Oronzo Reale was an Italian politician, who served as justice minister in the 1960s and 1970s. Reale was born in 1902. Reale was the head of the Republican Party, he served as the secretary of the party. In the 1970s he tried the French model to reorganize the party. Reale assumed cabinet posts. On 4 December 1963, he became justice minister of Italy, he was reappointed justice minister to the coalition government led by prime minister Aldo Moro on 24 February 1966. His term lasted until 24 June 1968. Reale served as finance minister from 12 December 1968 to 5 August 1969, he was secondly appointed justice minister on 27 March 1970. His term ended in March 1971, his third and last term as justice minister was from 23 November 1974 to 12 February 1976. During his third term as justice minister, Reale developed a public law order, called Legge Reale or more formally public law order 152, introduced it on 22 May 1975 as a response to bombings organized by right-wing groups in Brescia, it expanded the powers of Italian security forces.
Reale died on 14 July 1988, aged 85
Mario Zagari was an Italian socialist politician, who served in the Italian parliament and in the European parliament as well as in the Italian governments in various capacities. Zagari was born in Milano on 14 September 1913, he held a law degree. He attended courses of political economy at the University of Berlin. During World War II, he was an anti-Nazi resistance militant. After the war Zagari began his political activity, he was leader of the anti-Stalinist group, called Iniziativa Socialista. He became a member of the Socialist Party on 18 July 1952, he remained as a member of the party until 24 July 1989. He served as the undersecretary at the ministry of foreign affairs for three times. At the beginning of the 1970s Zagari served as the minister of commerce and led the first Italian commercial delegation to China in 1971, he was the justice minister from 7 July 1973 to 23 November 1974. He became one of twelve vice president of the European parliament on 27 October 1976 and held the post until 18 January 1982.
He was part of the socialist group in the parliament. He ran for the presidency of the parliament in the elections held in July 1979, but lost the election. In addition, he served at different commissions and delegations of the parliament from 14 March 1978 to 24 July 1989. After leaving office as justice minister Zagari was charged with abusing official acts, making them public; the inquiry committee of the parliament, whose twenty members had been selected in proportion to the membership of the parties, rejected the case with a majority vote. Zagari died in Rome on 29 February 1996, he was buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. On the tenth anniversary of his death a book by him and Giuseppe Muzzi was republished in 2006
Francesco Restivo was an Italian politician for the Christian Democrat Party and Minister of the Republic. He was President of the Regional Council of Sicily from 1949-1955 and Minister of the Interior from 1968 to 1972, he was born in Palermo. From 1963 until his death in 1976 he was a member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
Pietro Sandro Nenni was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party and lifetime Senator since 1970. He was a recipient of the Stalin Peace Prize in 1951, he was a central figure of the Italian left from the 1920s to the 1960s. He was born in Emilia-Romagna. After his peasant parents died, he was placed in an orphanage by an aristocratic family; every Sunday, he recited his catechism before the countess and if he did well, he received a silver coin. "Generous but humiliating", he recalled. He affiliated with the Italian Republican Party. In 1908, he became editor of a republican paper in Forlì; the socialist paper in the town was edited at the time by Benito Mussolini the Fascist dictator of Italy. Nenni was imprisoned in 1911 for his participation in the protest movement against the Italo-Turkish War in Libya with Mussolini; when the First World War broke out, he advocated the intervention of Italy in the war. In 1915, he volunteered for the Isonzo front.
After he was wounded and sent home, he became an editor of the republican paper Mattine d'Italia. He tried not to alienate his socialist friends. In the last years of the war Nenni served at the front again; when the war was over, he founded, together with some disillusioned revolutionary ex-servicemen, a group called "Fascio", soon dissolved and replaced by a real Fascist body. While the socialist Mussolini became a fascist, the republican Nenni joined the Socialist Party in 1921 after its split with the wing that would form the Italian Communist Party. In 1923, after the Fascist March on Rome, he became the editor of PSI's official organ, Avanti!, engaged in antifascist activism. In 1925 he was arrested for publishing a booklet on the fascist murder of Socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti; when the Avanti offices were set aflame and the paper prohibited in 1926, he took refuge in France, where he became secretary of the PSI. In Paris, where he had worked as correspondent of the Avanti in 1921, he became acquainted with Léon Blum, Marcel Cachin, Romain Rolland and Georges Sorel.
Nenni went on to fight with the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. He was the political commissar of the Garibaldi Brigade. After the defeat of the Spanish Republic and the victory of General Francisco Franco he returned to France. In 1943, he was arrested by the Germans in Vichy France and imprisoned in Italy on the island of Ponza. After being liberated in August 1943, he returned to Rome to lead the Italian Socialist Party, reunified as the Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity. After the surrender of Italy with the Allied armed forces on September 8, 1943, he was one of the political officials of the National Liberation Committee, the underground political entity of Italian Partisans during the German occupation. In 1944, he became the national secretary of the PSI again, favouring close ties between his party and the PCI. After the Liberation, he took up government responsibilities, becoming Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for the Constituent Assembly in the government of Ferruccio Parri and the first government of Alcide De Gasperi.
He was Minister for the Constitution, in October 1946 he became Minister for Foreign Affairs in the second De Gasperi government. The close ties between the PSI and the PCI caused the Giuseppe Saragat-led anticommunist wing of the PSI to leave and form the Italian Socialist Workers' Party in 1947. In 1956, Nenni broke with the PCI after Soviet Union's invasion of Hungary, he returned the Stalin Prize money. Subsequently, he led his party into supporting membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and closer European integration, he sought co-operation with the leading party, the Christian Democrats. In the early 1960s he facilitated an "opening to the centre-left" enabling coalition governments between the PSI and the Christian Democrats and leading the socialists back into office for the first time since 1947, he formed a centre-left coalition with Saragat, Aldo Moro and Ugo La Malfa, favored a reunion with the PSDI. From 1963 to 1968 he was Deputy Prime Minister in the three successive governments led by Moro and in December 1968 he became Minister for Foreign Affairs in the first government of Mariano Rumor, but resigned in July 1969, when the centre-left alliance collapsed.
Although the reunification attempts between the socialists and Giuseppe Saragat's breakaway Social Democrats resulted in the formation of a joint list Unified PSI–PSDI, both parties fared poorly in the 1968 Italian general election. In 1969, a disillusioned Nenni retired and Francesco De Martino took his place, he resigned as head of the PSI and was made a senator for life in 1970 and in 1971 he ran unsuccessfully for President of Italy. He died in Rome on January 1, 1980. A daughter, Vittoria "Viva" Daubeuf, died in Auschwitz, she is memorialized in the writings of Charlotte Delbo. He was an atheist. Where the Italian Socialists Stand, Pietro Nenni, Foreign Affairs, January 1962 Address given by Pietro Nenni on the military intervention in Czechoslovakia, August 29, 1968 Newspaper clippings about Pietro Nenni in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Camillo Ripamonti was an Italian Christian Democracy politician. Born in Gorgonzola, he was the mayor of his hometown for 34 years, from 1946 to 1980, between 1968 and 1974 he was appointed several times minister of the Italian Republic. Minister of Health in the Rumor I Cabinet, from 12 December 1968 to 5 August 1969 Minister of Health in the Rumor II Cabinet, from 5 August 1969 to 27 March 1970 Minister of Scientific Research in the Rumor III Cabinet, from 27 March 1970 to 6 August 1970 Minister of Scientific Research in the Colombo Cabinet, from 6 August 1970 to 17 February 1972 Minister of Foreign Trade in the Andreotti I Cabinet, from 17 February 1972 to 26 June 1972 Minister of Cultural heritage in the Rumor IV Cabinet, from 7 July 1973 to 14 March 1974 Minister of Tourism and Recreation in the Rumor V Cabinet, from 14 March 1974 to 23 November 1974 Archivio Camillo Ripamonti
Aldo Romeo Luigi Moro was an Italian statesman and a prominent member of the Christian Democracy party. He served as 38th Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968, from 1974 to 1976, he was one of Italy's longest-serving post-war Prime Ministers, holding power for a combined total of more than six years. Due to his accommodation with the Communist leader Enrico Berlinguer, known as the Historic Compromise, Moro is considered one of the most prominent fathers of the Italian centre-left and one of the greatest and most popular leaders in the history of the Italian Republic. Moro was considered an intellectual and a patient mediator in the internal life of his party, he was killed after 55 days of captivity. Aldo Moro was born in the Apulia region, into a family from Ugento, his father was a school inspector. At age of 4, he moved with his family to Milan, but they soon moved back to Apulia, where he gained a classical high school degree at Archita lyceum in Taranto; until 1939, he studied Law at the University of Bari, an institution where he was to hold the post of ordinary professor of Philosophy of Law and Colonial Policy and of Criminal Law.
In 1935, he joined the Italian Catholic Federation of University Students of Bari. In 1939, under approval of Giovanni Battista Montini whom he had befriended, Moro was chosen as president of the association. During his university years, Italy was ruled by the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, Moro took part in students competitions known as Lictors of Culture and Art organised by local fascist students' organisation, the University Fascist Groups. In 1943, along with other Catholic students, he founded the periodical La Rassegna, published until 1945. In July 1943, Moro contributed, along with Mario Ferrari Aggradi, Paolo Emilio Taviani, Guido Gonella, Giuseppe Capograssi, Ferruccio Pergolesi, Vittore Branca, Giorgio La Pira, Giuseppe Medici and Andreotti, to the creation of the Code of Camaldoli, a document planning of economic policy drawn up by members of the Italian Catholic forces; the Code served as guideline for economic policy of the future Christian Democrats. In 1945, he married Eleonora Chiavarelli, with whom he had four children: Maria Fida, Agnese and Giovanni.
In 1963 Moro was transferred to La Sapienza University of Rome, as a professor of the Institutions of Law and Criminal Procedure. Aldo Moro developed his interest in politics between 1943 and 1945, he seemed to be interested in the social-democratic component of the Italian Socialist Party, but he started cooperating with other Christian democratic politician in opposition to the fascist regime. During this years he met Mario Scelba, Giovanni Gronchi and Amintore Fanfani. On 19 March 1943 the group reunited in the house of Giuseppe Spataro formed the Christian Democracy. In the DC, he joined the left-wing faction led by Giuseppe Dossetti. In 1945 he became director of the magazine Studium and president of the Graduated Movement of the Catholic Action, a widespread Roman Catholic lay association. In 1946, he was nominated vice-president of the Christian Democracy and elected member of the Constitutional Assembly, where he took part in the work to redact the Italian Constitution. In 1948 he was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies and nominated vice-minister of Foreign Affairs in the De Gasperi V Cabinet, from 23 May 1948 to 27 January 1950.
After Dossetti's retirement in 1952, Moro founded, along with Antonio Segni, Emilio Colombo and Mariano Rumor, the Democratic Initiative faction, led by his old friend Fanfani. In 1953, Moro was re-elected to the Chamber of Deputies, where he held the position of chairman of the DC parliamentary group. In 1955 was appointed as Minister of Grace and Justice in the cabinet led by Antonio Segni. In the following year he resulted among the most voted during the party's congress. In May 1957 he was appointed Italian Minister of Education in the government of Adone Zoli and was confirmed by Fanfani in June 1958, he remained in office until February 1959, during his tenure he introduced the study of civic education in schools. In March 1959, after Fanfani's resignation as Prime Minister a new congress was called; the leaders of the Democratic Initiative faction reunited themselves in the convent of Dorothea of Caesarea, where they abandoned the leftist policies promoted by Fanfani and founded the Dorotei faction.
In the party's National Council, Moro was elected Secretary of DC and was confirmed in the October's congress held in Florence. After the government led by Fernando Tambroni in 1960, supported by the decisive votes of the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement, the renovated alliance between Moro as secretary and Fanfani as Prime Minister, led the subsequent National Congress, held in Naples in 1962 to approve with a large majority a line of collaboration with the Italian Socialist Party; the 1963 general election was characterized by a lack of consensus for the DC. Some rightist electors abandoned the DC for the Italian Liberal Party, asking for a centre-right government and rece
Paolo Emilio Taviani
Paolo Emilio Taviani was an Italian political leader and historian of the career of Christopher Columbus. He was a partisan leader in Liguria, a Gold Medal of the Resistance a member of the Consulta and the Constituent Council of the Italian Parliament from 1948 until his death. Several times minister in the Republic’s governments, he was author of studies on economics and important works on Christopher Columbus, University professor and journalist. “Eminent political and government figure who for decades continued to bear witness to the diversity of ideals that inspired the Resistance”. Taviani was born in Genoa on November 6, 1912, his mother, Elide Banchelli, was an elementary school teacher. His father, was a headmaster and one of the founders of the Genoese section of the Italian People's Party. After graduating from the Classical “Liceo”, Taviani went on to university where he earned a law degree in 1934; the same year he obtained his journalist’s license and began working for various Catholic oriented newspapers.
In 1936 he obtained a second degree in social sciences from the prestigious Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa and in 1939 he earned a third degree in Letters and Philosophy from the Catholic University of Milan. The next year he was professor of History and Philosophy in the public “Licei” as well as assistant lecturer in Geography at the University of Genoa. From 1943 he was professor of Demographics in the Faculty of Law in Genoa. In secondary school Taviani joined the catholic group, most sensitive to social issues. At university he became head of the Genoese branch of FUCI. Following the Lateran Pacts, Taviani, a young man at the time, shared in the illusion that Fascism might one day evolve into a movement for social justice inspired by Catholic values. At the age of 18 he joined the PNF, but the fascists’ belligerent policies and, above all, the racial laws of 1938 shattered that illusion. By the eve of the war, Taviani was in the camp of the anti-fascists. On July 27, 1943 just before the fall of the regime, Taviani founded in Liguria the section of the “Partito-Cristiano-Sociale Democratico” bringing together young people from the Christian Social Movement with the older members of the People's Party.
After September 8 Taviani founded the Committee for National Liberation in Liguria as representative of the Christian Democracy. His clandestine activities brought him among the partisans in the mountains. Taviani maintained contacts with Allied military missions, he was editor of La Voce d’Italia a banned periodical published by the Resistance in Liguria. Within the CLNL Taviani argued the need for a single military command that could coordinate the efforts of volunteers from so many different political backgrounds. On the night of April 23, 1945 the CLNL assumed the leadership of the insurrection in Genoa. On the evening of April 25 the German commander surrendered to representatives of the CLNL; the next morning it was Taviani who announced that the city had been liberated in a radio address broadcast by the BBC: “Genoa is free. People of Genoa, rejoice! For the first time in the history of this war a military unit has surrendered to the spontaneous forces of a people: the people of Genoa!” For his activity in the Resistance Taviani would receive the Gold Medal for Merit in War in Italy, Gold medals for Merit in the United States and the Soviet Union, the title of Grand Official of the Légion d’Honneur in France.
Taviani wrote about the Resistance in the Breve storia dell’insurrezione di Genova, in the collection of short stories Pittaluga Racconta as well as in dozens of articles. His early years in the Resistance marked Taviani’s entire political career. From 1963 he was President of Italian Federation of Volunteers for Freedom. In 1987 he was appointed President of the Historical Museum of the Liberation of Rome “Via Tasso”. On April 25, 1994 he gave a passionate speech in defence of the values of the Resistance during a large demonstration, opposed by supporters of the Centre-Right coalition. In 2001 Taviani celebrated the first Memorial Day in Italy remembering the mass extermination of Jews at the “Via Tasso” Museum. After the war Taviani became involved in the task of transforming the monarchy into a republic. Appointed to the Consulta he was elected to the Constituent Council where he drafted the articles regarding property in the Constitution of the Italian Republic. In the elections from 1948 to 1976 Taviani always managed to obtain the most votes among the deputies elected from Liguria.
From 1947 to 1950 he was first Vice-secretary National Political Secretary of the Christian Democratic Party. In the party he always supported the secular basis. In 1950 Taviani was head of the Italian delegation in Paris for the Schumann Plan, the first major step towards a united Europe. Undersecretary to De Gasperi at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Trade again Minister of Defence, Taviani supported the choice to enter the Atlantic alliance, though always from a pro-European perspective, he was one of the most stubbor