Francesco Restivo was an Italian politician for the Christian Democrat Party and Minister of the Republic. He was President of the Regional Council of Sicily from 1949-1955 and Minister of the Interior from 1968 to 1972, he was born in Palermo. From 1963 until his death in 1976 he was a member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
Senate of the Republic (Italy)
The Senate of the Republic or Senate is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to Articles 57, 58, 59 of the Italian Constitution, the Senate has a variable number of members, of which 309 are elected from Italian constituencies, 6 from Italian citizens living abroad, a small number are senators for life, either appointed or ex officio, it was established in its current form on 8 May 1948, but existed during the Kingdom of Italy as Senato del Regno, itself a continuation of the Senato Subalpino of Sardinia established on 8 May 1848. Members of the Senate are styled Senator or The Honourable Senator and they meet at Palazzo Madama, Rome; the Senate consists of 315 elected members, as of 2018 six senators for life. The elected senators must be over 40 years of age and are elected by Italian citizens aged 25 or older; the Senate is elected on a regional basis. The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population.
However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley and Molise. The senators for life are composed of former Presidents of the Italian Republic who hold office ex officio, up to five citizens who are appointed by the President "for outstanding merits in the social, artistic or literary field"; the current life senators are: The current term of the Senate is five years, except for senators for life that hold their office for their lifetime. Until a Constitutional change on February 9, 1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms; the Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the President of the Republic. In 2016, Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that "effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and restricts its ability to veto legislation"; the law was rejected on December 2016 by a referendum, leaving the Senate unchanged. According to article 58 of the Italian constitution, people aged more than 25 years are enabled to vote for the Senate.
The electoral system is a parallel voting system, with 37% of seats allocated using first-past-the-post voting and 63% using proportional representation, allocated with the largest remainder method, with one round of voting. The 315 elected senators are elected in: 116 by plurality. A small, variable number of senators for life are members of the Senate. For Italian residents, each house members are elected by single ballots, including the constituency candidate and his/her supporting party lists. In each single-member constituency the deputy/senator is elected on a plurality basis, while the seats in multi-member constituencies will be allocated nationally. In order to be calculated in single-member constituency results, parties need to obtain at least 1% of the national vote. In order to receive seats in multi-member constituencies, parties need to obtain at least 3% of the national vote. Elects from multi-member constituencies will come from closed lists; the single voting paper, containing both first-past-the-post candidates and the party lists, shows the names of the candidates to single-member constituencies and, in close conjunction with them, the symbols of the linked lists for the proportional part, each one with a list of the relative candidates.
The voter can cast their vote in three different ways: Drawing a sign on the symbol of a list: in this case the vote extends to the candidate in the single-member constituency, supported by that list. Drawing a sign on the name of the candidate of the single-member constituency and another one on the symbol of one list that supports them: the result is the same as that described above. Drawing a sign only on the name of the candidate for the FPTP constituency, without indicating any list: in this case, the vote is valid for the candidate in the single-member constituency and automatically extended to the list that supports them; the current membership of the Senate of the Republic, following the latest political elections of 4 March 2018: Under the current Constitution, the Senate must hold its first sitting no than 20 days after a general election. That session, presided by the oldest senator, proceeds to elect the President of the Senate for the following parliamentary period. On the first two attempts at voting, an absolute majority of all senators is needed.
If this third round fails to produce a winner, a final ballot is held between the two senators with the highest votes in the previous ballot. In the case of a tie, the elder senator is deemed the winner. In addition to overseeing the business of the chamber and regulating debates, deciding whether motions a
The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv
Pietro Sandro Nenni was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party and lifetime Senator since 1970. He was a recipient of the Stalin Peace Prize in 1951, he was a central figure of the Italian left from the 1920s to the 1960s. He was born in Emilia-Romagna. After his peasant parents died, he was placed in an orphanage by an aristocratic family; every Sunday, he recited his catechism before the countess and if he did well, he received a silver coin. "Generous but humiliating", he recalled. He affiliated with the Italian Republican Party. In 1908, he became editor of a republican paper in Forlì; the socialist paper in the town was edited at the time by Benito Mussolini the Fascist dictator of Italy. Nenni was imprisoned in 1911 for his participation in the protest movement against the Italo-Turkish War in Libya with Mussolini; when the First World War broke out, he advocated the intervention of Italy in the war. In 1915, he volunteered for the Isonzo front.
After he was wounded and sent home, he became an editor of the republican paper Mattine d'Italia. He tried not to alienate his socialist friends. In the last years of the war Nenni served at the front again; when the war was over, he founded, together with some disillusioned revolutionary ex-servicemen, a group called "Fascio", soon dissolved and replaced by a real Fascist body. While the socialist Mussolini became a fascist, the republican Nenni joined the Socialist Party in 1921 after its split with the wing that would form the Italian Communist Party. In 1923, after the Fascist March on Rome, he became the editor of PSI's official organ, Avanti!, engaged in antifascist activism. In 1925 he was arrested for publishing a booklet on the fascist murder of Socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti; when the Avanti offices were set aflame and the paper prohibited in 1926, he took refuge in France, where he became secretary of the PSI. In Paris, where he had worked as correspondent of the Avanti in 1921, he became acquainted with Léon Blum, Marcel Cachin, Romain Rolland and Georges Sorel.
Nenni went on to fight with the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. He was the political commissar of the Garibaldi Brigade. After the defeat of the Spanish Republic and the victory of General Francisco Franco he returned to France. In 1943, he was arrested by the Germans in Vichy France and imprisoned in Italy on the island of Ponza. After being liberated in August 1943, he returned to Rome to lead the Italian Socialist Party, reunified as the Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity. After the surrender of Italy with the Allied armed forces on September 8, 1943, he was one of the political officials of the National Liberation Committee, the underground political entity of Italian Partisans during the German occupation. In 1944, he became the national secretary of the PSI again, favouring close ties between his party and the PCI. After the Liberation, he took up government responsibilities, becoming Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for the Constituent Assembly in the government of Ferruccio Parri and the first government of Alcide De Gasperi.
He was Minister for the Constitution, in October 1946 he became Minister for Foreign Affairs in the second De Gasperi government. The close ties between the PSI and the PCI caused the Giuseppe Saragat-led anticommunist wing of the PSI to leave and form the Italian Socialist Workers' Party in 1947. In 1956, Nenni broke with the PCI after Soviet Union's invasion of Hungary, he returned the Stalin Prize money. Subsequently, he led his party into supporting membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and closer European integration, he sought co-operation with the leading party, the Christian Democrats. In the early 1960s he facilitated an "opening to the centre-left" enabling coalition governments between the PSI and the Christian Democrats and leading the socialists back into office for the first time since 1947, he formed a centre-left coalition with Saragat, Aldo Moro and Ugo La Malfa, favored a reunion with the PSDI. From 1963 to 1968 he was Deputy Prime Minister in the three successive governments led by Moro and in December 1968 he became Minister for Foreign Affairs in the first government of Mariano Rumor, but resigned in July 1969, when the centre-left alliance collapsed.
Although the reunification attempts between the socialists and Giuseppe Saragat's breakaway Social Democrats resulted in the formation of a joint list Unified PSI–PSDI, both parties fared poorly in the 1968 Italian general election. In 1969, a disillusioned Nenni retired and Francesco De Martino took his place, he resigned as head of the PSI and was made a senator for life in 1970 and in 1971 he ran unsuccessfully for President of Italy. He died in Rome on January 1, 1980. A daughter, Vittoria "Viva" Daubeuf, died in Auschwitz, she is memorialized in the writings of Charlotte Delbo. He was an atheist. Where the Italian Socialists Stand, Pietro Nenni, Foreign Affairs, January 1962 Address given by Pietro Nenni on the military intervention in Czechoslovakia, August 29, 1968 Newspaper clippings about Pietro Nenni in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
This article is about the Italian legislator. For the similar name used as an alias by terrorist Ramzi Yousef for Philippine Airlines Flight 434, see Ramzi Yousef. Arnaldo Forlani, is an Italian politician who served as the 43rd Prime Minister of Italy from 18 October 1980 to 28 June 1981, he held the office of Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defence. Forlani, a member of the right-wing of the Christian Democracy, was one of the most prominent Italian politicians from the 1970s to early 1990s. At age 93, Forlani is the oldest living former Italian Prime Minister. Arnaldo Forlani was born in Pesaro, from a middle-class family. In 1948, after the degree in law at the University of Urbino, Forlani began his political career, holding the position of provincial secretary of Christian Democracy for Pesaro. In 1954 he became a member of the central committee of Christian Democracy. In the 1958 general election Forlani was elected in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time, representing the constituency of Ancona.
In 1959 he became one of the most prominent member of the DC faction led by Amintore Fanfani. In 1962 he was appointed vice-secretary of the party. In December 1968 he was appointed Minister of Public Shares in the government led by Mariano Rumor. In November 1969 Forlani was elected Secretary of the Christian Democracy with 157 votes in favor and 13 blank votes. During his secretariat, Forlani tried to avoid the disintegration of the center-left political alliance, undermined by the inability to react to the economic and social difficulties of the period, he tried to strength the Organic Centre-left coalition with the Socialist Party, the Democratic Socialist Party and the Republican Party. In November 1969, the Parliament approved the divorce law with a different majority from the one which supported the government. Prime Minister Rumor resigned in February 1970, but tried to rebuild a centre-left government in March 1970. Despite the political success for the first regional elections of June 1970, the third Rumor government did not survive the political and social tensions that shocked the country after the general strike of July 1970.
After Rumor's resignation, Emilio Colombo was appointed new Prime Minister at the head of a centre-left coalition. In the 1971 presidential election, Forlani proposed Amintore Fanfani as DC candidate as President of the Republic, but his allies opposed this decision and Fanfani was not elected. Forlani's second candidate was Aldo Moro, but this nomination was rejected by the Parliament. At the end, the DC proposed Giovanni Leone, former Prime Minister and long-time President of the Chamber of Deputies, elected with the support of the neo-fascist Social Movement. After few months the republicans withdrew their support to Colombo's government and the new appointed Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti did not reach to gain the confidence vote from the Parliament. In the general election, which took place on 7 May 1972, the DC, led by Forlani, remained stable with around 38% of the votes, as it happened to the Communist Party which obtained the same 27% of 1968; the Socialist Party continued in its decline, reducing to less than 10%.
The most important growth was that of the post-fascist Italian Social Movement, which nearly doubled its votes from 4.5 to c. 9%, after that its leader Giorgio Almirante launched the formula of the "National Right", proposing his party as the sole group of the Italian right side. Incumbent Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti, supported by secretary Forlani, tried to continue his centrist strategy, but his attempt only lasted a year. Former Premier Mariano Rumor so returned at the head of the government with his traditional centre-left alliance between Christian Democrats, Democratic Socialist and Republicans. At the same time, during the 1973 National Congress, who now opposed an alliance with the PSI, was not confirmed Secretary of the party, his former mentor, Amintore Fanfani, became DC secretary once again. In March 1973 Prime Minister Rumor was abandoned by the Republicans, he continued with a new squad, but he couldn't withstand the shocks deriving by the divorce referendum of 1974, when Christian Democrats, along with the neo-fascist MSI, intensely campaigned for a yes vote to abolish the law and make divorce illegal again, but their proposal was rejected by 60% of votes.
After the referendum, former Premier Aldo Moro persuaded the Socialists to accept a minority government composed only by the Christian Democrats and the Republicans. Forlani was appointed Minister of Defence by Moro. However, new problem arose from the regional elections of 1975, which marked a great success of the left, which called for new national elections. In March 1976 Forlani run to the secretariat of the party, opposing Benigno Zaccagnini, incumbent secretary and member of the DC left-wing, who supported Moro's policy of accommodation with the Communists of Enrico Berlinguer, known as Historic Compromise. Forlani was supported by Andreotti, Flaminio Piccoli and Antonio Bisaglia, but he lost the congressional election and Zaccagnini remained Christian Democratic secretary; when the Republicans left Moro's cabinet in 1976, no p
Camillo Ripamonti was an Italian Christian Democracy politician. Born in Gorgonzola, he was the mayor of his hometown for 34 years, from 1946 to 1980, between 1968 and 1974 he was appointed several times minister of the Italian Republic. Minister of Health in the Rumor I Cabinet, from 12 December 1968 to 5 August 1969 Minister of Health in the Rumor II Cabinet, from 5 August 1969 to 27 March 1970 Minister of Scientific Research in the Rumor III Cabinet, from 27 March 1970 to 6 August 1970 Minister of Scientific Research in the Colombo Cabinet, from 6 August 1970 to 17 February 1972 Minister of Foreign Trade in the Andreotti I Cabinet, from 17 February 1972 to 26 June 1972 Minister of Cultural heritage in the Rumor IV Cabinet, from 7 July 1973 to 14 March 1974 Minister of Tourism and Recreation in the Rumor V Cabinet, from 14 March 1974 to 23 November 1974 Archivio Camillo Ripamonti
Italian Minister of Health
The Minister of Health in Italy is one of the positions in the Italian government. The current Minister of the Ministry of Health is Giulia Grillo, appointed on 1 June 2018 by Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte. Parties 1958–1994: Christian Democracy Italian Socialist Party Italian Liberal Party 1994–present: Forza Italia/The People of Freedom Italian People's Party National Alliance Democrats of the Left/Democratic Party New Centre-Right/Popular Alternative Five Star Movement Independent Governments Centrist coalition Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Populist coalition Mixed coalition