Ramjet is the name of several fictional characters in the Transformers toy-based robot superhero media franchise. All have been Decepticon aligned characters who turn into jets white. Ramjet is a Decepticon from the Transformers series and has appeared in the related comics and The Transformers: The Movie. In the original Transformers, Ramjet was one of the Seekers. Ramjet and Dirge are part of a team dubbed by Transformers fans as the "Coneheads" for the way their animation models were drawn to make them visually distinct from the original Decepticon jets Starscream and Thundercracker despite their toys being modifications of the same mold used to create that original trio; the toys themselves use the nosecone of the jet to become the head of the robot, but on the original jets the nosecone points back, forming a normal head. To make the three newer jets distinctive, the show animators illustrated them with the nosecones pointing up in robot mode - despite the fact that this is not how their toy instructions or box art depict them.
The original Ramjet was described as an impulsive but brave warrior who enjoyed crashing into objects and enemies. He carried two cluster bombs and two automatic machine guns, but used his nosecone head to smash things when fighting. Not given much to thinking before acting, Ramjet crashed into neutral objects just for fun, thus collecting new enemies; these crashes took their toll on Ramjet's body by causing internal damage. Although he would not appear in the Transformers comic until issue #17, Ramjet's vehicle mode, along with Thrust and Dirge's were being mass-produced under slave labor when Shockwave assumed control of G. B. Blackrock Aircraft Assembly Plant #1; this suggests that the planes were either F-15s redesigned by Shockwave for use as Decepticons or that they were made from blueprints produced by the Blackrock company. This implies that this is how the three Seekers gained their Earth modes when they came to Earth. Ramjet first appeared in issue #17 of the U. S. Marvel Transformers comic.
He had a much more important role in the Marvel UK storyline Target: 2006, where he was portrayed as one of the Decepticons' deadliest killers, one that needed to be taken out by the Autobot commando group the Wreckers to signal a mass-Autobot uprising on Cybertron. The Decepticons had prepared a major offensive to wipe the Autobots out and capture Emirate Xaaron, unaware this was part of the Autobot trap. Megatron's summoning the Insecticons to Earth scuppered. Subsequently, he joined the Decepticons on Earth, he was seen entering Earth via the Spacebridge, alongside Thrust and Dirge around the same time as the Aerialbots were being created. Despite acquitting themselves well against the inexperienced Autobots they were forced to flee when the Aerialbots formed Superion. Ramjet would appear among the Decepticon forces in Marvel's G. I. Joe and the Transformers crossover, where he was seen to be destroyed in battle along with his fellow Seeker, Dirge. Ramjet would not be seen in U. S. comics for some time after this.
Ramjet would serve as part of the Earthbound forces under first Shockwave Ratbat, battling both the Autobots and Scorponok's Decepticon faction. When Starscream seized the power of the Underbase, Dirge and Ramjet were part of the forces sent against him. Although they were not shown to be deactivated by the villain, they were not seen again in the main continuity, although they would be seen in the U. K. Earthforce tales under the command of Shockwave. Ramjet would appear again in Marvel's Generation 2 comic revived by nucleon, he was part of the Decepticon forces under Bludgeon, was restored to prominence in the Decepticon hierarchy after Megatron's return. He died while consumed completely. Despite being one of the better-known Generation 2 characters, he appeared sparingly, in his Generation 1 color scheme. In the original Transformers series, Ramjet appeared in Season 2, he made his first appearance in episode #30, "Dinobot Island Part 1." How Ramjet came to Earth was not shown. Ramjet made regular appearances during the second season.
In episode #33,"Auto Berserk" he took part in the air raid on the Autobots' column escorting the Negavator. Megatron ordered to his jet `, but Smokescreen used his smoke so as to dazzle the Seekers, downed them all, including Ramjet, with his disruptors. Meanwhile, Megatron was sitting in the Negavator's cab, but he had no time to destroy the Autobots because Ramjet fell just on the cab and knocked Megatron out of it. So the Decepticons had to get nothing for their pains again; when Ramjet asks Megatron about Starscream, Megatron tells him to abandon Starscream, while the other Decepticons flee. Ramjet's most notable appearance, was in episode #40, "A Decepticon Raider in King Arthur's Court" where several Transformers characters were somehow transported back in time to England of the Middle Ages. During this episode, Ramjet made good use of his name by head-butting a knight, he participated in a jousting contest, with Rumble atop his nosecone wielding a lance against Spike Witwicky mounted atop Autobot Warpath's turret.
After this tournament he together with Rumble helped Starscream to gather all the necessary ingredients for making the gunpowder which the latter wanted to use against the'Bots and their human allies. At the end of the episode Merlin helped both the Autobots and Decepticons to return to their own time. Ramjet made many app
Bumblebee, designation B-127, is a fictional robot superhero in the many continuities in the Transformers franchise. The character is a member of the Autobot, a group of sentient self-configuring modular extraterrestrial robotic lifeforms In most versions, Bumblebee is a small—yellow with black stripes—with most of his alternative vehicle modes inspired by several generations of the Chevrolet American muscle cars – with the live-action film versions being a yellow Camaro with black racing stripes; the original vehicle-mode design was based on a classic European Type 1 Volkswagen Beetle. The character is named after the Bumblebee, a black-and-yellow striped bee which inspired his paint scheme. Bumblebee appears in most of the series and becomes the main protagonist in Transformers: Robots in Disguise and Transformers: Cyberverse. Bumblebee is the "little brother" of the heroic or protagonistic Autobot faction and a mascot striving to prove himself in the eyes of the other robots—especially his leader, Optimus Prime.
This causes him to take risks that put him in danger. Although a bit of a smart aleck, he is a capable and reliable messenger and spy, his small size allowing him to go places that his larger commanders cannot, he is fuel-efficient, has great visual acuity, is adaptable to undersea environments and transforms into a Saturn yellow Volkswagen Beetle. He was reconstructed into a stronger, more mature form as Goldbug. At BotCon 2010, Hasbro named Bumblebee as one of the first five robot inductees in the Transformers Hall of Fame. Bumblebee holds the distinction of being the second character to appear on-screen in the original Transformers animated series, while on a mission to recover a small clutch of energy conductors with Wheeljack, illustrating the energy crisis holding sway over their home planet of Cybertron; these two characters were season and beginning of the second season, sometimes going on missions. Bumblebee is subsequently among the Transformers aboard the Ark as it set off searching for new worlds and new energy sources, which crashed on Earth, causing the Transformers within to be trapped in stasis for four million years.
Awakening in 1984, Bumblebee helps Ironhide quell a raging river and uses his small size to help the human Autobot ally Sparkplug Witwicky plant explosives in the midst of a Decepticon mining operation. He befriends Sparkplug's son Spike, but on their first adventure together they are both kidnapped by the Decepticons, Bumblebees memory chip were altered as he unintentionally lured the other Autobots into a trap. Bumblebee recovered in time to help his fellow Autobots stop the Decepticons from sending Spike to Cybertron. After their first adventure and Spike became best friends for life as they both realized that they make a good team. Bumblebee got injured with Spike inside from a battle with the Decepticons at a rocket base. Bumblebee was being repaired by Ratchet while his best friend was being fixed at the hospital but his mind ended up being transferred into the robot body of Autobot X, created by Sparkplug, so the doctors at the hospital can operate one his real one; when Spike left base as there was a side effect of the mind transfer, Bumblebee left afterwards to go look for his best friend but his radio transmitters weren't fixed yet.
After finding Spike, Bumblebee tries to get his pal to come to his senses but failed when his best friend believed that he was tricking him. Bumblebee sees the Decepticons arriving at their location but they didn't see him so he was able to hear Megatron tell lies to his best friend left to go get Optimus and the rest of his Autobot friends for help, who were helping with repairs at the rocket base they were battling at before. After arriving at the rocket base, Bumblebee tells Optimus that Megatron is manipulating Spike and he's starting to believe him. Bumblebee was asks to lead the way of their location by Optimus, who feared that the Decepticons would find out about Spike's messed up mind and would take advantage of the situation, so they can help their friend. Arriving where Spike was and Optimus tried talking some sense into him but it didn't work as they hoped it would but they were both relieved when he did when Sparkplug was endangered. After the Decepticons left, Bumblebee gave his best friend a high five when he returned to his real body when it got all fixed up.
Bumblebee accompanies Spike and Sparkplug with Jazz to test out his new speakers but decided to head to headquarters so wouldn't have to deal with his loud music. When Bumblebee return to headquarters he saw no one but Bluestreak there and that Telatran One was damaged was dragged to the recharging chamber by Bluestreak, due to Megatron putting a personality destabilizer in their recharging chamber to turn all the Autobots evil. However, Bumblebee was saved when Jazz and Sparkplug arrived back just in time as Jazz knocked Bluestreak out for a while. After Sparkplug fixed Telatran One, Jazz and Sparkplug became shocked when Telatran One tells them that Megatron turned their friends from good to evil. With Bumblebee and Jazz being the only ones who weren't affected from the personality destabilizer. Bumblebee decided to stop his comrades when he hears about Optimus Prime with Brawn and Prowl attacking an Air Force jet base with Spike accompanying him. Once they arrived, Bumblebee tried a few times to get through to no success.
Bumblebee was relieved that his friends were free from the Decepticons control, after Sparkplug invented Attitude exchanger to counteract the personality destabilizer effects, except for Optimus. Bumblebee took the last one, as there was no ot
Optimus Prime, known in Japan as Convoy, is a robot superhero character from the Transformers robot superhero franchise. He is the leader of the Autobots, a group of sentient self-configuring modular extraterrestrial robotic lifeforms, he is featured in popular culture. Optimus Prime is if not always depicted as having strong moral character, excellent leadership, sound decision-making skills, possesses brilliant military tactics, powerful martial arts, advanced extraterrestrial weaponry. Optimus Prime has a strong sense of honor and justice, being dedicated to building peaceful and mutually beneficial co-existence with humans, the protection of life and liberty of all sentient species; as the current Matrix of Leadership bearer, Optimus Prime is the de facto leader of the Autobots, a faction of a transforming species of synthetic intelligence from the planet Cybertron. The Autobots are waging civil war against a rival faction of transforming robots called Decepticons. According to Bob Budiansky, co-writer of the Transformers series, Dennis O'Neil was responsible for his name.
Optimus Prime is depicted as being a member of an ancient Transformers race called the Dynasty of Primes receiving the title "The Last Prime" in many stories, in which he is depicted as being the last of the Primes. In the Transformers: Covenant of Primus, it was established that Optimus Prime was the last born of the original Thirteen Transformers, it was his unique spark and his inspiring reassurance that "All are One" that allowed the Primes to rally and succeed in their battle against the Chaos Bringer Unicron. When tragedy at last ended the era of the Primes and brought forth the new race of lesser descendant Transformers he alone chose to be reborn in the Well of All Sparks as one of them, that he might know them and their needs more completely. All memory of his past life gone, he took the name "Orion Pax" and sought his way like any other robot on the new world becoming Optimus Prime once more when receiving the Matrix of Leadership when Cybertron faced a new enemy in his former friend and his army of followers, the Decepticons.
This brings a Great War to their planet of Cybertron. Optimus's origins and personality can vary depending on; this origin is the most consistent between the various incarnations. Further differences are listed in the respective sections below; the first generation Optimus Prime transforms into a Freightliner FL86 cab over semi truck. Within his chest is a mystic talisman, known as the Autobot Matrix of Leadership or the "Creation Matrix", carried by all Autobot leaders; when Optimus transforms, his tractor cab disconnects to become a sentient robot, his trailer opens to reveal an ion blaster, forming a combat deck. The combat deck supports a mobile battle-station and command headquarters armed with assorted artillery and beam weapons that fire automatically; the combat deck can serve as a radio antenna for battlefield communications between the autobots. The combat deck included "Roller", a mobile scout buggy meant to scout behind enemy lines; when Roller is deployed, Optimus can hear what Roller sees and hears.
Injury to one component is felt by each of the others. If the combat deck or Roller were to be destroyed, Prime could survive. However, despite the slight degree of autonomy they possess, the combat deck and Roller would not be able to survive without Optimus. In the animated series, Optimus is able to fire short-range optic blasts, project holographic maps, deploy hydro-foils, designed by Wheeljack, to traverse bodies of water with ease. In the animated series, Optimus was given the ability to retract his right hand unit and replace it with a glowing axe. Across the assorted continuities of the original Transformers universe, there have been various interpretations of Optimus Prime. One of Prime's most notable characteristics over all continuities his unswaying commitment to leadership by example; the animated series's version of Optimus Prime is depicted as a straightforward and upbeat battlefield general. Additionally, the animated series's version of Optimus dislikes rap music, putting him at odds with music-loving characters like Blaster and Jazz.
In the Marvel Comics series, in addition to these characteristics, Prime is secretly plagued by self-doubt and a conflicted sense of pacifism that makes him an reluctant warrior. Optimus Prime was created as the leader of the Autobots, though it is unknown how he was created or his origins. In a possible future, Megatron was threatened by the existence of the Aerialbots and had Shockwave build a time machine to send them back in time to get rid of them. However, he only ended up changing history for the better. In the revised timeline, Optimus Prime began his life as a robot named Orion Pax, a defenseless dock worker during the Golden Age of Cybertron nine million years ago, with a girlfriend named Ariel and a best friend named Dion. During this time, a new breed of robot with new flight capabilities appeared on the planet that Orion idolized; when Megatron, the leader of the new group of robots, approached him with inquiries about using one of the dock warehouses, Orion was swayed by Megatron.
Both Orion and Ariel were wounded when Megatron and his forces attacked in order to claim the energy stored there. Searching for someone to help them, the time-displaced Aerialbots took Orion and Ariel to the ancient Autobot, Alpha Trion, who used them as the first subjects for the new reconstruction process he had developed involving rebuilding the frail Autobot frames into more battle-hardy configurations. With this reconstruction, Orion Pax became Optimus Prime, the first of the Autobot
Drift is the name of three different fictional characters in the Transformers robot superhero franchise. For trademark reasons, toys related to the character are marketed under the name Autobot Drift, he was a former Decepticon under the name Deadlock. Drift is the name of the Mini-Con Dirt Boss in the Japanese version of Transformers: Armada. According to his bio, Drift once served Megatron under the name Deadlock and was one of the most-feared warriors on Cybertron. One day, he looked back at the horrors he had inflicted upon his foes. Since he has dedicated his life to hunting down Decepticons all over the galaxy, his alternate Earth mode in the comics is a Nissan Silvia Spec-R S15. He has a 4-part prequel mini-series titled Transformers: Drift, published in 2010, he was created by comic writer Shane McCarthy. The 4-part prequel mini-series Transformers: Drift begins with Drift as an unaligned robot living on Cybertron before Megatron's rise to power. Recruiting warriors to form his army, Megatron discovers Drift, who has skillfully killed several Autobots after they accidentally kill one of his friends.
Megatron renames Drift "Deadlock" sends him to lead a small band of his forces. In issue #1, Drift meets a Cybertronian named Wing, a member of an "unaligned faction" that lives on a world thought uninhabited. Wing takes Drift to Dai Atlas, angered that a "Decepticon" is among them and threatens to never let Drift leave. Wing steps forward, putting his own reputation on the line and stands up to Dai Atlas. Wing begins training Drift in an as-yet-unnamed Cybertronian martial arts style; the techniques appear reminiscent of what the Autobots call "Diffusion", a style of combat designed to stop an opponent without causing serious irreparable damage. It is unknown how long Drift trains, but he becomes skilled in the use of his short swords and hand-to-hand combat. Drift had discovered he had an innate ability with firearms, but he is discouraged from their use by Wing; the Cybertronians receive a signal that Drift recognizes as a Decepticon message and sneaks out to meet them, finding the Decepticon Lockdown waiting for him with a group of slavers looking for new acquisitions.
They forge a plan for Drift to betray the unaligned Cybertronians. Drift did not betray the Cybertronians though, warning them upon his return, devising a plan to counterattack with a small force of "Knights". Dai Atlas disagrees, but after coaxing by several of the Knights, Dai Atlas lets them have their way, telling them he wants no part of the "war". In issue # 4, Drift and the Knights face Lockdown. Wing dies. Drift grabs Wing's "Great Sword", according to Wing, "draws on the wielders spark" to enhance its abilities, promptly kills the slaver leader. Dai Atlas joins the battle with the rest of his Cybertronian forces; this turns the tide in battle and the Cybertronians take the victory. Dai Atlas sees the good side of Drift, awarding him Wing's Great Sword in memory of his sacrifice. On an alien planet, Drift infiltrates a Decepticon ship carrying Autobot prisoners, only to confront the Autobots Kup and the Wreckers. Moments Turmoil, the ship's commander, appears. Drift fights alongside the Wreckers, but during the melee, Turmoil recognizes Drift as the former Decepticon Deadlock.
He sends Drift and Kup into a lower level by shooting a hole in the ship's wall. Kup questions Drift about his origin. Drift admits having been a Decepticon in the past, but tells Kup that a visit to a nameless third faction changed his ways and gave him his sword; the two robots decide to blow up the ship. As the duo plant an explosive, Kup is informed that the other Autobots have left the ship and will circle back for them. Turmoil confronts them again. After a lengthy duel, Drift pins Turmoil to the wall with his short swords; the Decepticon tells Drift to finish him off, but Drift instead takes a damaged Perceptor and jumps off the ship before it explodes. Shortly after the ordeal, Kup offers Drift a place on a new Autobot team. Despite Springer's objection, Drift accepts the offer, with Kup telling Springer that "everyone deserves a second chance." Optimus Prime leads Bumblebee, Kup, Prowl and Wheeljack in Las Vegas when a Cybertronian ship crashes containing Galvatron, Scourge and an infestation of zombies from another universe.
Galvatron attempts to take command of the Autobots, after fighting them explains his mission to stop an undead infestation. Wheeljack sets up an energy shield around the city to keep the infestation contained, but it will only last for 24 hours. Kup recognizes a Decepticon named Bayonet in Galvatron's command as not being right, she is revealed to be the extradimensional vampire Britt. Drift is a major character in the ongoing series The Transformers: More Than Meets the Eye, in which he is the "nominal third in command" of the spaceship The Lost Light, until he is cast off the ship after Overlord's escape. Rodimus refers to Drift as his best friend, he bought Rodimus his spaceship for a billion shanix at the Festival of the Lost Light. Drift and Pipes join Ratchet in investigating the medical facility at Delphi, where Drift contracts an unknown and fatal illness. Ratchet is able to cure him after the two of them secure the illness's vaccine. In the More Than Meets the Eye A
Brawn is the name of several fictional characters from the various Transformers series in the Transformers robot superhero franchise. All are tough Autobot superheroes. Brawn is one of the strongest Autobots in the Transformers television and comic book series, both based on the popular toy line produced by Takara and Hasbro, his vehicle mode is a Land Rover Series III 4x4. The original toy that became Brawn was first released by Takara in 1983 as part of the Micro Change subset of the Japanese Microman line, he was released in the US by Hasbro in 1984 as one of the first assortment of American Transformers toys. Brawn's character biography describes him as one of the original eighteen Autobots - strong despite his small size, he is further described as brave with physical strength that matches Optimus Prime, able to lift weights of up to 190,000 lbs. and strong enough to level a small building with a single punch. His physical resilience is high enough to resist artillery fire, but he has an innate weakness to attacks based on electromagnetic waves.
Brawn loves rugged and hostile environments and is always up to test his mettle against a new challenge. Brawn's biography in Marvel Comics' 1986 Transformers Universe mini-series further expands on his character, explaining that Brawn is teamed with Bumblebee on missions because of their complementary skills, and while his never-say-die attitude improved the Autobots' morale, he is somewhat less than accepting of those not as "tough" as he is, a fact made known by how badly he treats Perceptor in the Season 2 episode Microbots. Though Brawn's toy was not packaged with a weapon, his character biography doesn't mention him carrying one, the Generation 1 animated series saw him equipped with a laser pistol. Brawn was one of the Autobots on the Ark, he featured prominently in the series and was involved in many of the Autobot and Decepticon conflicts spanning the first two seasons of The Transformers television series. Brawn had numerous roles during the second seasons. Despite his small size, he is one of the strongest autobots.
On one occasion Brawn single-handedly saved Prowl and Bluestreak from Starscream and Soundwave. On another, he stopped Megatron's use of a crystal powered superweapon in Peru and distracting the Decepticon leader while Optimus Prime and Skyfire destroyed the weapon; when the Decepticons brainwashed Sparkplug Witwicky and took him to Cybertron, Brawn led the rescue mission and managed to retrieve him, single-handedly taking down the Rainmakers and Soundwave by himself and holding his own against Shockwave. Brawn developed a dislike of the scientist Perceptor, thinking him cowardly for preferring to study science than fight. However, after an adventure where they were shrunk to go inside Megatron's body to remove the Heart of Cybertron Brawn admitted he'd been wrong after Perceptor's knowledge proved invaluable in defeating the rampaging Megatron. In The Transformers: The Movie, set on Earth in the year 2005, Brawn was assigned to Moonbase One along with several first season Autobots, he was assigned to make a special supply run to Autobot City on Earth with three other Autobots.
During the shuttle mission, Decepticon forces invaded the shuttle. Using Megatron in pistol mode, Starscream killed Brawn with a single shot to the left shoulder. Brawn's death is disputed among fans. Although one of the strongest and toughest Autobots, in the movie he is dispensed by a single piercing shot to the shoulder, his absence from the list of deceased Autobots in "Dark Awakening", plus an appearance in the post-movie episode "Carnage in C-Minor" has inspired ongoing debate as to whether the character is dead. The episode shows Brawn, a miscolored Huffer, the Constructicon Bonecrusher fighting together against a weapon built by Galvatron; this appearance is considered an error, as the episode is riddled with animation mistakes. Although select fans continue to argue Brawn's survival, in addition to the animation, confirmation of his demise can be confirmed in the Movie script and comic book adaptations. An argument can be made. Whenever Brawn takes the shot to the shoulder, after he falls it is apparent that a larger area of Brawn's back is damaged leading to the possibility that the laser fired could have acted like hollow-point bullet damaging more of Brawn previously thought.
Animators on the series would swell the ranks of the Transformers with duplicates of certain characters, duplicates intended to represent generic Transformers. It seems that the alternative Brawn seen in Carnage in C-Minor might have been one such duplicate, along with Huffer. Brawn appeared in the 1984 sticker and story book The Revenge of the Decepticons written by Suzanne Weyn and published by Marvel Books. Brawn appeared in the 1986 coloring book The Lost Treasure of Cybertron by Marvel Books; the character of Brawn appeared in the Transformers: Universe comics as one of the Transformers captured by Unicron, showing how he was taken from the pages of the Marvel comics just befor
Voice acting is the art of performing voice-overs or providing voices to represent a character or to provide information to an audience or user. Examples include animated, off-stage, off-screen or non-visible characters in various works, including feature films, dubbed foreign language films, animated short films, television programs, radio or audio dramas, video games, puppet shows, amusement rides and documentaries. Voice acting is done for small handheld audio games. Performers are called voice artists or voice talent, their roles may involve singing, although a second voice actor is sometimes cast as the character's singing voice. Voice acting is recognised in Britain as a specialized dramatic profession, chiefly owing to the BBC's long tradition of radio drama. Voice artists are used to record the individual sample fragments played back by a computer in an automated announcement; the voices for animated characters are provided by voice actors. For live action productions, voice acting involves reading the parts of computer programs, radio dispatchers, or other characters who never appear on screen.
With a radio drama or Compact Disc drama, there is more freedom in voice acting, because there is no need to match a dub to the original actors, or to match an animated character. Producers and agencies are on the look out for many styles of voices such as booming voices, which may be perfect for more dramatic productions or cute, young sounding voices that are perfect for trendier markets; some just sound like regular, everyday people and all of these voices have their place in the Voiceover world, provided they are used and in the right context. In the context of voice acting, narration is the use of spoken commentary to convey a story to an audience. A narrator is a personal character or a non-personal voice that the creator of the story develops to deliver information to the audience about the plot; the voice actor who plays the narrator is responsible for performing the scripted lines assigned to the narrator. In traditional literary narratives, narration is a required story element. One of the most common uses for voice acting is within commercial advertising.
The voice actor is hired to voice a message associated with the advertisement. This has different subgenres; the subgenres are all different styles in their own right. For example, television commercials tend to be voiced with a narrow, flat inflection pattern, whereas radio commercials tend to be voiced with a wide inflection pattern in an over-the-top style. Markerters and advertisers use voiceover all over their projects, from radio, to TV, to online and more! Total advertising spend in the UK is forecast to be £21.8 billion in 2017. Voiceover used in commercial adverts is the only area of voice acting where de-breathing is used. De-breathing means artificially removing breaths from the recorded voice; this is done to stop the audience being distracted in any way from the commercial message, being put across. Dub localization is a type of voice-over, it is the practice of voice-over translation altering a foreign language film, art film or television series by voice actors. Voice-over translation is an audiovisual translation technique, in which, unlike in Dub localization, actor voices are recorded over the original audio track, which can be heard in the background.
This method of translation is most used in documentaries and news reports to translate words of foreign-language interviewees. Automated dialogue replacement is the process of re-recording dialogue by the original actor after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialogue changes. ADR is used to change original lines recorded on set to clarify context, improve diction or timing, or to replace an accented vocal performance. In the UK, it is called "post-synchronization" or "post-sync". Voice artists are used to record the individual sample fragments played back by a computer in an automated announcement. At its simplest, each recording consists of a short phrase, played back when necessary, e.g. the "Mind the gap" announcement introduced by London Underground in 1969. In a more complicated system, such as a speaking clock, the announcement is re-assembled from fragments such as "minutes past" "eighteen" and "p.m." For example, the word "twelve" can be used for both "Twelve O'Clock" and "Six Twelve."
Automated announcements can include on-hold messages on phone systems and location-specific announcements in tourist attractions. Seiyū occupations include performing roles in anime, audio dramas and video games, performing voice-overs for dubs of non-Japanese movies, providing narration to documentaries and similar programs; because the animation industry in Japan is so prolific, voice actors in Japan are able to have full-time careers as voice-over artists. Japanese voice actors are able to take greater charge of their careers than voice actors in other countries. Japan has 130 voice acting schools and troupes of voice actors, who work for a specific broadcast company or talent agency, they attract their own appreciators and fans, who watch shows to hear their favorite actor or actress. Many Japanese voice actors branch into music singing the opening or closing themes of shows in which their character stars, or become involved in non-animated side projects such as audio dram
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress
The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps. Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88; the B-17 was employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force, based at many airfields in central and southern England, the Fifteenth Air Force, based in Italy, complemented the RAF Bomber Command's nighttime area bombing in the Combined Bomber Offensive to help secure air superiority over the cities and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for the invasion of France in 1944.
The B-17 participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II, where it conducted raids against Japanese shipping and airfields. From its prewar inception, the USAAC promoted the aircraft as a strategic weapon, it developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base. The B-17 dropped more bombs than any other U. S. aircraft in World War II. Of the 1.5 million tonnes of bombs dropped on Nazi Germany and its occupied territories by U. S. aircraft, 640,000 tonnes were dropped from B-17s. In addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, search-and-rescue aircraft; as of May 2015, 10 aircraft remain airworthy, though none of them were flown in combat. Dozens more are on static display; the oldest of these is a D-series flown in combat in the Caribbean. On 8 August 1934, the USAAC tendered a proposal for a multiengine bomber to replace the Martin B-10.
The Air Corps was looking for a bomber capable of reinforcing the air forces in Hawaii and Alaska. Requirements were for it to carry a "useful bombload" at an altitude of 10,000 ft for 10 hours with a top speed of at least 200 mph, they desired, but did not require, a range of 2,000 mi and a speed of 250 mph. The competition for the air corps contract was to be decided by a "fly-off" between Boeing's design, the Douglas DB-1, the Martin Model 146 at Wilbur Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio; the prototype B-17, with the Boeing factory designation of Model 299, was designed by a team of engineers led by E. Gifford Emery and Edward Curtis Wells, was built at Boeing's own expense, it combined features of 247 transport. The B-17's armament consisted of five.30 caliber machine guns, with a payload up to 4,800 lb of bombs on two racks in the bomb bay behind the cockpit. The aircraft was powered by four Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines, each producing 750 hp at 7,000 ft; the first flight of the Model 299 was on 28 July 1935 with Boeing chief test pilot Leslie Tower at the controls.
The day before, Richard Williams, a reporter for The Seattle Times, coined the name "Flying Fortress" when – observing the large number of machine guns sticking out from the new airplane – he described it as a "15-ton flying fortress" in a picture caption. The most unusual mount was in the nose, which allowed the single machine gun to be fired toward any frontal angle. Boeing had it trademarked for use. Boeing claimed in some of the early press releases that Model 299 was the first combat aircraft that could continue its mission if one of its four engines failed. On 20 August 1935, the prototype flew from Seattle to Wright Field in nine hours and three minutes with an average cruising speed of 252 miles per hour, much faster than the competition. At the fly-off, the four-engined Boeing's performance was superior to those of the twin-engined DB-1 and Model 146. Major General Frank Maxwell Andrews of the GHQ Air Force believed that the capabilities of large four-engined aircraft exceeded those of shorter-ranged, twin-engined aircraft, that the B-17 was better suited to new, emerging USAAC doctrine.
His opinions were shared by the air corps procurement officers, before the competition had finished, they suggested buying 65 B-17s. Development continued on the Boeing Model 299, on 30 October 1935, Army Air Corps test pilot Major Ployer Peter Hill and Boeing employee Les Tower took the Model 299 on a second evaluation flight; the crew forgot to disengage the "gust locks", which locked control surfaces in place while the aircraft was parked on the ground, after takeoff, the aircraft entered a steep climb, nosed over, crashed, killing Hill and Tower. The crashed Model 299 could not finish the evaluation. While the air corps was still enthusiastic about the aircraft's potential, army officials were daunted by its cost. Army Chief of Staff Malin Craig cancelled the order for 65 YB-17s, ordered 133 of the twin-engined Douglas B-18 Bol