A freshman, first year, or frosh, is a person in the first year at an educational institution a secondary or post-secondary school. In much of the Arab world, a first-year is called a "Mubtadi", Arabic for "begin". In Brazil, students that pass the vestibulares and begin studying in a college or university are called "calouros" or more informally "bixos", an alternate spelling of "bicho", which means "animal". Calouros are subject to hazing, known as "trote" there; the first known hazing episode in Brazil happened 1831 at the Law School of Olinda and resulted in the death of a student. In 1999, a Chinese Brazilian calouro of the University of São Paulo Medicine School named Edison Tsung Chi Hsueh was found dead at the institution's swimming pool. In Scotland, the first year of compulsory education is Primary 1; the first year of secondary school is known as S1 but one can use first year. At the four ancient Scottish universities the traditional names for the four years at university are Bejan, Semi and Magistrand, though all Scottish universities will have a "freshers' week" and the term is as used with more traditional terms.
Freshman is in use as a US English idiomatic term to describe a beginner or novice, someone, naive, a first effort, instance, or a student in the first year of study. New members of Congress in their first term are referred to as freshmen senators or freshmen congressmen or congresswomen, no matter how experienced they were in previous government positions. High school first year students are exclusively referred to as freshmen, or in some cases by their grade year, 9th graders. Second year students are sophomores, or 10th graders juniors or 11th graders, seniors or 12th graders. At college or university, freshman denotes students in their first year of study; the grade designations of high school are not used, but the terms sophomore and senior are kept at most schools. Some colleges, including women's colleges, do not use the term freshman but use first year, instead. Beyond the fourth year, students are classified as fifth year, sixth year, etc; some institutions use the term freshman for specific reporting purposes.
Freshman fifteen Sophomore Junior Senior
College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States's National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the United States Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Junior College Athletic Association, the National Christian College Athletic Association. Governing bodies in Canada include the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association; each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes. Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools; these conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.
The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt; the date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893; the first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, which Geneva won 3–0; the first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M. Minnesota A&M won the game, played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3.
The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it did not represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA. By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country; the Amateur Athletic Union's annual U. S. national championship tournament featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: NYU, Butler and Washburn. College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.
The first known tournament featuring college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, a collegiate championship tournament was held. The Olympic title was won by Hiram College. In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series. In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament for college teams; the champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate. Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.
The first organization to tout a occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938. Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36. In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team, the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it. Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there.
The NCAA tournament overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner
The point guard called the one or point, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. A point guard has the most specialized role of any position. Point guards are expected to run the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time. Above all, the point guard must understand and accept their coach's game plan. While the point guard must understand and accept the coach's gameplan, they must be able to adapt to what the defense is allowing, they must control the pace of the game. A point guard, like other player positions in basketball, specializes in certain skills. A point guard's primary job is to facilitate scoring opportunities for his/her team, or sometimes for themselves. Lee Rose has described a point guard as a coach on the floor, who can handle and distribute the ball to teammates; this involves setting up plays on the court, getting the ball to the teammate in the best position to score, controlling the tempo of the game.
A point guard should know when and how to instigate a fast break and when and how to initiate the more deliberate sets. Point guards are expected to be vocal floor leaders. A point guard needs always to have in mind the times on the shot clock and the game clock, the score, the numbers of remaining timeouts for both teams, etc. Among the taller players who have enjoyed success at the position is Ben Simmons, who at 6’ 10” won the 2018 National Basketball Association Rookie of the Year Award. Behind him is Magic Johnson, who at 6’ 9” won the National Basketball Association Most Valuable Player Award three times in his career. Other point guards who have been named NBA MVP include Russell Westbrook, Bob Cousy, Oscar Robertson, Allen Iverson, Derrick Rose and two-time winners Steve Nash and Stephen Curry. In the NBA, point guards are about 6' 4" or shorter, average about 6' 2" whereas in the WNBA, point guards are 5' 9" or shorter. Having above-average size is considered advantageous, although size is secondary to situational awareness, speed and ball handling skills.
Shorter players tend to be better dribblers since they are closer to the floor, thus have better control of the ball while dribbling. After an opponent scores, it is the point guard who brings the ball down court to begin an offensive play. Passing skills, ball handling, court vision are crucial. Speed is important. Point guards are valued more for their assist totals than for their scoring. Another major evaluation factor is assist-to-turnover ratio, which reflects the decision-making skills of the player. Still, a first-rate point guard should have a reasonably effective jump shot; the point guard is positioned on the perimeter of the play, so as to have the best view of the action. This is a necessity because of the point guard's many leadership obligations. Many times, the point guard is referred to by announcers as a "coach on the floor" or a "floor general". In the past, this was true, as several point guards such as Lenny Wilkens served their teams as player-coaches; this is not so common anymore, as most coaches are now specialized in coaching and are non-players.
Some point guards are still given a great deal of leeway in the offense. Point guards who are not given this much freedom, are still extensions of their coach on the floor and must display good leadership skills. Along with leadership and a general basketball acumen, ball-handling is a skill of great importance to a point guard. Speaking, the point guard is the player in possession of the ball for the most time during a game and is responsible for maintaining possession of the ball for his team in the face of any pressure from the opponents. Point guards must be able to maintain possession of the ball in crowded spaces and in traffic and be able to advance the ball quickly. A point guard that has enough ball-handling skill and quickness to be able to drive to the basket in a half-court set is very valuable and considered by some to be a must for a successful offense. After ball-handling and scoring are the most important areas of the game for a point guard; as the primary decision-maker for a team, a point guard's passing ability determines how well a point guard is able to put his decision into play.
It is one thing to be able to recognize the player, in a tactically advantageous position, but it is another thing to be able to deliver the ball to that player. For this reason, a point guard is but not always, more skilled and focused on passing than shooting. However, a good jump shot and the ability to score off a drive to the basket are still valuable skills. A point guard will use his ability to score in order to augment his effectiveness as a decision maker and play maker. In addition to the traditional role of the point guard, modern teams have found new ways to utilize the position. Notably, several modern point guards have used a successful style of post play, a tactic practiced by much larger centers and forwards. Working off of the fact that the opposing point guard is in all probability an undersized player with limited strength, several modern point guards have developed games close to the basket that include being able to utilize the drop step, spin move, fade away jump shot. In recent years, the sport's shift from a fundamental style of play to a more athletic, scoring-oriented game resulted in the proliferation of so-called combo guards at the po
Hapoel Eilat B.C.
Hapoel Eilat, for sponsorship reasons named Hapoel Mall Hayam Eilat, is an Israeli basketball club. The team plays in the Israeli Basketball Super League; the team represents the Far-South region of the country - the Arabah Area, the city of Eilat. The team earned promotion to the First Division for the first time in the 1990–91 season, while being coached by Arik Shivek. In the 1996–97 season, the team lost to Maccabi Tel Aviv in the Playoff semi-finals. A year the team reached the finals, in which it lost 0-3 to Maccabi Tel Aviv. In early 2000, the team found itself in serious financial difficulties, which resulted in relegation to the second division; the team disbanded and re-established in the lowest league. Overall, the team played in first divisions for eight seasons. In the 2010–11 season, the team won the Igud Cup, the cup of the lower leagues, after beating Maccabi Kiryat Bialik in the final. In June 2012, the team has gained the license of Habik'a B. C. to play in the Israeli Basketball Super League, starting at the 2012–13 Season.
In June 2015, the team has sensationally knocked out Israeli basketball powerhouse Maccabi Tel Aviv in the BSL semi finals, winning 3–2 in a best of five series. The team lost on aggregrate. Source: Eurobasket.com 1993–1994: Korać Cup 1994–1995: Korać Cup 1997–1998: ULEB Eurocup 1998–1999: Saporta Cup Israel Lev Ralf Klein Effi Birnbaum Arik Shivek Udi Segal Official website
Hapoel Holon, for sponsorship reasons Hapoel Unet Holon, is a basketball club based in Holon, Israel. Holon plays in the top division of Israeli basketball; the club won their first Israeli championship in 2008, after beating perennial champions Maccabi Tel Aviv in the Final Four. The club was founded in 1947 and was one of the founding clubs of the top division in 1954 when established, finishing second in their first season. Holon returned to the top division at the end of the 2006–07 season after playing for 7 years in the second and the third divisions, finished the 2007–08 regular season at the top of the table, they reached the Playoff Final, where they defeated Maccabi Tel Aviv 73–72 to claim their first championship, with Malik Dixon scoring the winning shot two seconds to the end of the game. PJ Tucker won the MVP title, it was the first time. The club has reached the final of the State Cup six times, but did not pick up their first prize in that competition until 2009, when Brian Tolbert hit a three-pointer as time expired to give them a 69–68 win over Maccabi Haifa in that year's final.
On January 16, 2010, the club celebrated its 1000th game in the Ligat HaAl. In the 2009–10 season, the club was under scrutiny after failing to pay the balance of last years staff and players throughout the end of the season. In 2018, Holon won its second State Cup after beating Maccabi Tel Aviv in the Final, behind MVP Glen Rice, Jr. Hapoel Holon plays its home games at the 5,600 seat Holon Toto Hall. Total titles: 3 Israeli Championships Winners: 2008 Runners-up: 1954, 1955, 2018 semi-finals: 1983, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1995, 1999, 2008, 2012, 2018 State Cup Winners: 2009, 2018 Runners-up: 1959, 1961, 1986, 1991, 1995 League Cup Runner-up: 2011 The team's colors are yellow and purple after a Jewish American fan of the Los Angeles Lakers donated uniforms in the colors of his favorite club. Before that, the team played in red and white uniforms, like every'Hapoel' team. For many years Holon's mascot was a tiger, it appeared on the team's logo for many years and in the 1990s the team's logo read'Hapoel Tigers Holon'.
After the team won the 2007–08 National League championship, upgraded to the first division, the old symbol was changed and redesigned, keeping Holon's symbol, the tiger. Holon's best homegrown player was Ofer Eshed who played for the club between 1957 and 1972 and he is the all-time points leader in the team, with 7,495 points. Israel Elimelech is considered to be the club's biggest symbol. Played in holon during two decades – and led the team to many successful seasons in the premier league. Played in the legendary home grown team of holon in the 1980s, with Niv Boogin, Avi Maor, the Israeli-American player Micheal Carter, known for driving the fans crazy. Other notable players were: Tzahi Peled, Danny Hadar, Rami Zeig and from early days and the contingent of ex Egyptian players: Marcel Hefetz; the team's 2 titles were won by 2 winning baskets, scored by the 2007–08 PG Malik Dixon, 2008–09 SG Brian Tolbert. Dixon scored a two-pointer 2 seconds to the end of the championship match against Maccabi Tel-Aviv, leaving Maccabi a 2-second possession which they failed to score in.
Tolbert scored a three-point buzzer beater in the cup final, after he got the ball from an inbound pass by Deron Washington. Over the years the club has signed several former NBA players, including P. J. Tucker, Ken Bannister, Clarence Kea, Richard Dumas and Dominic McGuire. John Thomas, who has played in 2009–10 season, is a former NBA player, with a history in five teams, such as New Jersey Nets, Atlanta Hawks, etc. Official website Holoniafans – The Official fansite Fansite – The Kometz From Gate 3
BC Budivelnyk Kyiv is a Ukrainian professional basketball club based in Kyiv. The club is playing in the Ukrainian Basketball SuperLeague and the FIBA Champions League internationally. Budivelnyk is operated by the banking and investing company PrivatBank. Founded in the club's current form in 1962, the club was one of the leading clubs in Soviet League basketball, it was formed out of another team from Kyiv, SKIF, established in 1945. The team was established as a team of the Republican Trade Union Volunteer Sport Society Avanhard, under sponsorship of the local municipal building company Kyivmiskbud-4. In Soviet times, the team played at the 7,000 seat Kiev Sports Palace; the team won the Soviet League in 1989, the Ukrainian League six times. Following the team's long period of success, a period of time in which the team declined ensued, it was relegated to the lower Ukrainian division, due to financial problems. However, in 2006, the team was rescued by a group of businessmen who invested considerable resources into it, thus allowing it to return to the top league of Ukrainian basketball.
Within two years, the team once again became one of the strongest teams in the Ukraine, finishing second in the Ukrainian National League. In March 2010, the management of Budivelnyk held a joint press conference with the CEO and President of Euroleague Basketball Company, Jordi Bertomeu, announcing that they might join the EuroLeague in the next few years. A wildcard was conceded to the team for the 2013–14 EuroLeague season. In 2018, the club withdrew from the Ukrainian Superleague due to debts with their players; the original team played under the name of SKIF, from 1945 to 1962. The current team plays under the current name since 1962; the team's name means "Builder" in Ukrainian. The team is nicknamed as, "Konstruktor" and "Stroitel". BC Budivelnyk play their home games at Kiev Sport Palace, it was built in 1960 and it has capacity of 7,000 seats. Soviet Union League: Gold – 1989 Silver - 1965, 1966, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982 Bronze – 1962, 1964, 1970, 1974, 1983, 1984, 1990 Soviet Union Cup: Runner Up - 1969, 1972 Ukrainian SuperLeague: Gold - 1992 - 1997, 2011, 2013, 2014, 2017 Silver - 1998, 2010 Bronze - 1999 Ukrainian Cup: Winner – 2012, 2014, 2015 Official website Eurobasket.com BC Budivelnyk Page
2011 FIBA Americas Championship
The 2011 FIBA Americas Championship for Men known as the FIBA AmeriCup, was the qualifying tournament for FIBA Americas, at the 2012 Summer Olympics men's basketball tournament, in London. This FIBA AmeriCup tournament was held in Mar del Plata, from August 30 to September 11, 2011. Argentina won the title, defeating 80 -- 75, in the final match; this was the country's second AmeriCup championship. FIBA Americas named Mar del Plata, Argentina the host of the 2011 competition on May 24, 2010 at a meeting in San Juan. Games were played at Polideportivo Islas Malvinas. Toronto and Rio de Janeiro bid for the tournament before FIBA awarded the competition to world number-one ranked Argentina. Toronto was eliminated in the first round of voting before Mar del Plata beat Rio de Janeiro in the final round 13 votes to 3. Toronto's bid was seen as superior to the other two, but due to the lack of government backing was not awarded the tournament; the ten teams selected to receive invitations for the tournament were the host team, the top three finishers at the 2010 South American Basketball Championship, the top two teams in the North America Sub-Zone, the top four finishers at 2010 Centrobasket.
Because the host country, came in second at the 2010 South American Basketball Championship, the fourth place team at the championship was invited. After the United States automatically qualified for the 2012 Summer Olympics by winning the 2010 FIBA World Championship, they withdrew from the tournament; the fifth place team at the 2010 South American Basketball Championship was invited to participate. Below is the final list of participants in the tournament: South American Sub-Zone: Argentina Brazil Uruguay Venezuela Paraguay North America Sub-Zone: Canada Central American and Caribbean Zone: Cuba Dominican Republic Panama Puerto Rico Due to the 2011 NBA lockout, insurance costs for players affiliated with teams of the National Basketball Association to play overseas would no longer be afforded by the league and would have to be taken care of by their corresponding national federations; some national teams, such as the host nation Argentina and Puerto Rico took steps to resolve the issue.
Below is a list of players whose participation in the tournament was at least affected: Notes: a Barbosa decided not to participate in the tournament. B Nash has retired from international play. C Thompson and Magloire were not called up for Canada's national team. D Nenê decided not to participate in the tournament. E Varejão was unavailable for the tournament due to injury; the ten teams are split into two groups. The best four teams of each group advance to the second round, where the teams play against the four teams from the other group; the best four teams of this group advance to the semifinals. The two winners in the semifinals automatically qualify for the Olympics; the remaining three teams from the second round plus seven teams from other continents play the 2012 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament, where the top three qualify for the Olympics. The draw took place on January 2011 at the NH Gran Hotel Provincial in Mar del Plata. Notable ESPN Latin America announcer Álvaro Martin conducted the ceremony while FIBA Americas Secretary General Alberto Garcia and a number of sports figures drew the teams.
The ten participating squads were paired in five pots, where the first draw from each pot would go to Group A and the second to Group B. Teams were paired according to their world rankings for balance purposes. Being the host, Argentina had the opportunity to choose their group. Note NR – Not Ranked All times local All times local All times local G – Marcelinho Huertas G – Carlos Arroyo F – Manu Ginóbili F – Luis Scola C – Al Horford 2011 FIBA Americas Championship for Women Official website