Arno Kompatscher is an Italian politician, governor of South Tyrol and from 15 June 2016 president of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. Kompatscher was born in South Tyrol. After compulsory military service in the Italian Army Alpini corps, he studied law at the University of Innsbruck and the University of Padua. In 2000 he was elected deputy-mayor of his home town and in 2005 he was elected mayor. In 2010 he was once more elected mayor. In spring 2013 he won the South Tyrolean People's Party primary election, becoming the lead candidate for the 2013 provincial elections; the provincial elections on 27 October 2013 were won by the SVP. Kompatscher received the most preference votes of all candidates elected to the provincial legislature, namely 81,107 from the SVP voters. Personal website
Brixen is a town in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 40 kilometres north of Bolzano. First mentioned in 901, Brixen is the third largest city and oldest town in the province, the artistic and cultural capital of the valley, it is located at the confluence of the Eisack and Rienz rivers, 40 kilometres north of Bolzano and 45 kilometres south of the Brenner Pass, on the Italy-Austrian border. It is flanked on the eastern side by the Plose and Telegraph mountains and on the western side by the Königsanger mountain. Brixen is known as a major skiing resort. Other activities include hydroelectric power and vineyards. Frazioni / incorporated villages: Afers, Elvas, Karnol, Kranebitt, Mairdorf, Milland, Pinzagen, Rutzenberg, St. Andrä, St. Leonhard, Tils, Tötschling, Tschötsch, Untereben; the area of Brixen has been settled since the Upper Paleolithic. Other settlements from the late Stone Age have been found and in 15 BC, the area was conquered by the Romans, who had their main settlement in the nearby Säben.
They held it until around 590. The first mention of Brixen dates to 901 in a document issued by the King of Germany, Louis III the Child, in it a territory called Prihsna is assigned to Zacharias, bishop of Säben; as time passed, "Prihsna" turned into the current name of Brixen. The bishops moved here from Säben in 992. In 1039, the Bishop of Brixen, was elevated to Pope by emperor Henry III; however his reign lasted for only 23 days. Yet in the same century, Brixen became the seat of an independent ecclesiastical principate which, in the following years, struggled for existence against the neighbouring county of Tyrol. In 1115, a first line of walls encircling Brixen was completed; the bishopric was annexed by the Austrian Empire. Between 1851 and 1855, the Czech journalist and writer Karel Havlíček Borovský was exiled by the Austrian government to Brixen. After the end of World War I, Brixen was annexed by Italy; the oldest coat of arms dates back to 1297 with the lamb, known from 1304 as a symbol of the lamb.
On 13 November 1928, a shield with the city walls and a gate on the lawn in the upper half and the lamb in the lower was adopted. The emblem is a turned argent lamb with an or halo on a gules background; the emblem was granted in 1966. The Cathedral, dedicated to Santa Maria Assunta, was rebuilt in the 13th century and again in 1745–54 along Baroque lines; the ceiling of the nave has a large fresco by Paul Troger portraying the Adoration of the Lamb. The Hofburg, a Renaissance Bishop's Palace, one of the main noble residences in South Tyrol; the Diocesan Museum has several artworks, including a presepe with 5,000 figures created for Bishop Karl Franz Lodron. The round parish church of Saint Michael; the Gothic choir and the bell tower are from the 15th century. The main artwork is a wooden Cireneus from the 15th century; the Pharmacy Museum, located in a nearly 500-year-old townhouse, shows the development and changes of the local pharmacy. The Peer family has run this pharmacy since 1787, always in the same location.
The museum's restored rooms illustrate the development of the pharmaceutical profession over the centuries and the changes in remedies used, from the testicles of a beaver and pieces of an ancient Egyptian mummy to modern plasters and lyophilisates. All the objects and medicines on display were in use over the centuries; the Museum has a library for historical research and the archive of the Peer family. In a separate room there is a multimedia display of the history of the family. Outside the city is Rodeneck Castle, one of the most powerful of its time, it has precious frescoes from the early 13th century. Important are Reifenstein Castle and Trostburg Castle in Waidbruck. In the latter lived the adventurer and minstrel Oswald von Wolkenstein. According to the 2011 census, the majority of the population speaks German as first language; the remainder of the inhabitants speak Italian and Ladin as first languages, with percentages of 25.84% and 1.34%, respectively. The rock band, Frei. Wild, has its origin in Brixen.
Reinhold Messner, mountaineer Denise Karbon, alpine ski racer Matteo Goffriller, one of the greatest luthiers from all times Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer, historian Brixen has a railway station on the Brenner Railway, which connects the town to Verona and Innsbruck. It has an individual fare structure for public transport within the Tirol-Südtirol zone. Italy Regional Train: Brennero/Brenner - Fortezza/Franzensfeste - Bressanone/Brixen - Chiusa/Klausen - Bolzano/Bozen - Trento - Rovereto - Verona - Isola della Scala - Nogara - BolognaGermany/Austria/South Tyrol On 11 December 2016, ÖBB will take over Deutsche Bahn's night trains; the Munich-Milan service will be withdrawn. Night Train Munich-Milan/Rome: Munich - Kufstein - Jenbach - Innsbruck - Bressanone/Brixen - Bolzano/Bozen - Trento/Trient - Verona^ - Peschiera del Garda - Brescia - Milan Intercity Train Munich-Verona/Venice: Munich - Kufstein - Jenbac
Luca Zaia is an Italian politician and member of Liga Veneta–Lega Nord. Since April 2010 Zaia has been President of Veneto. Prior to that, he was Minister of Agriculture in Silvio Berlusconi's fourth cabinet from May 2008 to April 2010 and Vice President of Veneto from May 2005 to May 2008. Luca Zaia joined Liga Veneta–Lega Nord in the early 1990s, after having met Gian Paolo Gobbo, was first elected to public office in 1993, when he became municipal councillor of Godega di Sant'Urbano. Two years in 1995, he ran for provincial councillor and, after the election, was appointed provincial minister of Agriculture. In the 1998 provincial election, Zaia was elected President of the Province of Treviso with 60.0% of the vote in the second round, after arriving ahead in the first round with 41.4% and refusing to accept the support of any other party other than his own. At the time, he was the youngest provincial president of Italy. In 2002 he was re-elected with a landslide 68.9% of the vote in the second round and continued to govern the province with the sole support of his party.
In May 2005, Zaia was appointed Vice President of Veneto and regional minister of Agriculture and Tourism in Galan III Government, but left in May 2008 in order to take office as federal Minister of Agriculture in Berlusconi IV Cabinet. In December 2009, The People of Freedom determined that the coalition candidate in the 2010 regional election would be a member of Lega Nord. Subsequently, the national council of Liga Veneta nominated Zaia for President of the region. In March 2010, Zaia was elected President of Veneto in a landslide, winning 60.2% of the vote against 29.1% of his foremost opponent, Giuseppe Bortolussi of the Democratic Party. The election was a triumph for the LV, by far the largest party in the region with 35.2% of the vote, up from 14.7% of five years before, won 20 seats in the Regional Council, up from 11. Zaia gained the highest proportion of votes for President of Veneto since direct election was introduced in 1995. In 2012, Zaia polled as the most popular regional president in Italy.
In May 2015 Zaia was re-elected President of Veneto with 50.1% of the vote in the 2015 regional election. In early times of his administration, Zaia tried to limit the abortive pill RU-486. However, the AIFA declared that his position was unconstitutional in view of how the question is regulated by the Law 194 of 1978. In 2011, during the abrogative referendums, he voted "4 Yes", he called for demanded more citizens' supervision of public administration. In 2013, Zaia spoke against the LGBT adoption, saying: "I have nothing against gays, but the possibility of adoption seems to me to be an extreme measure with unpredictable effects." In August 2010, an anti-globalization group demonstrated in Vivaro against the planting of genetically modified organisms. The demonstration was supported by Zaia, who demanded a "return to legality" though his predecessor Giancarlo Galan, a member of his coalition, was in favour of GMOs. After a flood in 2010, Zaia and his coalition changed a regional law to permit the reconstruction of rural ruins up to 800 cubic metres.
The Democratic Party claimed that this was an attempt at "cementification". The National Association of Building Constructors called the law a "bad choice". Zaia was criticized when, after the flood, he asked for more funds for the reconstruction, saying, "It's a shame spending €250,000,000 for four stones in Pompei." In March 2014, Zaia supported the plebiscite on Venetian independence. Zaia has compared the status of the Veneto within Italy to that of Crimea within Ukraine, which voted to secede from Ukraine following a plebiscite. Luca Zaia was born on 27 March 1968 in the Province of Treviso. In 1993, he received a degree in the science of animal production at the veterinary college of the University of Udine before attending a managerial course. In 1998, Zaia married Raffaella Monti; the couple has no children. In August 2006, when was Vice President of Veneto, Zaia saved an Albanian citizen, wedged in a burning car, he refused the title of "hero". Regional Governments led by Luca Zaia: Zaia I Government Zaia II Government Official website
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: the Province of Trento known as Trentino, the Province of Bolzano known as South Tyrol. From the 9th century until its annexation by Italy in 1919, the region was part of Austria-Hungary and its predecessors, the Austrian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. Together with the Austrian state of Tyrol it is represented by the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino. With a past of poverty, the region is today among the wealthiest and most developed in both Italy and the whole European Union. In English, the region is known as Trentino-South Tyrol or by its Italian name; the region was conquered by the Romans in 15 BC. After the end of the Western Roman Empire, it was divided between the invading Germanic tribes in the Lombard Duchy of Tridentum, the Alamannic Vinschgau, the Bavarians. After the creation of the Kingdom of Italy under Charlemagne, the Marquisate of Verona included the areas south of Bolzano, while the Duchy of Bavaria received the remaining part.
From the 11th century onwards, part of the region was governed by the prince-bishops of Trent and Brixen, to whom the Holy Roman Emperors had given extensive temporal powers over their bishoprics. Soon, they were overruled by the Counts of Tyrol and Counts of Görz, who controlled the Puster Valley: in 1363 its last titular, Countess of Tyrol ceded the region to the House of Habsburg; the regions north of Salorno were Germanized in the early Middle Ages, important German poets like Arbeo of Freising and Oswald von Wolkenstein were born and lived in the southern part of Tyrol. The two bishoprics were given to the Habsburgs. Two years following the Austrian defeat at Austerlitz, the region was given to Napoleon's ally Bavaria; the new rulers provoked a popular rebellion in 1809, led by Andreas Hofer, a landlord from St. Leonhard in Passeier; the resulting Treaty of Paris of February 1810 split the area between Austria and the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. During French control of the region, it was called Haut Adige in order to avoid any reference to the historical County of Tyrol.
After Napoleon's defeat, in 1815, the region returned to Austria. Under Austrian rule the territory of today's province of South Tyrol was called südliches Tirol or Deutschsüdtirol, but was also referred to as Mitteltirol, i.e. Middle Tyrol, due to its geographic position, while Südtirol, i.e. South Tyrol, indicated today's province of Trentino. Trentino was called Welschtirol or Welschsüdtirol. Sometimes Südtirol indicated the whole of the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region. During the First World War, major battles were fought high in the Alps and Dolomites between Austro-Hungarian Kaiserjäger and Italian Alpini, for whom control of the region was a key strategic objective; the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian war effort enabled Italian troops to occupy the region in 1918 and its annexation was confirmed in the post-war treaties, which awarded the region to Italy under the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain. Under the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini, the Fascist dictator of Italy, the German population was subjected to an increased forced programme of Italianization: all references to old Tyrol were banned and the region was referred to as Venezia Tridentina between 1919 and 1947, in an attempt to justify the Italian claims to the area by linking the region to one of the Roman Regions of Italy.
Hitler and Mussolini agreed in 1938 that the German-speaking population would be transferred to German-ruled territory or dispersed around Italy, but the outbreak of the Second World War prevented them from carrying out the relocation. Thousands of people were relocated to the Third Reich and only with great difficulties managed to return to their ancestral land after the end of the war. In 1943, when the Italian government signed an armistice with the Allies, the region was occupied by Germany, which reorganised it as the Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills and put it under the administration of Gauleiter Franz Hofer; the region was de facto annexed to the German Reich until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime and Italian rule was restored in 1945. Italy and Austria negotiated the Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement in 1946, put into effect in 1947 when the new republican Italian constitution was promulgated, that the region would be granted considerable autonomy. German and Italian were both made official languages, German-language education was permitted once more.
The region was called Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland between 1947 and 1972. However, the implementation of the agreement was seen as satisfactory by neither the German-speaking population nor the Austrian government; the issue became the cause of significant friction between the two countries and was taken up by the United Nations in 1960. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful because of popular discontent and a campaign of sabotage and bombings by German-speaking autonomists and separatists led by t
Lega Lombarda, whose complete name is Lega Lombarda–Lega Nord, is a regionalist political party active in Lombardy. It is one of the national sections of Lega Nord and, along with Liga Veneta, forms the bulk of the federal party, led by Lombards since its foundation; the party is led by Paolo Grimoldi as national secretary and Giacomo Stucchi as national president. Leading members include Matteo Salvini, Attilio Fontana, Umberto Bossi, Roberto Maroni, Roberto Calderoli, Giancarlo Giorgetti, Gian Marco Centinaio, Francesco Speroni and Roberto Castelli. Lega Lombarda was founded on 12 April 1984 by Umberto Bossi, who used the resonance of the name of the historical Lega Lombarda when choosing the name. Lega Autonomista Lombarda, the party took the current name in 1986. At its electoral debut in the 1987 general election, Lega Lombarda gained 2.6% of the vote in Lombardy. Bossi was elected to the Giuseppe Leoni to the Chamber of Deputies; the party participated in the 1989 European Parliament election as the leading member of the coalition named Lega Lombarda – Alleanza Nord, obtaining 8.1% in Lombardy and two MEPs elected.
In 1989–1990 the LL took part in the process of federating the Northern regionalist parties, ahead of the regional elections. In February 1991 it was merged into Lega Nord and since it has been the "national" section of the LN in Lombardy. Bossi was subsequently elected federal secretary of the LN, while maintaining the role of national secretary of the LL for a while. In 1993 Luigi Negri took over as secretary, replacing Bossi, who had to choose between national and federal office. After the 1994 general election, three LL members joined Berlusconi I Cabinet as ministers: Roberto Maroni, Vito Gnutti and Speroni; the break-up of the coalition supporting the government led Negri and others to defect to the Federalist Italian League, while Maroni, despite disagreements with Bossi, chose to stay in the party. Negri was replaced as secretary by Roberto Calderoli, who, as president, had evicted him from the party, despite being his brother-in-law. Calderoli led the party to its best result up to that point in the 1996 general election, when it gained 25.5%.
After the 2000 regional election, the party joined the regional government and has since been a member of it, with no exceptions. After the 2001 general election, three LL members joined Berlusconi II Cabinet as ministers: Bossi and Roberto Castelli. In 2002 Calderoli was replaced by Giancarlo Giorgetti. In the 2010 regional election the party gained its best result so far. In 2002 Giorgetti decided to step down from national secretary and the party elected its new leadership at a congress in June. Matteo Salvini ran as candidate of the faction around Roberto Maroni, while Cesarino Monti was the candidate of the old guard and of Bossi's loyalists. Salvini won the election with 74% of the votes, to say the support of 403 delegates out of 532. Soon after, Giorgetti was appointed national president. In July 2012 Maroni was elected federal secretary of the LN by its federal congress; the Lombard delegates elected six members to the federal council: Giacomo Stucchi, Paolo Grimoldi, Andrea Mascetti, Gianni Fava, Simona Bordonali, and, on behalf of the minority, Marco Desiderati.
In the 2013 regional election Maroni was elected President of Lombardy with 42.8% of the vote. In November 2013 Salvini succeeded to Maroni as Lega Nord's federal secretary and on, he appointed a federal commissioner, Stefano Borghesi, to fill the post. Borghesi was replaced by Grimoldi. In November 2015 Grimoldi was elected national secretary of the party. In May 2017, after Salvini's re-election as LN federal secretary, five LL members were elected to the federal council with Salvini, a sixth was elected as an independent and a seventh on behalf of the minority. In December Stucchi was elected president of LL, replacing Giorgetti, who whose more and more involved at the federal level as deputy of Salvini. In the 2018 regional election LL's Attilio Fontana was elected President of Lombardy with 49.8% of the vote and the party obtained 29.4%. The party has its heartland in the northern and mountain provinces of Lombardy. In the 2018 regional election it won 45.8% in Sondrio, 34.4% in Brescia, 36.7% in Bergamo, 33.4% in Lecco, 32.6% in Como and 30.9% in Varese.
However, the party obtained good results in southern provinces, notably 33.4% in Lodi and 33.0% in Cremona. The electoral results of Lega Lombarda in the region since 1990 are shown in the tables below. Only the results before Lega Nord's founding are reported here. Only the results before Lega Nord's founding are reported here. National Secretary: Umberto Bossi, Luigi Negri, Roberto Calderoli, Giancarlo Giorgetti, Matteo Salvini, Stefano Borghesi, Paolo Grimoldi National President: Augusto Arizzi, Silvana Bazzan, Franco Castellazzi, Francesco Speroni, Roberto Calderoli, Giuseppe Leoni, Stefano Galli, Roberto Castelli, Giancarlo Giorgetti, Giacomo Stucchi Official website
Northern Italy is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy. Non-administrative, it consists of eight administrative Regions in northern Italy: Aosta Valley, Liguria, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol; as of 2014, its population was 27,801,460. Rhaeto-Romance and Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in the region, as opposed to the Italo-Dalmatian languages spoken in the rest of Italy. For statistic purposes, the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica uses the terms Northwest Italy and Northeast Italy for two of Italy's five statistical regions in its reporting; these same subdivisions are used to demarcate first-level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics regions within the European Union, the Italian constituencies for the European Parliament. Northern Italy was called by different terms in different periods of History. During ancient times the terms Cisalpine Gaul, Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata were used to define that part of Italy inhabited by Celts during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Conquered by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC, it was a Roman province from c. 81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into Roman Italy. Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul that part of Gaul on the "hither side of the Alps", as opposed to Transalpine Gaul. After the fall of the Roman Empire and the settlement of the Lombards the name Langobardia Maior was used, in the Early Middle Ages, to define the domains of the Lombard Kingdom in Northern Italy; the Lombard territories beyond were called Langobardia Minor, consisting of the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. During the Late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Lombard Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term Longobardia was used to mean Northern Italy within the medieval Kingdom of Italy; as the area became partitioned in regional states the term Lombardy subsequentially shifted to indicate only the area of the Duchies of Milan, Mantua and Modena and only to the area around Milan. In late modern period the term High Italy was used, for example by the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Alta Italia during the second World War.
Starting from the 1960s the term Padania was sometimes used as geographical synonym of Po Valley. The term appeared sparingly until the early 1990s, when Lega Nord, a federalist and, at times, separatist political party in Italy, proposed Padania as a possible name for an independent state in Northern Italy. Since it has carried strong political connotations. In pre-Roman centuries it was inhabited by different peoples among whom the Ligures, the ancient Veneti, who prospered through their trade in amber and breeding of horses, the Etruscans, who colonized Northern Italy from Tuscany, founded the city of Bologna and spread the use of writing; these people founded several cities like Turin and Milan and extended their rule from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea. Their development was halted by the Roman expansion in the Po Valley from the 3rd century BC onwards. After centuries of struggle, in 194 BC the entire area of what is now Northern Italy became a Roman province with the name of Gallia Cisalpina.
The Roman culture and language overwhelmed the former civilization in the following years, Northern Italy became one of the most developed and rich areas of the western half of the empire with the construction of a wide array of roads and the development of agriculture and trade. In late antiquity the strategic role of Northern Italy was emphasized by the moving of the capital of the Western Empire from Rome to Mediolanum in 286 and to Ravenna from 402 until the empire collapsed in 476. After the fall of the Western Empire, Northern Italy suffered from destruction brought about by migration from Germanic peoples and from the Gothic War. In the 570s the Germanic Lombards, or Longobardi, entered Northern Italy from Friuli and founded a long-lasting reign that gave the medieval name to the whole Northern Italy and the current name to the Lombardy region. After the initial struggles, relationships between the Lombard people and the Latin-speaking people improved. In the end, the Lombard language and culture assimilated with the Latin culture, leaving evidence in many names, the legal code and laws, other things.
The end of Lombard rule came in 774, when the Frankish king Charlemagne conquered Pavia, deposed Desiderius, the last Lombard king, annexed the Lombard Kingdom to his empire changing the name in Kingdom of Italy. The former Lombard dukes were replaced by Frankish counts, prince-bishops or marquises. In the 10th century Northern Italy was formally under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire but was in fact divided in a multiplicity of small, autonomous city-states, the medieval communes and maritime republic; the 11th century marked a significant boom in Northern Italy's economy, due to improved trading and agricultural innovations, culture flourished as well with many universities founded, among them the University of Bologna, the oldest university in Europe. The increasing richness of the city-states made them able to defy the traditional feudal supreme power, represented by the German emperors and their local vassals; this process led to the creation of different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy that defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, his grandson Frederick II, at Parma, becoming independent from the German emperors.
The Leagues failed to develop from an