The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division; the team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located on the city's North Side. The Cubs are one of two major league teams in Chicago; the Cubs, first known as the White Stockings, were a founding member of the NL in 1876, becoming the Chicago Cubs in 1903. The Cubs have appeared in a total of eleven World Series; the 1906 Cubs won 116 games, finishing 116–36 and posting a modern-era record winning percentage of.763, before losing the World Series to the Chicago White Sox by four games to two. The Cubs won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first major league team to play in three consecutive World Series, the first to win it twice. Most the Cubs won the 2016 National League Championship Series and 2016 World Series, which ended a 71-year National League pennant drought and a 108-year World Series championship drought, both of which are record droughts in Major League Baseball.
The 108-year drought was the longest such occurrence in all major North American sports. Since the start of divisional play in 1969, the Cubs have appeared in the postseason nine times through the 2017 season; the Cubs are known as "the North Siders", a reference to the location of Wrigley Field within the city of Chicago, in contrast to the White Sox, whose home field is located on the South Side. The Cubs have multiple rivalries. There is a divisional rivalry with the St. Louis Cardinals, a newer rivalry with the Milwaukee Brewers and an interleague rivalry with the Chicago White Sox; the Cubs began playing in 1870 as the Chicago White Stockings, joining the National League in 1876 as a charter member. Owner William Hulbert signed multiple star players, such as pitcher Albert Spalding and infielders Ross Barnes, Deacon White, Adrian "Cap" Anson, to join the team prior to the N. L.'s first season. The White Stockings played their home games at West Side Grounds and established themselves as one of the new league's top teams.
Spalding won forty-seven games and Barnes led the league in hitting at.429 as Chicago won the first National League pennant, which at the time was the game's top prize. After back-to-back pennants in 1880 and 1881, Hulbert died, Spalding, who had retired to start Spalding sporting goods, assumed ownership of the club; the White Stockings, with Anson acting as player-manager, captured their third consecutive pennant in 1882, Anson established himself as the game's first true superstar. In 1885 and'86, after winning N. L. pennants, the White Stockings met the champions of the short-lived American Association in that era's version of a World Series. Both seasons resulted in matchups with the St. Louis Brown Stockings, with the clubs tying in 1885 and with St. Louis winning in 1886; this was the genesis of what would become one of the greatest rivalries in sports. In all, the Anson-led Chicago Base Ball Club won six National League pennants between 1876 and 1886; as a result, Chicago's club nickname transitioned, by 1890 they had become known as the Chicago Colts, or sometimes "Anson's Colts", referring to Cap's influence within the club.
Anson was the first player in history credited with collecting 3,000 career hits. After a disappointing record of 59–73 and a ninth-place finish in 1897, Anson was released by the Cubs as both a player and manager. Due to Anson's absence from the club after 22 years, local newspaper reporters started to refer to the Colts as the "Orphans". After the 1900 season, the American Base-Ball League formed as a rival professional league, incidentally the club's old White Stockings nickname would be adopted by a new American League neighbor to the south. In 1902, who by this time had revamped the roster to boast what would soon be one of the best teams of the early century, sold the club to Jim Hart; the franchise was nicknamed the Cubs by the Chicago Daily News in 1902, although not becoming the Chicago Cubs until the 1907 season. During this period, which has become known as baseball's dead-ball era, Cub infielders Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers, Frank Chance were made famous as a double-play combination by Franklin P. Adams' poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon.
The poem first appeared in the July 1910 edition of the New York Evening Mail. Mordecai "Three-Finger" Brown, Jack Taylor, Ed Reulbach, Jack Pfiester, Orval Overall were several key pitchers for the Cubs during this time period. With Chance acting as player-manager from 1905 to 1912, the Cubs won four pennants and two World Series titles over a five-year span. Although they fell to the "Hitless Wonders" White Sox in the 1906 World Series, the Cubs recorded a record 116 victories and the best winning percentage in Major League history. With the same roster, Chicago won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first Major League club to play three times in the Fall Classic and the first to win it twice. However, the Cubs would not win another World Series until 2016; the next season, veteran catcher Johnny Kling left the team to become a professional pocket billiards player. Some historians think Kling's absence was significant enough to prevent the Cubs from winning a third straight title in 1909, as they finished 6 games out of first place.
When Kling returned the next year, the Cubs won the pennant again, but lost to the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1910 World Series. In 1914, adver
Constantino "Tino" Martinez is an American former professional baseball player. He played in Major League Baseball for the Seattle Mariners, New York Yankees, St. Louis Cardinals, Tampa Bay Devil Rays from 1990 through 2005, he served as a hitting coach for the Miami Marlins in 2013. A third baseman and first baseman, Martinez was the first round draft pick for the Seattle Mariners in 1988 out of the University of Tampa where he starred during his time on campus, he began his Major League career in 1990 and played for the Mariners, New York Yankees, St. Louis Cardinals, Tampa Bay Devil Rays, before rejoining the Yankees in the 2005 season. During his 16-year MLB career, he scored 1,008 runs, drove in 1,271 runs, hit 339 home runs, he was twice named to the All-Star team. Tino Martinez was born in Tampa, Florida to a Cuban-American father with Spanish roots, a mother with Greek ancestry, he was raised in the neighborhood of West Tampa in Florida. His grandfather owned a small cigar factory in which Tino, his brothers, childhood friend and fellow future major-leaguer Luis Gonzalez worked as young boys.
Martinez attended St. Joseph School in West Tampa until 8th grade attended Tampa Catholic High School for 9th and 10th grade before transferring to Jefferson High School for his final two years of high school. Martinez led both schools to state baseball championships. After graduation, he enrolled at the NCAA Division II University of Tampa. Martinez was an All-American each year; as of 2011, Martinez still held school records in career home runs, career batting average, career slugging percentage, single season batting average and single season slugging percentage. In 1988, he was a finalist for the Golden Spikes Award which has never been given to any NCAA Division II player. One year after graduating, he was inducted into the University of Tampa's athletics hall of fame. Since 2010, the Tino Martinez Award has been given to the most outstanding NCAA Division II baseball player. In 2013, Martinez was inducted into the National College Baseball Hall of Fame. Martinez, along with other future Major Leaguers Jim Abbott and Robin Ventura, won a gold medal at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, the seventh time that baseball was part of the Olympic Games and its last year as a demonstration sport.
In the final game, Martinez belted two homers and drove in four runs and Abbott pitched a complete game, leading the USA to a 5-3 win. The Seattle Mariners drafted Martinez in 1988. Martinez began his career playing under Lou Piniella, who had grown up in the West Tampa neighborhood and knew his uncle and mother. Martinez had several mediocre seasons, but broke out in 1995 when he drove in 111 runs, hit 31 home runs and batted.293. The Mariners clinched the AL West and went on to play in the first season of divisional post season play against the New York Yankees. Following that season, the New York Yankees acquired Martinez, along with Jeff Nelson and Jim Mecir, for Sterling Hitchcock and Russ Davis. Before the trade was finalized and the Yankees agreed to a five-year, $20.25 million contract extension. Martinez succeeded Don Mattingly as the Yankees' starting first baseman. Martinez helped lead the New York Yankees to World Series championships in 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, he won the Home Run Derby in 1997.
Martinez hit two memorable home runs as a Yankee in the World Series. The first came off Mark Langston in Game 1 of the 1998 Series; the Yankees had tied the game earlier in the inning with a Chuck Knoblauch 3-run home run. The following three batters got on base, Martinez came to the plate. After taking a close ball 3, he hit a grand slam into the upper deck on a 3-2 count, giving the Yankees a four-run lead; the second came on October 31, 2001. With two outs in the 9th inning and the Yankees trailing by two runs, Martinez came to the plate with a runner on, he hit a home run to right center off Arizona Diamondbacks closer Byung-hyun Kim. The feat was repeated the following night by Scott Brosius. However, the Yankees would lose Games 7 and thus, the series, his best season statistically came in 1997, when he was second in the American League in home runs and RBI, finished second in AL Most Valuable Player voting. On May 19, 1998, he was hit in the upper back by Baltimore Orioles pitcher Armando Benítez, which resulted in a huge brawl between the two teams.
In the 2001 World Series, Martinez's Yankees faced off against the Arizona Diamondbacks. The series went to Game 7, which Arizona won when Luis Gonzalez, Martinez's best friend, hit a game-winning single off Yankee closer Mariano Rivera in the bottom of the 9th inning. Gonzalez recalled that when he went back home to check his answering machine, the first message of congratulations was from Martinez. During most of his time with the Yankees, Martinez resided in New Jersey. After the 2001 season when the Yankees elected to sign Jason Giambi, Martinez went on to play for the St. Louis Cardinals for two seasons, once again replacing an aging legendary first baseman, Mark McGwire, his production during these three years declined, he went through several prolonged slumps. One of his most memorable moments during this tenure with the Cardinals came when he returned to Yankee Stadium during a series in 2003. An emotional Martinez was driven to tears when he went to bat as he was given a standing ovation by the Yankee fans who appreciated the integral part he played during the team's last dynastic run.
In the second game of the three game series, Martinez hit 2 home runs off former teammate Andy Pettitte to a loud thunderous ovation both ti
Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The Major League Baseball All-Star Game known as the "Midsummer Classic", is an annual professional baseball game sanctioned by Major League Baseball contested between the All-Stars from the American League and National League selected by fans for starting fielders, by managers for pitchers, by managers and players for reserves. The game occurs on either the second or third Tuesday in July, is meant to mark a symbolic halfway-point in the MLB season. Both of the major leagues share an All-Star break, with no regular-season games scheduled on the day before or two days after the All-Star Game itself; some additional events and festivities associated with the game take place each year close to and during this break in the regular season. No official MLB All-Star Game was held in 1945 including the official selection of players due to World War II travel restrictions. Two All-Star Games were held each season from 1959 to 1962; the most recent All-Star Game was held on July 17, 2018, at Nationals Park, home of the National League's Washington Nationals.
The 2019 and 2020 All-Star Games are scheduled to be held in Cleveland and Los Angeles, respectively. A Major League Baseball All-Star is a professional baseball player, named to either the American League or National League All-Star Team. Major league All-Star namings began in July 1933. Fans have participated in the selection of the players who fill the AL and NL All-Star rosters. Between 1935 and 1946, each All-Star team's manager selected their entire teams. From 1959 through 1962, All-Stars played in two All-Star Games each season. On January 29, 1936, Babe Ruth became the first of the original thirty-six All-Stars to be inducted in the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Hank Aaron holds the record for the most All-Star Game appearances. In 2017, each All-Star team had 32 players, with fans voting for the starting players, the players selecting the reserve players for each position and five starting pitchers and three relief pitchers; the final All-Star player vote still exists, but the MLB commissioner's office will now fill out the remaining roster spots instead of the managers.
The 90th Installment will be played in Progressive Field, home of the AL central's Cleveland Indians. The first All-Star Game was held on July 6, 1933, as part of the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago, at Comiskey Park and was initiated by Arch Ward sports editor for the Chicago Tribune. Intended to be a one-time event, its great success resulted in making the game an annual one; the venue for the All-Star Game is chosen by Major League Baseball. The criteria for the venue are subjective. Over time, this has resulted in certain cities being selected more at the expense of others due to timely circumstances: Cleveland Stadium and the original Yankee Stadium are tied for the most times a venue has hosted the All-Star game, both hosting four games. New York City has hosted more than any other city, having done so nine times in five different stadiums. At the same time, the New York Mets failed to host for 48 seasons, while the Los Angeles Dodgers have not hosted since 1980 and will do so in 2020. Among current major league teams, the Tampa Bay Rays have yet to host the All-Star game.
In the first two decades of the game there were two pairs of teams that shared ballparks, located in Philadelphia and St. Louis; this led to some shorter-than-usual gaps between the use of those venues: The Cardinals hosted the game in 1940, the Browns in 1948. The Athletics hosted the game in 1943, the Phillies in 1952; the venues traditionally alternate between the American National League every year. This tradition has been broken several times: The first time was in 1951, when the AL Detroit Tigers were chosen to host the annual game as part of the city's 250th birthday; the second was when the two-game format during the 1959–1962 seasons resulted in the AL being one game ahead in turn. This was corrected in 2007, when the NL San Francisco Giants were the host for the 2007 All-Star Game, which set up the 2008 game to be held at the AL's original Yankee Stadium in its final season, it was broken when again the NL hosted the four straight games from 2015-2018. The AL will host its next game in 2019 in Cleveland.
The "home team" has traditionally been the league in which the host franchise plays its games, but the American League was designated the home team for the 2016 All Star Game, despite its being played in Petco Park, home of the National League's San Diego Padres. This decision was made following the announcement of Miami as host for the 2017 All Star Game, the third straight year in which the game is hosted in a National League ballpark. Since 1934, the managers of the game are the managers of the previous year's league pennant winners and World Series clubs; the coaching staff for each team is selected by its manager. This honor is given to the manager, not the team, so it is possible that the All-Star manager could no longer be
Mariano Rivera is a Panamanian-American former professional baseball pitcher who played 19 seasons in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees, from 1995 to 2013. Nicknamed "Mo" and "Sandman", he spent most of his career as a relief pitcher and served as the Yankees' closer for 17 seasons. A thirteen-time All-Star and five-time World Series champion, he is MLB's career leader in saves and games finished. Rivera won five American League Rolaids Relief Man Awards and three Delivery Man of the Year Awards, he finished in the top three in voting for the AL Cy Young Award four times, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in its class of 2019 in his first year of eligibility, was the first player to be elected unanimously by the Baseball Writers' Association of America. Raised in the modest Panamanian fishing village of Puerto Caimito, Rivera was an amateur player until signed by the Yankees organization in 1990, he debuted in the major leagues in 1995 as a starting pitcher, before permanently converting to a relief pitcher late in his rookie year.
After a breakthrough season in 1996 as a setup man, he became the Yankees' closer in 1997. In the following seasons, he established himself as one of baseball's top relievers, leading the major leagues in saves in 1999, 2001, 2004. Rivera threw a sharp-moving, mid-90s mile-per-hour cut fastball that broke hitters' bats and earned a reputation as one of the league's toughest pitches to hit. With his presence at the end of games, signaled by his foreboding entrance song "Enter Sandman", Rivera was a key contributor to the Yankees' success in the late 1990s and early 2000s. An accomplished postseason performer, he was named the 1999 World Series Most Valuable Player and the 2003 AL Championship Series MVP, he holds several postseason records, including lowest earned run average and most saves. Rivera is regarded within baseball as one of the most dominant relievers in major league history. Pitching with a longevity and consistency uncommon to the closer role, he saved at least 25 games in 15 consecutive seasons and posted an ERA under 2.00 in 11 seasons, both of which are records.
His career 2.21 ERA and 1.00 WHIP are the lowest in the live-ball era among qualified pitchers. Fellow players credit him with popularizing the cut fastball across the major leagues. Along with his signature pitch, Rivera was known for his precise control, smooth pitching motion, for his composure and reserved demeanor on the field. In 2013, the Yankees retired his uniform number 42. A devout Christian, Rivera has been involved in philanthropic causes and the religious community through the Mariano Rivera Foundation. Mariano Rivera was born in Panama City, Panama, on November 29, 1969, to Mariano Rivera Palacios and Delia Jiron; the couple's second child, Rivera has one older sister and two younger brothers and Giraldo. Supported by Mariano Sr.'s job as captain of a fishing boat, the family lived in Puerto Caimito, a Panamanian fishing village that Rivera described as "poor". As a young man, Rivera played baseball with his friends on the beach during low tide. Soccer was his favorite sport, Pelé his favorite athlete.
For baseball games, they substituted cardboard milk cartons for gloves and tree branches for bats, they fashioned balls by taping wads of shredded fishing nets. Rivera used this makeshift equipment until his father bought him his first leather glove when he was 12 years old. Speaking about his youth, Rivera said that although he stayed out of trouble, he "was hanging with the wrong people". Rivera attended Escuela Victoriano Chacón for elementary school and La Escuela Secundaria Pedro Pablo Sanchez for his secondary education, but he dropped out in ninth grade. At age 16, he began to learn the fishing trade by working on a commercial boat captained by his father, catching sardines. Rivera, who worked six-day weeks, year round, called the job "extremely hard" and was more interested in becoming a mechanic. Two incidents on his father's boat further validated his doubts about fishing as a career. In 1988, Rivera's uncle Miguel was lashed by an unsecured rope that shot off a hydraulic mechanism, a month he died from his injuries.
About a year at age 19, Rivera was forced to abandon his father's ship after it began capsizing due to a malfunctioning water pump and an overweight load of fish. After three years of learning the trade, Rivera quit, he continued to play sports during his teenage years but quit soccer after a series of ankle and knee injuries around age 17. He shifted his attention to baseball but considered it just a hobby rather than a potential profession. At age 18, Rivera joined the Panamá Oeste Vaqueros, a local amateur baseball team, as a utility player. Scout Herb Raybourn watched him play shortstop in a 1988 baseball tournament but did not project him to be a major leaguer. A year Panamá Oeste's pitcher performed so poorly in a playoff game that Rivera was asked to replace him, despite no experience at the position, he pitched well. Teammates Claudino Hernández and Emilio Gáez contacted Chico Heron, a scout for the New York Yankees. Two weeks after his pitching debut, Rivera was invited to a Yankees tryout camp run by Heron in Panama City.
Raybourn, who had returned to Panama to scout as the Yankees' director of Latin American operations, received a tip about Rivera. Raybourn decided to watch him throw. Although Rivera had no formal pitching training, weighed just 155 pounds, threw only 85–87 miles per hour (137–140 kilomete
Thomas Jefferson High School (Tampa, Florida)
Thomas Jefferson High School is a public high school located in the heart of the Westshore Business District of Tampa, United States. It is an Area 1 school under the Hillsborough County Public School system. In 1939, due to the increasing high school population in the Tampa area, Thomas Jefferson High School was founded in the Old Hillsborough County High School building at 2704 N. Highland Avenue in the city's Tampa Heights neighborhood. Named after the third president of the United States, Thomas Jefferson, its first principal was D. W. Waters and its first class graduated in 1942. By 1967, the school board decided that its location no longer met modern educational requirements and the first Jefferson High School was closed. Upon closure of the school, students were sent to neighboring schools to complete their education; the original Thomas Jefferson High School building still exists today as the D. W. Waters Career Center. On August 27, 1973 the new Jefferson High School building was opened at its current location on West Cypress Street.
Jefferson HS is 53% Hispanic, 34% Black, 9% White, 4% other In 2001 Thomas Jefferson High instituted a magnet program with courses focusing on international studies. International Business & Global Finance Honors International Culinary Arts Honors International Law & Criminal Justice Honors Maritime academy In 2010, the Dragons won the Class 3A State Championship, they finished the year 15-0 and ranked #8 nationally Jefferson High students participate in clubs and organizations. Honors clubsBeta, Mu Alpha Theta, National Honor Society, National Technical Honor Society, French Honor Society, Spanish Honor Society, German Honor Society, Thespians. Magnet clubsDeca Blue, Deca Gold, FBLA, FCCLA/HERO, FPSA, Mock Trial Team. Service clubsJunior Civitan, Key Club, SAC, SADD, Shanti. Interest clubsArriba, Ballroom Dancing, FCA, True Love Does Wait, Nubian Queens, Science Brain Bowl, YO, Model United Nations, Human Rights, Male/Female Weightlifting, Hip-Hop, Best Buddies, Health Club. AdditionalDancerettes, school newspaper, literary magazine, yearbook.
Coleman Bell NFL football player Ramik Wilson NFL Linebacker Andre Caldwell NFL football player Reche Caldwell NFL football player Rick Casares NFL football player Kirby Dar Dar NFL football player André Davis NFL wide receiver Luis Gonzalez Major League Baseball player Tarence Kinsey NBA Basketball player plays for Hapoel Jerusalem of the Israeli Premier League Joe Lala musician and actor Fred McGriff Major League Baseball player Chris Moore NFL wide receiver Ferdie Pacheco Physician for Muhammad Ali Tony La Russa Major League Baseball player/manager Bob Martinez former Tampa mayor and Florida governor Tino Martinez Major League Baseball player Keith Newman NFL football player Prechae Rodriguez NFL football player Lenny Faedo, Major League Baseball player Sam Militello, Major League Baseball player Al Pardo, Major League Baseball player Fred Rath, Jr. Major League Baseball player Torrance Small, NFL football player Oscar Smith NFL football player K. D. Williams NFL football player Tony Zappone author, broadcaster Emeterio "Pop" Cuesta, baseball coach Official website Hillsborough County Public School information Jefferson High School Band Jefferson High School baseball Jefferson High Sports Jefferson sports School Accountability report
Ryan James Howard, nicknamed "The Big Piece", is an American former professional baseball first baseman. Howard spent his entire Major League Baseball career playing for the Philadelphia Phillies, from 2004 to 2016, he holds numerous Phillies franchise records. Howard made his MLB debut in 2004, he won the National League Rookie of the Year Award in 2005 and the NL Most Valuable Player Award in 2006. Howard was a three-time NL All-Star, won the Silver Slugger Award, Hank Aaron Award, the NL Championship Series MVP Award in 2009. Known for his power, Howard is a member of the 50 home run club, he was a two-time NL home run champion, became the fastest player to reach both the 100 and 200 home run milestones in MLB history, passing the marks in 2007 and 2009, respectively. Howard is Major League Baseball’s all-time record-holder for most lifetime Golden Sombrero awards. Howard was born in St. Louis, he attended Lafayette High School in Wildwood and Missouri State University, where he played college baseball for the Bears from 1998 to 2001.
Howard finished his collegiate career with 50 home runs, 183 runs batted in, a.335 career batting average in 172 games played. He was the 1999 Missouri Valley Conference Freshman of the Year. Missouri State retired Howard's number on December 18, 2010, he played one summer in the Central Illinois Collegiate League, a league funded by Major League Baseball for future prospects to develop. The Philadelphia Phillies selected Howard in the fifth round of the 2001 draft and assigned him to the Batavia Muckdogs of the NY-Penn League. Howard ascended the Phillies' minor league system, earning consecutive awards in the Florida State League and Eastern League leagues in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Howard set the single-season home run record for the Reading Phillies, with 37 in 102 games. On July 31, he was promoted to the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons of the Class AAA International League, he became just the fifth minor league player since 1956 to hit at least 46 home runs. He was named by Major League Baseball one of the best first basemen in Philadelphia Phillies History.
Howard won the Joe Bauman Home Run Award in the process. While doing this, he impressed scouts enough that general managers of several teams tried to lure the Phillies' Ed Wade into trading him, as Jim Thome was blocking his path to the majors. On September 1, Howard made his first Major League plate appearance, striking out against Jaret Wright in a pinch-hit at-bat in a 7–2 loss to the Atlanta Braves. On September 6, Howard logged his first Major League hit in a single at-bat during a 3–1 loss to the Braves. On September 11, Howard hit his first Major League home run off Bartolomé Fortunato, driving in his first RBI and scoring his first run in an 11–9 win over the New York Mets. Howard had 42 plate appearances in 19 games with the Phillies in 2004, he posted a.282 batting average with two home runs and five RBI. Between playing for the Double-A Reading Phillies, Triple-A Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons and the Philadelphia Phillies, Howard hit 48 home runs, tied for the highest total in organized baseball in 2004, along with Adrián Beltré of the Los Angeles Dodgers.
On May 15, Howard recorded his first three-hit game, going 3-for-4 with a double, two singles, a run-scored in a 4–3 win over the Cincinnati Reds. On July 3, Howard recorded his first three-RBI game, against the Braves. On August 23, he notched his first four-hit game, going 4-for-5 with a double, a home run, two singles, three RBI and three runs scored in a 10–2 win over the San Francisco Giants. On July 1, Howard became the Phillies' everyday first baseman when Thome was sidelined for the season with an elbow injury. Howard was named National League Rookie of the Month in September, he batted.278 with 22 runs batted in. In honor of winning the award, he received a specially-designed trophy. Howard led all major league rookies with 22 home runs and posted a.288 average and 63 RBI in just 312 at-bats and 88 games. He hit 27 RBI in September and October. Howard finished his rookie season with 17 doubles, two triples, 52 runs scored, 100 strikeouts and 63 runs batted in as the Phillies battled the Houston Astros for the NL wild card until getting eliminated on the last day of the season.
Howard was rewarded for his effort by being named NL Rookie of the Year, the fourth Phillie to win the award. He was voted the Baseball Prospectus Internet Baseball Awards NL Rookie of the Year and received the NLBM Larry Doby Legacy Award. After the 2005 season, the Phillies faced a dilemma involving Howard. Both were talented and proven power hitters. Before the 2006 season, the Phillies traded Thome for outfielder Aaron Rowand and minor league pitching prospects Gio González and Daniel Haigwood in order to make room for Howard. Howard began the 2006 season as the Phillies' starting first baseman. Howard hit his first home run of the season off the Cardinals' Chris Carpenter. On April 23, Howard became the first player to hit a home run into Ashburn Alley at Citizens Bank Park; the home run was hit off Sergio Mitre of the Florida Marlins. It was the first of two Howard hit in the first multi-home run game of his career. From May 20 to 29, Howard had at least one RBI in nine consecutive games. D
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it