Kingdom of PolandBoleslaw IV Kingdom of PortugalAfonso I SerbiaUroš II Prvoslav Kingdom of ScotlandDavid I Kingdom of SicilyRoger II Kingdom of SwedenSverker I Wales Kingdom of GwyneddOwain Gwynedd, Prince of Gwynedd DeheubarthCadell ap Gruffydd, Prince of Deheubarth

Columbus Cottonmouths

The Columbus Cottonmouths were a professional ice hockey team based in Columbus, Georgia. The team played their home games at the Columbus Civic Center. In 2017, the team suspended operations after failing to find a new owner. In 1996, the Columbus Cottonmouths started play in the Central Hockey League, joining the Macon Whoopee and Nashville Nighthawks as expansion entries that were slated to be in the Southern Hockey League before its demise in the summer of 1996. Along with the Memphis RiverKings, an established CHL franchise, the Huntsville Channel Cats, the SHL champion in 1996 and the lone surviving franchise from that league and the other two expansion SHL teams formed the new Eastern Division of the CHL in the 1996–97 season. In 1998, the team won the CHL championship; the Cottonmouths were in the CHL playoffs each of their five seasons in the league, making it to the league finals in 2000 and 2001 before losing to the Indianapolis Ice and the Oklahoma City Blazers, respectively. In the summer of 2001, the CHL merged with the Western Professional Hockey League and geographic rivals in Huntsville and Macon were lost, leading the Cottonmouths to seek and obtain entry into the East Coast Hockey League.

DVA Sports, composed of owners Salvador Diaz-Verson and Shelby Amos, purchased the defunct Hampton Roads Admirals ECHL franchise, relocating it to Columbus under the Cottonmouths name. From 2001 to 2004, the Columbus Cottonmouths organization played in the ECHL, bringing with them their longtime captain Jerome "Boom-Boom" Bechard and head coach Bruce Garber. In the three seasons that Columbus spent in the ECHL, they failed to make the playoffs. Midway through their second season in the ECHL, the only coach in team history, resigned. General manager Phil Roberto took over for the remainder of the season, their best season in the ECHL was their last. Prior to the 2003–04 season the team announced the signing of their new coach, former NHL enforcer Brian Curran, they finished with a 37–27–8 record, tied with the Greensboro Generals for the best record by a non-playoff team that season. In April 2004, the Cottonmouths management announced their intentions to move their ECHL franchise to the Bradenton-Sarasota area in Florida.

The team, named the Gulf Coast Swords, would never come to fruition as financial setbacks delayed the construction of their to-be home arena. After foreclosure on the arena property and numerous delays, the ECHL revoked the Swords franchise in the league in the summer of 2006. In 2004, the Columbus Cottonmouths organization joined the Southern Professional Hockey League as one of its inaugural members. Led by first year coach, Columbus hockey legend Jerome Bechard, the team won the first SPHL championship in April 2005 by first winning a one-game playoff against the Fayetteville FireAntz by a 4–2 score, they next swept the regular season champion Knoxville Ice Bears to advance to the league finals, which they won against the Macon Trax with two straight victories, ending with a 3–2 overtime win. The Snakes' victory capped an undefeated postseason. In 2007, the Columbus team won the SPHL Commissioner's Cup as the team with the best season record, but was ousted in the first round of playoffs by the Jacksonville Barracudas, who won the series three games to one.

In 2008, the Snakes' 22–24–6 regular-season record was a Columbus hockey team's first losing record since 2002–03 and the first one by a non-ECHL team. On April 14, 2012, the Cottonmouths won their second President's Cup championship with a two-game sweep of the Pensacola Ice Flyers; the Snakes won game one 3–2 at home and completed the championship series with a 3–1 road victory over the Ice Flyers. The Cottonmouths went undefeated in the playoffs, 6–0. On January 19, 2017, the bus carrying the Cottonmouths was involved in a rollover on I-74 on the way to play the Peoria Rivermen. 24 players and staff were injured in the accident. In March 2017, it was announced that owners Wanda and Shelby Amos were selling the team and that general manager and head coach Bechard was in charge of looking for a buyer; the Amos' cited mounting financial losses as their reason for trying to sell the team and that they would cease operations if a new buyer is not found. On May 3, 2017, the team official suspended operations for the 2017–18 season.

However, SPHL commissioner Jim Combs confirmed that negotiations with a potential ownership were still on-going but would only be ready for the 2018–19 season if the ownership transfer was successful. In June, the new potential ownership was confirmed as Residential World Media, headed by Fidel Jenkins, that the purchase was still in negotiations with the SPHL. However, it was stated that the Cottonmouths branding would not be included in the purchase and would instead be called the Columbus Burn. In August, the league terminated the application of the Burn to join the league. In 2019, professional hockey returned to Columbus in the Federal Hockey League with the Columbus River Dragons. Head Coach – Jerome Bechard Athletic Trainer – Adam Norman Equipment Manager – Mike Nash Columbus Cottonmouths

Louis-Anne La Virotte

Louis-Anne La Virotte was an 18th-century French physician and encyclopédiste. He first studied medicine at the Université de Montpellier, he moved to the French capitale and was introduced to the Journal des sçavans through the protection of chancellor Henri François d'Aguesseau. He was appointed to the position of docteur régent at the Faculté de médecine de Paris where he was for many years one of the eighteen royal censors for natural history and chemistry. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War in 1757, he joined the army of Westphalia. In the following years, he practised at the Hôpital de la Charité in Paris. Melchior Grimm wrote: "He joined a lot of knowledge and literature, a strong and pleasant spirit and all the qualities of a good man", he wrote the article Docteur en médecine for the Encyclopédie by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert. 1749: Découvertes philosophiques de Newton de Maclaurin. 1750: Nоuvelles Observations Microscopiques de Needham 1757: Observations sur une Hydrophobie spontanée, suivie de la rage.

Ferdinand Hoefer: Nouvelle Biographie générale. T. 22 Firmin-Didot, Paris. Louis-Anne La Virotte on Wikisource Journal des sçavans pour l'année 1759

11th Cavalry Corps (Soviet Union)

The 11th Cavalry Corps of the Soviet Union's Red Army was a cavalry corps active during the Second World War. It was created on 12 January 1942 at Kalinin Oblast. General Grigory Timofejev took command. On January 12, 1942, the 11th Cavalry Corps passed the breakthrough sector of 39th Army, raided the far rear of the German Army Group Centre alongside the west of the Rzhev-Sychevka-Vyazma traffic line. On January 26, 1942, the Cavalry Corps cut the Vyazma-Smolensk road on the west of Vyazma, kept contact with the 33rd Army, the pioneering of Western Front, on the south-west of Vyazma, completed its campaign mission to envelop the Vyazma City. From February to June 1942, the Cavalry Corps with 39th Army insisted defending the salient in the vicinity between Bely and Kholm-Zhirkovsky, nearly encircled by German troops, only a narrow corridor between Bely and Olenino to the main forces of Kalinin Front remained. On July 2, 1942, the 9th Army of Germany launched the Operation Seydlitz, called Holme-Zhirkovskaya defensive operation by the Soviet Union, to eliminate the salient in the vicinity between Bely and Kholm-Zhirkovsky and annihilate the 39th Army and 11th Cavalry Corps.

Intense fighting carried on to July 17, the last resistance extinguished on July 23. After that, the unit designation of 11th Cavalry Corps was annulled in August 1942. Kalinin Front January–July 1942 Sychyovka-Vyazma Offensive as a mobile group of Kalinin Front in 1942 Holme-Zhirkovskaya defensive operation July 2–23, 1942 18th Cavalry Division 24th Cavalry Division 82nd Cavalry Division General Grigory Timofejev Colonel, from July 1942, Major General Sergei Vladimirovich Sokolov. Glants, D. M. Soviet Military Deception in the Second World War, Frank Cass, London, 1989 Glantz, D. M. Companion to Colossus Reborn: key documents and statistics, University of Kansas2005 Perecheni No.4, Command of Corps which were a part of the active Army during the years of the Great Patriotic War 1941-45, Supplement to the direction of the General Staff for year 1956 No.168780, Moscow, 1956